Brainstorm – what are the differences between a leader and a manager? Leader Manager V
‘ Leadership is practised not so much in words as in attitude and actions’ Harold Green, CEO ‘’ A leader shapes and shares a vision, which gives point to the work of others’ Charles Handy, 1932, Management Thinker ‘ The leader’s job is to help everyone see that the platform is burning, whether the flames are apparent or not.’ Larry Bossidy, 1935, CEO of Allied Signal Corporation ‘ Management brings order and consistency……………….. Leadership is about coping with change. Kotter, 1977, Management Theorist
<ul><li>They cover a range of disciplines which include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Trait theory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Style theory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contingency theory </li></ul></ul>Leadership Theories
Ability to lead a group is something you are born with Trait Theory What criticisms can you make against trait theory? You should be selected and can’t be trained Personal characteristics needed What personal characteristics do you are necessary to be an effective leader?
Style Theory <ul><li>Claims what leaders do is important and not their personal characteristics – success can be learned </li></ul><ul><li>How objectives are achieved is key – task orientation </li></ul><ul><li>How to maintain good working relationships – people orientation is also seen as important to success </li></ul>People orientated Task orientated Most leaders will carry out a range of both
Autocratic Style Define tasks, allocate tasks and supervise tasks – employee involvement or discussion from employees is not sought. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of this leadership style.
Democratic Style Leader sets objectives but leaves employees to decide how to best achieve the objectives. Communication between employee and leader is frequent. At the most extreme this is called l aissez-faire . Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of this leadership style.
<ul><li>Seeks to take more variables into the equation </li></ul><ul><li>The most suitable leadership style will depend on the circumstances </li></ul><ul><li>Most successful leaders can adapt </li></ul><ul><li>We look at 5 versions of Contingency Theory </li></ul>Contingency Theory
The Leader The Task Structure Position Fiedler’s Contingency Model 3 factors determine the nature of a situation. Whether to use a people or a task orientated style would depend on these 3 factors.
The Leader The Subordinate The Task The Environment The ‘best fit’ approach - Handy Handy states leaders must consider 4 factors when deciding on a suitable style.
Critique this model? Hersey and Blanchard’s Situational Approach Leadership style should differ depending on the situation and maturity of employees (job and psychological). They defined 4 styles of leadership – telling, selling, participative and delegative.
John Adair – Action- centered leadership <ul><li>In Effective Leadership in (1983) he describes the role of a leader as having 3 elements. </li></ul><ul><li>Achieve a task </li></ul><ul><li>Develop individuals </li></ul><ul><li>Build the team </li></ul>
Six Dimensions of Leadership – Andrew Brown (1999) <ul><li>Claims there a 6 dimensions of leadership which all leaders should use depending on the circumstances: </li></ul><ul><li>heroes </li></ul><ul><li>fine actors </li></ul><ul><li>high self esteem immortalists </li></ul><ul><li>astute power-brokers </li></ul><ul><li>diplomatic ambassadors </li></ul><ul><li>calculating victims </li></ul>
<ul><li>Overall Contingency Theory suggests the most appropriate leadership style will depend on factors such as: </li></ul><ul><li>the task </li></ul><ul><li>group size </li></ul><ul><li>organisational culture </li></ul><ul><li>nature of the group members </li></ul>Factors affecting Leadership Style
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