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Tutorial on Semantic Digital Libraries at ICSD'09

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These are the slides from the tutorial on Semantic Digital Libraries we gave at International Conference for Digital Libraries and the Semantic Web (iCSD'09)

These are the slides from the tutorial on Semantic Digital Libraries we gave at International Conference for Digital Libraries and the Semantic Web (iCSD'09)

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  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
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  • Have a glance to http://www.slideshare.net/Foudyl/yoolib-digitallibrarystateoftheart
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  • very interesting... but why digital library software publisher are always computer centric and engine results centric ?. People don't want to read results, they want to explore works, use it and share it. Digital library software have to be user centrics like YooLib
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  • We need to introduce that Semantic Web is &#x201E;a hype&#x201D; &#x2013; everyone is talking about &#x2013; and say what it is <br /> Then we have to show that actually the Web was meant to be that way from the begining <br /> Finally tell what the &#x201E;Semantic&#x201D; means in all of that
  • OK &#x2013; everyone says that he/she runs semantic web applications &#x2013; but is that true? <br /> Where are we *really* in the the SW layer cake? <br /> Still far away &#x2013; isn&#x2019;t it ?
  • The semantic web will not emerge on its own <br /> We need to help it <br /> Explain the car example in more details
  • 1)OK &#x2013; first step to deliver semantic web &#x2013; is to provide semantic descriptions <br /> 2)In order to do that &#x2013; we can use widely addopted RDF <br /> 3)What is RDF? What are the properties? <br /> 4)RDF is not XML &#x2013; as RDF is based on graph model <br /> 5)How machines can process it ?
  • Now, RDF is a really nice &#x2013; but what more can we do with it? <br /> First &#x2013; obvious: objects/resources and relationsships <br /> Than &#x2013; easy extend the model with new relantionships, types, etc <br /> Finally &#x2013; we can easily integrate stuff <br /> But be aware &#x2013; RDF support many points of view &#x2013; if you want to be sure &#x2013; you need to exend the knowledge with more sentences to know which &#x201E;conflicting&#x201D; statement is right for you
  • RDF alone is not enough &#x2013; it just delivers a graph &#x2013; but we need to provide some constraints, knowledge, etc <br /> Ontologies are the key concept to do so <br /> They are based on the social agreement <br /> There are several ways to express ontologies
  • The simplest ontology we can define is with RDF Schema <br /> RDFS defines a small vocabulary ... <br /> It can be easily used to define other vocabularies <br /> Like in our example ...
  • Another example is OWL (motice that the name does not match the abbreviation &#x2013; but we know why :D) <br /> It is based on RDF/XML vocabulary <br /> It allows us to be more explicite in what we define &#x2013; see example ... <br /> .. And DLs <br /> OWL as W3C recommendation
  • We cannot see SW unless we will look into applications <br /> There are two kinds: <br /> enabling technologies like e.g. <br /> End-user applications <br /> Today we will present the new emerging ones &#x2013; Semantic Digital Libraries
  • What are SDL? <br /> They aim to integrate information coming from different sources <br /> SDLs provide interoperability mechnisms &#x2013; and can act as an integration champions in heterogeneous networks of libraries <br /> But the **ultimate goal** is to provide better service for the end user &#x2013; that is search and browsing features
  • One of the requirements was to support different metadata <br /> Although they are so different &#x2013; they can be represented in RDF
  • One of the requirements was to support different metadata <br /> Although they are so different &#x2013; they can be represented in RDF
  • One of the requirements was to support different metadata <br /> Although they are so different &#x2013; they can be represented in RDF
  • One of the requirements was to support different metadata <br /> Although they are so different &#x2013; they can be represented in RDF
  • The goal of this ontology is to provide means to mediate between heterogeneous database <br /> schemas and metadata structures. The central concept of CIDOC is that knowledge is attained <br /> by investigating relations between the facts. Therefore, the ontology concentrates on the <br /> de&#xFB01;nition of relationships between items rather then the terminology of a particular domain. <br /> The core ontology de&#xFB01;nes a set of very general classes (e.g. actor, event, period) and supplies a <br /> variety of relationship descriptions that can adjust the concepts understanding for a particular <br /> environment. Apart of the content preservation and summery CIDOC provides the concept <br /> of events, such as creation, publication, etc. Therefore, with regard to digital libraries, it <br /> is possible to utilize CIDOC to talk in detail about items content and their bibliographic <br /> <br /> description.
  • 1) Explain what do we mean by &#x201C;simple solution&#x201D; and &#x201C;complex solution&#x201D;
  • 3 major problems o libraries: <br /> They were build for librarians <br /> They were delivering information &#x2013; not sharing knowledge <br /> DLs lost the human-part
  • Solutions: <br /> Make users involved in the process <br /> Allow users to share knowledge <br /> Provide better communication means witin and outside of communities
  • Ok, we know what we are missing &#x2013; what is the solution? Web 2.0 &#x2013; a community-aware web
  • What is the focus of Web 2.0 <br /> What are in **general** tools technologies that we can call Web 2.0
  • Roadmap to SSIS
  • Roadmap to SSIS
  • Roadmap to SSIS
  • Roadmap to SSIS
  • Roadmap to SSIS
  • Roadmap to SSIS
  • Comparing different technologies <br /> ... And there are social semantic digital libraries finally :D
  • 1)What is simile <br /> 2)Its relation to DSpace <br /> 3)Its goal
  • Main features of SIMILE: <br /> Enhanced end-user services <br /> Web-based architecture for digital assets dissimination
  • Now &#x2013; lets see what SIMILE is <br /> Two categories of components &#x2013; that we will describe in details later
  • Now &#x2013; lets see what SIMILE is <br /> Two categories of components &#x2013; that we will describe in details later
  • RDFizers -> in MarcOnt we would call them &#x201E;adapters&#x201D;
  • Solvent lets you easily integrate different sites into RDF -> e.g. For piggy bank
  • Now &#x2013; lets see what SIMILE is <br /> Two categories of components &#x2013; that we will describe in details later
  • Themes - use cases; JHU collaboration for data curation
  • Encyclopedia of Chicago: integration of newspapers, maps, GIS, images; UVa Collectus tool
  • Max Planck - e-research; medical imaging
  • Max Planck has extended ontology; and PLoS
  • UVa - silos for arch drawings and letters - integrated
  • Integration of data sets with articles - data curation scenario
  • Are using triplestore to record assertions of annotations at fine-grained level. Use separate external triplestore. Exploding key metadata as RDF. Also assertions about agents - moving toward access control model. Mulgara - Topaz needs complex queries
  • Different triplestore than PLoS
  • How do we actually use it - how do we build on all these capabilities?
  • EV has two interrelated goals: provide a community discussion/presentation forum; create context for science resources in the library
  • Here&#x2019;s a current example: adding polar bears to the endangered species list due to climate change. Note the NSDL tagged resource.
  • Search shows both the post and referenced resources now in the NSDL.
  • Walk through an example using MediaWiki. Create a new article.
  • And identify resources to include in the wiki article
  • Referenced resources display with NSDL icon
  • Contribute the wiki article to the library, adding metadata about the new resource.
  • And potentially add any referenced resources not in the library or more information about those that do exist.
  • - present overview and motivation behind JeromeDL <br /> - describe ontologies and system architecture <br /> - sebastian will take over <br /> - after lunch you will have chance to get your hands on the newest version- let&#x2019;s get started
  • - we&#x2019;ve got phenomenal participation from users form all over the world and fantastic feedback <br /> - users create their own customizations and at the same time influence the the main line of development
  • - here are the most important features of the system- to start with
  • - from the beginning our goal was create a semantic digital library with the user in the center <br /> - we defined two questions in our research <br /> - thus we tried to find the best way to integrate ...- interconnect
  • - we defined 3 different groups of users with 3 sets of requirements <br /> - we can observe that those requirements are strongly based on the the legacy libraries
  • - in the quest of finding the answers to our question we knew that we need <br /> - motivations based on the use case scenarios
  • - this is a three-layer architecture of metadata management on top of a digital library system- each layer enriches basic information gathered in a library with semantic annotations, thus providing additional capabilities to searching and browsing- the bottom layer handles tasks required from a digital object repository, that is keeps track of pysical representation of resources their structure and provenance- the middle layer lifts up egacy bibliographic descriptions to a semantic level- the top layer utilizes benefits from engging community of users into annotatiog and filtering resources
  • From alexandria DL -> to 3 layers -> to 3 metadata layers
  • - dynamic collections
  • MarcOnt Initative aims to utilize existing metadata in MarcOnt ontology through MMS
  • MarcOnt Initative aims to utilize existing metadata in MarcOnt ontology through MMS
  • From alexandria DL -> to 3 layers -> to 3 metadata layers
  • The underlying concepts of social networks can be also represented by RDF with FOAF metadata
  • We use FOAFRealm system to manage securely FOAF information, deliver authentification module and ... SSCF module
  • Now, legacy metadata is not enough &#x2013; since we want average people to use our library <br /> That is where SSCF comes into place
  • ... And this is how it looks like
  • - let&#x2019;s not take a look at ontologies used in JeromeDL
  • - structure ontology is used to describe an electronic representation of the content itself- information object - abstract library resource -, e.g. book, chapter, page- hasPart, hasParts- Resource Aggregation Service as a way for dynamic content- the upcoming verion of JeromeDL will combine RAS with OAI-ORI datamodel
  • - simplified view of the bibliographic ontology- keywords: <br /> - domains:
  • - FOAFREalm ontoloy allows to capture user contribution to the resource descriptions <br /> - FOAFRealm extends FOAF vocabulary with the notion of friendship level properties <br /> - the community-aware ontology enables JeromeDL to describe social&#x2019;s network information <br /> - library resource as a bookmark (SSCF) - common practice of bookmarking, <br /> - SSCF enables users to share their bookmarks with others, as well as annotate directories with keywords and domains- library resource as a Blog entry- users can comment a resource, thus providing new knowledge to the library
  • based on the tag ontology by Tom Gruber <br /> tagging connects taggera, with document, with termg <br /> community annotations for multimedia (currently in alpha stage) <br /> the goal is to allow tagging in any type of documents <br /> region of interest (ROI) tagging in photos <br /> time-tagging of video streams <br /> tags can contain descriptions, keywords, links and cross references
  • - when we will put all those ontologies together &#x2013; this is what we got
  • What has Orang-utan from the Unseen University in Ankh-Morpork to do with semantic digital libraries? <br /> Well &#x2013; he was the first librarian to develop a very complicated controlled vocabullary for describing resources. <br /> It consisted out of **one** word Ook &#x2013; with various modifications like &#x201E;Oook&#x201D;, &#x201E;gook&#x201D;, &#x201E;eek&#x201D;, &#x201E;eeek&#x201D;.

Tutorial on Semantic Digital Libraries at ICSD'09 Tutorial on Semantic Digital Libraries at ICSD'09 Presentation Transcript

  • Tutorial: Semantic Digital Libraries Sebastian R. Kruk sebastian.kruk@knowledgehives.com http://www.knowledgehives.com/ Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • Tutorial: Semantic Digital Libraries Introduction Sebastian R. Kruk sebastian.kruk@knowledgehives.com Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • Tutorial overview Who am I Sebastian R. Kruk, CEO of KnowledgeHives.com Today I want to give you a brief introduction to the Semantic Web, and show how SW is related to digital libraries present existing semantic digital library systems discuss the current problems and future directions of semantic digital libraries and get feedback from you show you how to install and use JeromeDL (a semantic digital library system) After this tutorial you will know what is the semantic digital library system existing solutions in various degrees of detail how to run semantic digital library solutions on your machine Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • Tutorial overview Who am I Sebastian R. Kruk, CEO of KnowledgeHives.com Today I want to give you a brief introduction to the Semantic Web, and show how SW is related to digital libraries present existing semantic digital library systems discuss the current problems and future directions of semantic digital libraries and get feedback from you show you how to install and use JeromeDL (a semantic digital library system) After this tutorial you will know what is the semantic digital library system existing solutions in various degrees of detail how to run semantic digital library solutions on your machine Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • Tutorial Schedule 9:00 – 10:00 Introduction to Semantic Digital Libraries Existing solutions: SIMILE, Greenstone, 10:00 – 10:20 DELOS, BRICKS 10:30 – 10:50 Coffee break 10:50 – 11:50 Existing solutions: FEDORA and JeromeDL 11:50 – 12:00 Comparison, evaluation and the future 12:00 – 13:00 Lunch break 13:00 – 14:30 Hands-on session (part I) 14:30 – 15:00 Coffee break 15:00 – 16:00 Hands-on session (part II) Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • Introduction Introduction to Semantic Web Semantic Digital Libraries Digital Libraries and Social Networks Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • The Semantic Web – A Brief Introduction Current Web vs. Semantic Web? An extension of the current Web in which information is given well-defined meaning, better enabling computers and people to work in cooperation. [Tim Berners-Lee] Current Web was designed for humans, and there is little information usable for machines Was the Web meant to be more? Objects with well defined attributes as opposed to untyped hyperlinks between Internet resources A network of relationships amongst named objects, yielding unified information management tasks What do you mean by “Semantic”? the semantics of something is the meaning of something Semantic Web is able to describe things in a way that computers can understand Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • The Semantic Web – A Brief Introduction YOU ARE HERE! Where are we in the “Semantic Web layer cake”? Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • The Semantic Web – A Brief Introduction The challenge for the Semantic Web The Semantic Web can’t work all by itself For example, it is not very likely that you will be able to sell your car just by putting your RDF file on the Web Need society-scale applications: Semantic Web agents and/or services, consumers and processors for semantic data, more advanced collaborative applications Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • What is RDF ? Describing things on the Semantic Web: RDF (Resource Description Framework) a data format for describing information and resources, the fundamental data model for the Semantic Web Using RDF, we can describe relationships between things like: A is a part of B or Y is a member of Z and their properties (size, weight, age, price…) in a machine- understandable format where each thing has a RDF graph-based model delivers straightforward machine processing Putting information into RDF files makes it possible for “scutters” or RDF crawlers to search, discover, pick up, collect, analyze and process information from the Web Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • What is RDF ? A simple RDF example Statement: “Stefan Decker is the creator of the resource (web page) http://www.stefandecker.org” Structure: Resource (subject) http://www.stefandecker.org Property (predicate) http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/creator Value (object) “Stefan Decker” Directed graph: dc:creator http://www.stefandecker.org/ "Stefan Decker" Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • How RDF can help? How RDF can help us? identify objects establish relationships express a new relationship: just add a new RDF statement integrate information from different sources: copy all the RDF data together RDF allows many points of view Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • Ontologies and Schemata What is an Ontology? „An ontology is a specification of a conceptualization.“ Tom Gruber, 1993 Ontologies are social contracts Agreed, explicit semantics Understandable to outsiders (Often) derived in a community process Ontology markup and representation languages: RDF and RDF Schema OWL Other: DAML+OIL, EER, UML, Topic Maps, MOF, XML Schemas Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • RDF Schema Defines small vocabulary for RDF: Class, subClassOf, type Property, subPropertyOf domain, range Vocabulary can be used to define other vocabularies for your application domain Person subclass-of subclass-of domain range Student hasSupervisor Professor is-a is-a hasSupervisor Frank John Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • OWL - The Web Ontology Language Owl took Christopher Robin’s notice from Rabbit and looked at it nervously. He could spell his own name WOL, and he could spell Tuesday so that you knew it wasn’t Wednesday, and he could read quite comfortably when you weren’t looking over his shoulder and saying "Well?" all the time... provides a vocabulary for defining classes, their properties and their relationships among classes. Animal subclass-of subclass-of disjoint-with Herbivore Carnivore subclass-of subclass-of Omnivore Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • Applications Semantic Web cannot be and is not only a set of recommendations Semantic Web is becoming reality by applications that support it and are based on it Enabling technologies: RDF Storages: Mulgara, 4Store, Sesame, Jena, YARS, ... Reasoners: KAON, Racer Editors: Protege, SWOOP, MarcOnt Portal End-User applications: Semantic wikis: Makna, SemperWiki Semantic blogs: SIOC Semantic bookmarking: digi.me, Twine Semantic digital libraries Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • Introduction Introduction to Semantic Web Semantic Digital Libraries Digital Libraries and Social Networks Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • What is a Semantic Digital Library? integrate information based on different metadata, e.g.: resources, user profiles, bookmarks, taxonomies – high quality semantics = highly and meaningfully connected information provide interoperability with other systems (not only digital libraries) on either metadata or communication level or both – RDF as common denominator between digital libraries and other services delivering more robust, user friendly and adaptable search and browsing interfaces empowered by semantics (legacy, formal, and social annotations) Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • Old days of hard-copy books Library: Archive (storage space) Bibliographic cards (metadata) Librarian (interface) Pros: Someone to talk to, to understand us, to explain, help in searching Cons: Based on physical location Libraries are not connected – we have to visit every place Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • Yesterday of digital books Digital library Database and archive (storage) Digital bibliographic descriptions (metadata) Full-text search (interface) Pros: Content accessible online Federations of libraries – visit less places Cons: Lonely user - no one to talk to, we need to find the right keywords, what if we do not know them (“man without an ear” paintings example) Still many problems with interconnecting (different) libraries Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • Today of interconnected content Semantic Digital Libraries Database and archive (storage) Semantic bibliographic description (interconnected metadata) Search and browsing on ontologies (interface) Pros: Search and browsing based on semantics can help in substituting the librarian It is easier to interconnect heterogeneous libraries (RDF as common denominator) Cons: Semantics created from legacy formats – still hard to capture by most of average users Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • Tomorrow of social media Social Semantic Digital Libraries Database and archive (storage) Bibliographic descriptions with annotations provided by users (metadata) Collaborative search and browsing (interface) Pros: Users contribute to the classification process Users can understand community driven annotations Users enhance digital content using blogs, wikis on the side Cons: How to convince legacy metadata providers to the value of social annotations ? Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • Knowledge Organization Systems tools that present the organized interpretation of knowledge structures semantic tools - meaning of words and other symbols as well as (semantic) relations between symbols and concept organize information and promote knowledge management Examples: classification and categorization schemata (organize materials at a general level) subject headings (provide more detailed access) authority files (control variant versions of key information such as geographic names and personal names) highly structured vocabularies, such as thesauri traditional schemes, such as semantic networks and ontologies Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • Taxonomy of KOS Term Lists Authority files (FOAF) Glossaries Dictionaries Gazetteers Classifications and Categories (DMoz, UDC, ACM, LoC) Subject headings Classification schemes Taxonomies Categorization Schemes. Relationship Lists Thesauri (WordNet, MeSH, OpenThesarus) Semantic networks Ontologies (MarcOnt, FRBR, The Bibliographic Ontology) Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com (HODGE, 2000)
  • Understanding KOS controlled vocabulary - a list of terms that have been enumerated explicitly taxonomy - a collection of controlled vocabulary terms organized into a hierarchical structure. formal ontology – a controlled vocabulary expressed in an ontology representation language. This language has a grammar for using vocabulary terms to express something meaningful within a specified domain of interest. meta-model - an explicit model of the constructs and rules needed to build specific models within a domain of interest. A valid meta-model is an ontology, but not all ontologies are modeled explicitly as meta-models. as a set of building blocks and rules used to build models as a model of a domain of interest, and as an instance of another model. Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • Simple Knowledge Organization Systems basic structure and content of concept schemes such as thesauri, classification schemes, subject heading lists, taxonomies, 'folksonomies', other types of controlled vocabulary core concepts: narrower and broader isSubjectOf and subject; isPrimarySubjectOf and primarySubject member and Collection; memberList and OrderedCollection related and semanticRelation note, definition; altLabel and prefLabel; symbol and altSymbol Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • Semantic Web Technologies for DL Metadata is the key concept the Web does not have metadata the idea of a Semantic Web is nice but difficult to implement many digital libraries do have metadata in place we simply must make them available in a machine understandable format the Semantic Web provides the format: RDF Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • Semantic Web Technologies for DL Knowledge in bibliographic records Digital Libraries already have controlled vocabularies, taxonomies or even ontologies in place the challenge is to model this knowledge in a machine understandable way the Semantic Web provides ontology languages: RDF Schema OWL SKOS Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • Bibliographic Descriptions and RDF Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • Bibliographic Descriptions and RDF 01450CAS 922004331I <?XML VERSION="1.0" ENCODING="UTF-8" ?> 450000100...019C19329999GW <RDF:DESCRIPTION QR|P| ||||0 |0GER | A0044-2992 9A200412140219BVLOADC20040407152 RDF:ABOUT="HTTP://...ID=828374765"> 5DVKULC200310071018DVBJC2003031 <DC:TITLE>JEROMEDL - ADDING SEMANTIC WEB 01205DKOPUMKY200209211341ZVLOA TECHNOLOGIES TO DLS</DC:TITLE> D AGD U/MPCGD U/MPDGD U/MFDGD U/KKSDWR O/EJ0 <DC:CREATOR>SEBASTIAN KRUK</DC:CREATOR> AGER1 AZ. KUNSTGESCH. <DC:DESCRIPTION>IN RECENT YEARS...</ 0AZEITSCHRIFT FÜR DC:DESCRIPTION> KUNSTGESCHICHTE00AZEITSCHRIFT FÜR KUNSTGESCHICHTE.18AZFK </RDF:DESCRIPTION> AMÜNCHEN ;ABERLIN :BDEUTSCHER KUNSTVERLAG,C1932-. C26-29 CM. @INPROCEEDINGS { JEROMEDEXA2005, AKWART.0 A1 BD. (JUNI 1932)-. AOPIS NA PODST.: LCC. AW 1932 AUTHOR = "SEBASTIAN RYSZARD KRUK AND ... ", ZAŁOŻYCIELAMI CZASOPISMA BYLI TITLE = "{JEROMEDL - ADDING SEMANTIC ...}", WILHELM WAETZOLDT I ERNST BOOKTITLE = "{IN PROCEEDINGS TO DEXA GALL.... 2005}", YEAR = 2005} Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • Bibliographic Descriptions and RDF 01450CAS 922004331I <?XML VERSION="1.0" ENCODING="UTF-8" ?> 450000100...019C19329999GW <RDF:DESCRIPTION QR|P| ||||0 |0GER | A0044-2992 9A200412140219BVLOADC20040407152 RDF:ABOUT="HTTP://...ID=828374765"> 5DVKULC200310071018DVBJC2003031 <DC:TITLE>JEROMEDL - ADDING SEMANTIC WEB 01205DKOPUMKY200209211341ZVLOA TECHNOLOGIES TO DLS</DC:TITLE> D AGD U/MPCGD U/MPDGD U/MFDGD U/KKSDWR O/EJ0 <DC:CREATOR>SEBASTIAN KRUK</DC:CREATOR> THESE ALL CAN BE REPRESENTED AGER1 AZ. KUNSTGESCH. 0AZEITSCHRIFT FÜR <DC:DESCRIPTION>IN RECENT YEARS...</ DC:DESCRIPTION> KUNSTGESCHICHTE00AZEITSCHRIFT FÜR KUNSTGESCHICHTE.18AZFK AMÜNCHEN ;ABERLIN :BDEUTSCHER IN RDF </RDF:DESCRIPTION> KUNSTVERLAG,C1932-. C26-29 CM. @INPROCEEDINGS { JEROMEDEXA2005, AKWART.0 A1 BD. (JUNI 1932)-. AOPIS NA PODST.: LCC. AW 1932 AUTHOR = "SEBASTIAN RYSZARD KRUK AND ... ", ZAŁOŻYCIELAMI CZASOPISMA BYLI TITLE = "{JEROMEDL - ADDING SEMANTIC ...}", WILHELM WAETZOLDT I ERNST BOOKTITLE = "{IN PROCEEDINGS TO DEXA GALL.... 2005}", YEAR = 2005} Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • Ontologies for Semantic Digital Libraries DublinCore one of the most popular standards first application of Semantic Web research set of simple terms (mainly properties) extensible through the Dublin Core Qualifiers http://dublincore.org/ CIDOC-CRM reference model for museums and cultural heritage institutions merge of efforts from DL and museums community goal: to mediate between heterogeneous database schemata and metadata structures focus on the definition of relationships between items rather then the terminology of a particular domain http://cidoc.ics.forth.gr/ Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • Ontologies for Semantic Digital Libraries FRBR Ontology Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records provides concepts to describe the generalized view of the bibliographic universe built to support building catalogs and bibliographic systems concept of Book is defined with four entities: Item, Manifestation, Expression, and Work (from more “physical” to more abstract) Entities organized in 3 groups: Group 1: Item, Manifestation, Expression, and Work Group 2: person and corporate body (reflect role entities defined in Group 1) Group 3: concepts, objects, events, places (subjects of the entities defined in Group 1) ontology developed by Ian Davis based on FRBR specification http://www.frbr.org/ Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • Ontologies for Semantic Digital Libraries The Bibliographic Ontology models the high level bibliographic concepts using formal ontology lightweight ontology (similar to SKOS) supporting legacy metadata (BibTeX) and data encoding standards incorporates concepts from FRBR, FOAF, SIOC, Music Ontology, and DC Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • The Bibliographic Ontology Basic bibliographic concepts - classes: Document, Collection, Part and properties: shortTitle, editionName, editionNumber, presentedAt, and other. Document types – range from Article to WebPage classes, and a number of individuals, such as types/booklet or types/technicalReport. Collection types – cover concepts like Series, Journal, or even an InternetSite. Status – these concepts define basic stages in the document publication process, from status/draft to status/published. Contributions – identify various contribution Roles, e.g., roles/author or roles/translator, and bind the human concepts to resources through Contribution information objects. Locators – provides concepts to specify location of the reference/citation; these include issue, pages, and event physicalLocation. Identifiers – is a set of concepts which allow to identify bibliographic resources using various legacy standards, such as doi, isbn, or url. Naming – defines main properties related to naming human concepts (foaf:Actor): familyName, givenName, etc. Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • Corrib Ontologies for Sem DL MarcOnt Bibliographic Ontology based on concepts from MARC21, BibTeX and DublinCore build to facilitate the mediation with legacy standards answers requirements from the research institutes digital libraries JeromeDL Structure Ontology flexible data model for defining structure of information objects defines structure relationships, binary and computed datastreams FOAFRealm User Management Ontology extends FOAF with concepts for user management (password, PKI, relationship tagging and rating) S3B Tagging Ontology extends Tom Gruber’s TagOntology with support for excerpts (ROI, time tags) Extensible Access Control Ontology Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • Publishing semantics Embed semantics using standard HTML syntax: Microformats, eRDF, RDF/A Link to an RDF source with <LINK> tag <link rel="media" type="application/rdf+xml" title="Ontology" href="http://source.url/data/resource"/> Use content negotiation source: http://www4.wiwiss.fu-berlin.de/bizer/pub/LinkedDataTutorial/ Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • Linking Open Data Why publish RDF? bootstrap Semantic Web leverage other published semantics: mash-ups, e.g., DBPedia Mobile, Revyu semantic index, e.g., Sindice What is open data Government organizations Bibliographical data Wikipedia Research User-generated databases How to contribute: RDFize Publish on the Web Interlink items from different datasets source: http://richard.cyganiak.de/2008/04/linking-open-data-swnyc.pdf Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • source: http://richard.cyganiak.de/2007/10/lod/ Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • OpenVocabulary.info Java and REST API for managing and publishing vocabularies stores vocabularies in SKOS/RDF full text index over vocabularies for better retrieval vocabularies published according to Linked Open Data guidelines supports: taxonomies: DMoz, UDC, DDC, LOC, ACM, PKT thesauri: WordNet RDF/OWL (introduced SKOS concepts), OpenThesaurus-PL (recreated SKOS information) open source code and free to use service Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • Communication in Sem DL • Legacy protocols: – Dienst, – Z39.50, – OAI-PMH • P2P-based solutions: – ALVIS, – OCKHAM, – HyperCuP • Emerging standard: – OAI-ORE Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • OAI-ORE Goal: describe and exchange of aggregations of Web resources How: based on research in Web Architectures, Semantic Web using standards like RDF, Named Graphs, ATOM, HTTP each aggregation and each resource are referenced with URI Serialization: Atom Syndication Format RDF Graphs (RDF/XML, N-Triples, Turtle) RDFa Discovery: OAI-PMH semantic web indexes (e.g., Sindice) Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • OAI-ORE - Data Model Resource Map Aggregation Aggregated Resources ARes relationshipA ResA 1 ore:aggregates RelM ore:describes Aggr ore:aggregates dcterms:creator ARes relationshipB ResB 2 UsrA Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • OAI-ORE - Data Model (Relationships) Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • OAI-ORE - Data Model (Relationships) other relationships ARes relationshipA ResA 1 ore:aggregates RelM ore:describes Aggr ore:aggregates dcterms:creator ARes relationshipB ResB 2 UsrA Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • OAI-ORE - Data Model (Relationships) other relationships rdfs:seeAlso and ore:similarTo RelM Aggr ARes ore:describes ore:aggregates 2 2 3 ore:similarTo rdfs:seeAlso ResA ARes relationshipA ResA ore:similarTo 1 ore:aggregates RelM ore:describes Aggr ore:aggregates dcterms:creator ARes relationshipB ResB 2 UsrA Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • OAI-ORE - Data Model (Relationships) other relationships rdfs:seeAlso and ore:similarTo nested aggregations ARes 1 ARes ore:aggregates 1 ore:describes ore:aggregates ARes RelM ore:isDescribedBy relationshipA ResA 1 ore:aggregates RelM ore:describes Aggr ore:aggregates dcterms:creator ARes relationshipB ResB 2 UsrA Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • OAI-ORE - Data Model (Proxies) Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • OAI-ORE - Data Model (Proxies) ore:ProxyIn and ore:ProxyFor Proxy 1 ore:proxyFor ore:proxyIn ARes relationshipA ResA 1 ore:aggregates RelM ore:describes Aggr ore:aggregates dcterms:creator ARes relationshipB ResB 2 ore:proxyIn UsrA ore:proxyFor Proxy 2 Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • OAI-ORE - Data Model (Proxies) ore:ProxyIn and ore:ProxyFor relationships between aggregated resources Proxy 1 ore:proxyFor ore:proxyIn ARes 1 ore:aggregates RelM ore:describes Aggr xyz:hasNext ore:aggregates dcterms:creator ARes 2 ore:proxyIn UsrA ore:proxyFor Proxy 2 Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • OAI-ORE - Data Model (Proxies) ore:ProxyIn and ore:ProxyFor relationships between aggregated resources asserted relationships Proxy xyz:cites URI1 1 ore:proxyFor ore:proxyIn ARes xyz:cites URI2 1 ore:aggregates RelM ore:describes Aggr ore:aggregates dcterms:creator ARes 2 ore:proxyIn UsrA ore:proxyFor Proxy 2 Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • OAI-ORE - Data Model (Proxies) ore:ProxyIn and ore:ProxyFor relationships between aggregated resources asserted relationships Proxy 1 lineage of aggregated resources ore:proxyIn ore:proxyFor ARes ore:lineage 1 ore:aggregates RelM ore:describes Aggr ore:aggregates ore:proxyFor RelM Aggr Proxy ore:describes ore:proxyIn 2 2 3 Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • Architecture of Semantic Digital Libraries Complex Dynamic Semantic Resources Objects Services performance Community Social System Content Annotations Services Semantic Annotations usability usefulness User External Community Services (based on Information Triptych Model) Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • Architecture of Semantic Digital Libraries UI agents communities of users Data Presentation Layer service DL developers Advanced designers Information Interoperability Basic Access Management Services Services Services Services Data Access and Manipulation Layer external DL services administrators Data Abstraction Layer (based on Alexandria Library and DELOS Data Sources concepts) Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • Benefits of Semantic Digital Libraries Problems of today’s libraries rapidly growing islands of highly organized information How to find things in a growing information space? is it enough to have a full-text index (à la Google)? typical “end-users” versus “expert users” converging digital library systems e.g. uniform access to digital libraries and cultural heritage Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • Benefits of Semantic Digital Libraries flexible management of resources aggregating library resources from reusable components and metadata integration of both static and dynamic resources dynamic views over the database new search paradigms for the information space ontology-based search / facet search community-enabled browsing interoperability on the data level integrating metadata from various heterogeneous sources support for social annotations interconnecting different digital library systems Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • Searching the Sample Bibliographic Record Classification Paintings Object/Work type paintings Title Irises Creation-Creator/ Vincent van Gogh; painter: Role Gogh, Vincent van (Dutch painter, 1853-1890) Creation-Date 1889, earliest: 1889, latest: 1889 Subject-Matter irises, nature, soil, etc. Current Location- J. Paul Getty Museum Repository Name Copyright 2000 The J. Paul Getty Trust & College Art Association, Inc. Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • Searching the Sample Bibliographic Record Classification Paintings Object/Work type paintings • Full-text search – “Paintings” AND “Van Gogh” Title Irises AND “flowers”  no result Creation-Creator/ Vincent van Gogh; painter: Role Gogh, Vincent van (Dutch painter, 1853-1890) Creation-Date 1889, earliest: 1889, latest: 1889 Subject-Matter irises, nature, soil, etc. Current Location- J. Paul Getty Museum Repository Name Copyright 2000 The J. Paul Getty Trust & College Art Association, Inc. Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • Searching the Sample Bibliographic Record Classification Paintings Object/Work type paintings • Full-text search – “Paintings” AND “Van Gogh” Title Irises AND “flowers”  no result Creation-Creator/ Vincent van Gogh; painter: Role Gogh, Vincent van (Dutch painter, 1853-1890) • Semantic query – if the knowledge that “irises” Creation-Date 1889, earliest: 1889, latest: are “flowers” is modeled in 1889 an ontology (e.g. subclass- hierarchy) Subject-Matter irises, nature, soil, etc. – we can query for all “Paintings” by “Van Gogh” with subject “flowers” Current Location- J. Paul Getty Museum and retrieve also the picture Repository Name with subject “irises” Copyright 2000 The J. Paul Getty Trust & College Art Association, Inc. Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • Semantic DL and Existing DL Systems how to handle the legacy (meta-)data problem lifting existing (meta-)data to a semantic level simple solutions like MARC21, DublinCore complex ontologies like MarcOnt Ontology for capturing concepts from different standards legacy libraries expose their metadata via well established protocols - the metadata can be imported into semantic DLs semantic DLs can play a role of integration champions in the information retrieval process in heterogeneous networks: OAI-PMH, OAI-ORE Z39.50 Dienst Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • Application Areas for Semantic Web Thesauri & Controlled Vocabularies qualified DublinCore DMoz, DDC-based taxonomies SKOS, WordNet and other thesauri Schema Mappings / Crosswalks MarcOnt Ontology – aims to cover concepts from MARC21, BibTeX and DublinCore MarcOnt Mediation Services – an open mediation framework between common legacy metadata standards Metadata Integration RDF as a common data model for integrating metadata from various autonomous and heterogeneous data sources OWL for modeling the data source’s semantics SPARQL as a common query language Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • Semantic DL as Evolving Knowledge Space In state-of-the-art digital libraries users are consumers Retrieve contents based on available bibliographic records Recent trends: user communities Connetea Flickr In Semantic digital libraries users are contributers as well Tagging (Web 2.0) Social Semantic Collaborative Filtering Annotations Semantic Digital libraries enforce the transition from a static information to a dynamic (collaborative) knowledge space Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • Introduction Introduction to Semantic Web Semantic Digital Libraries Digital Libraries and Social Networks Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • Social Semantic Digital Libraries Why current (semantic) digital libraries are not enough? digital libraries should not be for librarians only but for average people they concentrate on delivering content/information, not on knowledge sharing within a community of users digital libraries have lost human-part of their predecessors Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • Social Semantic Digital Libraries What could be the solution? make users/readers involved in the content annotation process allow users/readers to share their knowledge within a community provide better communication between users in and across communities Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • Social Semantic Digital Libraries What is Web 2.0? The Web where “ordinary” users can meet, collaborate, and share using whatever is newly popular on the Web (tagged content, social bookmarking, AJAX, etc.) The term Web 2.0 was made popular by Tim O’Reilly: http://www.oreillynet.com/pub/a/oreilly/tim/news/ 2005/09/30/what-is-web-20.html Popular examples include: Bebo, del.icio.us, digg, Flickr, Google Maps, Skype, Technorati, Wikipedia… Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • Social Semantic Digital Libraries Web 2.0 focuses include: The Web as a platform for social and collaborative exchange Reusable community contributions Subscriptions to information, news, data flows, services Mass-publishing using web-based social software Social software for communication and collaboration: IM, IRC, Forums, Blogs, Wikis, Social Network Services, Social Bookmarks, MMOGs… Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • Social Semantic Information Spaces Social Connectivity Collaboration and SOCIAL SEMANTIC Communication INFORMATION SPACES Semantic Desktop, Wikis, Blogs, OSN, Collaborative Working Environments WORLD WIDE WEB SEMANTIC WEB URIS, HTML, HTTP RDFS, OWL, SPARQL Syntax Semantics Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • Social Semantic Information Spaces Social Connectivity Social Semantic Library 2.0 Digital Libraries open source, social software, single-sign on, open standards, OPAC WORLD WIDE WEB SEMANTIC WEB URIS, HTML, HTTP RDFS, OWL, SPARQL Syntax Semantics Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • Web 1.0 / Web 2.0 / Web 3.0 WEB 1.0 WEB 2.0 WEB 3.0 Personal Websites Blogs Semantic Blogs Content Management Wikis Semantic Wikis Systems Altavista, Google Google Personalised, Semantic Search DumbFind CiteSeer, Project Google Scholar, Book Social Semantic Digital Gutenberg Search Libraries Message Boards Community Portals Semantic Forums and Community Portals Buddy Lists, Address Online Social Networks Semantic Social Networks Books - - Semantic Social Information Spaces Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • Web 1.0 / Web 2.0 / Web 3.0 WEB 1.0 WEB 2.0 WEB 3.0 Personal Websites Blogs Semantic Blogs Content Management Wikis Semantic Wikis Systems Altavista, Google Google Personalised, Semantic Search DumbFind CiteSeer, Project Google Scholar, Book Social Semantic Digital Gutenberg Search Libraries Message Boards Community Portals Semantic Forums and Community Portals Buddy Lists, Address Online Social Networks Semantic Social Networks Books - - Semantic Social Information Spaces Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • Tutorial: Semantic Digital Libraries Existing Solutions Sebastian R. Kruk sebastian.kruk@knowledgehives.com Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • Existing Semantic Digital Library Systems SIMILE extends and leverages DSpace, seeking to enhance interoperability among digital assets, schemata, metadata, and services Greenstone an open source suite of software for building and distributing digital library collections DELOS EU Network of Excellence in Digital Libraries; helps to conduct and share results of research on next generation technologies for digital libraries. BRICKS aims at establishing the organizational and technological foundations for a digital library network in order to share knowledge and resources in the cultural heritage domain. DuraSpace (FEDORA, DSpace, Mulgara) provides leadership and innovation in open source technologies for global communities who manage, preserve, and provide access to digital content JeromeDL a social semantic digital library makes use of Semantic Web and Social Networking technologies to enhance both interoperability and usability Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • Existing Semantic Digital Libraries Solutions SIMILE Greenstone DELOS BRICKS DuraSpace: FEDORA, DSpace, Mulgara JeromeDL Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • Existing Semantic Digital Library Systems SIMILE extends and leverages DSpace, seeking to enhance interoperability among digital assets, schemata, metadata, and services Greenstone an open source suite of software for building and distributing digital library collections DELOS EU Network of Excellence in Digital Libraries; helps to conduct and share results of research on next generation technologies for digital libraries. BRICKS aims at establishing the organizational and technological foundations for a digital library network in order to share knowledge and resources in the cultural heritage domain. DuraSpace (FEDORA, DSpace, Mulgara) provides leadership and innovation in open source technologies for global communities who manage, preserve, and provide access to digital content JeromeDL a social semantic digital library makes use of Semantic Web and Social Networking technologies to enhance both interoperability and usability Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • SIMILE – Introduction SIMILE - Semantic Interoperability of Metadata and Information in unLike Environments joint project conducted by the W3C, HP, MIT Libraries, and MIT's Lab for Computer Science. extends and leverages DSpace, seeking to enhance interoperability among digital assets, schemata, metadata, and services Goal: Make metadata interoperability easier for digital libraries by providing useful tools for browsing, searching and mapping heterogeneous metadata in RDF [MacKenzie Smith, MIT Libraries] Project website: http://simile.mit.edu/ Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • SIMILE – Introduction enhances interoperability and provides end-user services: for digital assets, arbitrary schemata, metadata and services. across distributed individual, community, and institutional stores. though the application of RDF and semantic web techniques. implements a digital asset dissemination architecture based upon web standards Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • SIMILE – Delivered Components Tools for Metadata Managers Gadget - XML inspector RDFizers - Batch tools to transform existing XML data into RDF Solvent - Firefox extension for Javascript screen scraping Welkin - Graphical tool to inspect/edit RDF graph jsTeX - a javascript library that interprets some (basic) TeX encodings and transforms them into HTML definitions Zotz - publish citations from Zotero to an Exhibit in one step Appalachian - Firefox plugin for managing and using several OpenIDs Fresnel - a vocabulary for displaying RDF Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • SIMILE – Delivered Components Tools for End-Users Longwell - Web-based RDF faceted metadata browser Piggy Bank - Firefox extension for personal information management of metadata in RDF Semantic Bank - Web-based server that allows data publishing and sharing by individuals, groups, or communities Exhibit - lightweight structured data publishing framework Timeline - AJAXy widget for visualizing time-based events Citeline - facilitates the web publishing of bibliographies and citation collections as interactive exhibits Timeplot - AJAXy widget for plotting time series and overlay time-based events over them Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • RDFizers - Transform XML data into RDF RDFizers - Transform XML data into RDF: tools that allow to transform existing data into an RDF representation Example supported input formats: MARC/MODS OAI-PMH EMail BibTEX Weather Java Javadoc Jira Subversion Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • Solvent - JavaScript screen scraping Solvent - JavaScript screen scraping: a Firefox extension that helps write Javascript screen scrapers for Piggy Bank. Motivation: Piggy Bank needs web pages to embed information in RDF. Unfortunately, not many web pages embed or link to RDF information. Piggy Bank is capable to execute a particular screen scraper on particular pages in order to "extract" the information it needs. turns a regular web page into a semantic web page, freeing the data from the page/site that contains it. Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • Solvent - JavaScript screen scraping Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • Longwell - RDF faceted browser Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • PiggyBank Firefox extension for managing metadata - Loads RDF into local Longwell server Search and faceted browse of local RDF - Views defined by library, other users Users can find, collect, annotate RDF - Can then publish for access by others Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • PiggyBank Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • SemanticBank Semantic Bank use cases: persist information remotely on a server share information with other people lets you publish your information, both in RDF or to regular web pages for individuals, groups, communities - e.g. conference proceedings the ability to tag resources creates a powerful serendipitous categorization Longwell facetted browsing view of published information Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • Timeline - Rendering Time-related Data Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • Exibit - Faceted Filtering, Multiple Views Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • Timeplot Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • Existing Semantic Digital Libraries Solutions SIMILE Greenstone DELOS BRICKS DuraSpace: FEDORA, DSpace, Mulgara JeromeDL Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • Existing Semantic Digital Library Systems SIMILE extends and leverages DSpace, seeking to enhance interoperability among digital assets, schemata, metadata, and services Greenstone an open source suite of software for building and distributing digital library collections DELOS EU Network of Excellence in Digital Libraries; helps to conduct and share results of research on next generation technologies for digital libraries. BRICKS aims at establishing the organizational and technological foundations for a digital library network in order to share knowledge and resources in the cultural heritage domain. DuraSpace (FEDORA, DSpace, Mulgara) provides leadership and innovation in open source technologies for global communities who manage, preserve, and provide access to digital content JeromeDL a social semantic digital library makes use of Semantic Web and Social Networking technologies to enhance both interoperability and usability Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • Greenstone Goals: to deliver a dynamic digital library management system which could be flexibly configured at run-time to lower the overhead incurred when building a collection uses GATE to reduce collection building overhead supported standards: Z39.50, OAI-PMH, FRBR, and METS semantics supported by: Greenstone Alerting Service FRBR implementation Location-based access Project website: http://www.greenstone.org/ Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • Greenstone - Creating Collections with FRBR Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • FRBR and Alerting semantics FRBR Q: How to keep IDs of resources consistent Alerting over time ? Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • Greenstone - Location-based Access Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • Greenstone - Location-based Access Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • Greenstone - Location-based Access Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • Greenstone - Searching Interface Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • Greenstone - Searching Interface Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • Existing Semantic Digital Libraries Solutions SIMILE Greenstone DELOS BRICKS DuraSpace: FEDORA, DSpace, Mulgara JeromeDL Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • Existing Semantic Digital Library Systems SIMILE extends and leverages DSpace, seeking to enhance interoperability among digital assets, schemata, metadata, and services Greenstone an open source suite of software for building and distributing digital library collections DELOS EU Network of Excellence in Digital Libraries; helps to conduct and share results of research on next generation technologies for digital libraries. BRICKS aims at establishing the organizational and technological foundations for a digital library network in order to share knowledge and resources in the cultural heritage domain. DuraSpace (FEDORA, DSpace, Mulgara) provides leadership and innovation in open source technologies for global communities who manage, preserve, and provide access to digital content JeromeDL a social semantic digital library makes use of Semantic Web and Social Networking technologies to enhance both interoperability and usability Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • DELOS - Overview EU Network of Excellence in Digital Libraries; helps to conduct and share results of research on next generation technologies for digital libraries delivered research and prototypes of DL technologies using P2P, Grid and SOA key deliverable: reference model for (future) Digital Library Management Systems Project website: http://delos.info/ Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • DELOS - Digital Library Universe Content Functionality Management System Digital Library Digital Library Digital Library System Users Quality Architecture Policy based on: DELOS Digital Library Reference Model: http://tinyurl.com/6nmgb6 Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • DELOS - Main Roles of Actors Digital Library Digital Library Digital Library System Management System Digital Library Designers Interface Digital Library Supports Instantiates Digital Library Digital Library Digital Library Supports Digital Library Extends System Administrators End-Users Supports Digital Library Application Developers based on: DELOS Digital Library Reference Model: http://tinyurl.com/6nmgb6 Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • Existing Semantic Digital Libraries Solutions SIMILE Greenstone DELOS BRICKS DuraSpace: FEDORA, DSpace, Mulgara JeromeDL Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • Existing Semantic Digital Library Systems SIMILE extends and leverages DSpace, seeking to enhance interoperability among digital assets, schemata, metadata, and services Greenstone an open source suite of software for building and distributing digital library collections DELOS EU Network of Excellence in Digital Libraries; helps to conduct and share results of research on next generation technologies for digital libraries. BRICKS aims at establishing the organizational and technological foundations for a digital library network in order to share knowledge and resources in the cultural heritage domain. DuraSpace (FEDORA, DSpace, Mulgara) provides leadership and innovation in open source technologies for global communities who manage, preserve, and provide access to digital content JeromeDL a social semantic digital library makes use of Semantic Web and Social Networking technologies to enhance both interoperability and usability Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • What is BRICKS? A software infrastructure for building digital library networks Transparent access to distributed resources Multilinguality Easy installation & maintenance A set of end-user applications Network & content management Web 2.0 tagging/annotations Domain specific applications A business model Open source, platform independent Low cost infrastructure User communities  sustainability Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • BRICKS Architecture A decentralized P2P network Avoid central coordination Highly Scalable, increased reliability Minimized maintenance costs Each P2P Node is a set of SOA components Web Service interface Platform independent Flexible composition Components for Storing, accessing and protecting digital objects (Semantic) search & browsing P2P communication Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • A Look into a BNode BNODE { Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • Collection Manager Single access point for all content and metadata related operations (local and remote) Physical Collection Similar to folder/directory hierarchy in a file system Bound to a single BNode Each digital content object belongs to exactly one collection Logical Collection Virtual folder for organizing content items independent of their physical location Links to content items from various physical collections on different BNodes A content item might belong to many of them Stored Query similar to database views Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • Metadata Manager Metadata descriptions - RDF OAI-PMH Server OAI-PMH Harvester Suitable for any application XML XML scenario Data Transformation dc.xsl vra.xsl xyz.xsl Express relationships between objects System Core React to changes without RDF/XML changing the model Schema Manager Validator Schema definitions - OWL mapping mapping No fixed schema Web VRA DC xyz Extensible (e.g. Application Service API profiles) (WSDL) Query Semantic concepts instead of Adapter Metadata Manager schematic structures Metadata Metadata Record Record SPARQL Metadata queries over ontology Storage (Jena) concepts RDB File-DB Queries for graph patterns Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • Digital Rights Management DRM Component Support for licenses based on MPEG-21 REL license declaration standard Generic API for the integration of commercial DRM systems Watermarking Open-source watermarking tool for images Other tools can be integrated BRICKS Store web application for commercial content Creative Commons support for other content in BRICKS Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • BRICKS Applications BRICKS Workspace Web 2.0 annotations for end users BRICKS Desktop rich client application for expert users Annotation Tool institutions with large image collections Online Exhibition Authoring Tool Expert end-users (curators) Archeological Finds Identifier Museum curators, archaeologists, students, amateurs Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • Application: BRICKS Workspace What does it demonstrate? A web application (thin client) accessing BRICKS Foundation services Web 2.0 image annotations Reference application Primary customers General end-users (citizens) Application developers Technology Struts based interface to the BCH Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • Application: BRICKS Desktop What does it demonstrate? A rich client application accessing BRICKS foundation services Direct access to the BCHN Primary customers Expert end-users (researchers, educators) Application developers Technology Eclipse based rich client interface Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • Application: Annotation Tool What does it demonstrate? Tool which allows end-users to annotate images Creation of annotation threads Supervised Annotations Primary customers End-users Institutions with large image collections Technology Web Application Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • Application: Online Exhibition Authoring Tool What does it demonstrate? Creating and publishing online exhibitions using contents that is available in the BRICKS network Primary customers? Expert end-users (curators) Technology Web Application Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • Archeological Finds Identifier What does it demonstrate? A web application for comparing findings (e.g. ancient coins) with objects in reference collections Application of complex domain ontology (CIDOC-CRM) Map visualization of GIS- Metadata Primary customers? Museum curators, archaeologists, students, amateurs, Technology Struts based interface Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • References BRICKS Community Web Site http://www.brickscommunity.org/ Main Contact: silvia.boi@metaware.it Related (de-facto) standards Resource Description Framework (RDF): http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf- primer/ OWL Web Ontology Language (OWL): http://www.w3.org/TR/owl- guide/ SPARQL: http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-sparql-query/ Java Content Repository (JCR): http://www.jcp.org/en/jsr/detail? id=17 Tools and Libraries Jackrabbit: http://jackrabbit.apache.org/ Jena Semantic Web Framework: http://jena.sourceforge.net/ Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • Existing Semantic Digital Libraries Solutions SIMILE Greenstone DELOS BRICKS DuraSpace: FEDORA, DSpace, Mulgara JeromeDL Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • Existing Semantic Digital Library Systems SIMILE extends and leverages DSpace, seeking to enhance interoperability among digital assets, schemata, metadata, and services Greenstone an open source suite of software for building and distributing digital library collections DELOS EU Network of Excellence in Digital Libraries; helps to conduct and share results of research on next generation technologies for digital libraries. BRICKS aims at establishing the organizational and technological foundations for a digital library network in order to share knowledge and resources in the cultural heritage domain. DuraSpace (FEDORA, DSpace, Mulgara) provides leadership and innovation in open source technologies for global communities who manage, preserve, and provide access to digital content JeromeDL a social semantic digital library makes use of Semantic Web and Social Networking technologies to enhance both interoperability and usability Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • DuraSpace an organization creating open technologies for durable digital content, including joint effort of Fedora Commons and DSpace Foundation Stewardship: Support and align open source development communities for DSpace and Fedora Innovation: Think beyond existing platforms New strategies for enabling access and preservation of digital content Sustainability: Develop business model to sustain the non-profit and open technologies we support source: DuraCloud presentation by Michele Kimpton, Director DuraSpace Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • DuraCloud - Challenges digital preservation difficult to implement Tools and processes unproven Limited IT support Resources unavailable Task can be overwhelming making digital content more accessible and useful to researchers Systems not interoperable Heterogeneous applications/platforms Lack of commons standards Non-elastic compute capability source: DuraCloud presentation by Michele Kimpton, Director DuraSpace Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • DuraCloud Amazo EMC source: DuraCloud presentation by Michele Kimpton, Director DuraSpace Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • DuraCloud Services on top of content stored in the cloud Search Aggregation Streaming Migration Hosting repositories Use Cases: DuraCloud with Cloud Storage DuraCloud with Cloud Compute Underlying software: Open core: open source (Apache license) core components available for others to build on and run Architecture to create cloud networks: public, private, university consortia source: DuraCloud presentation by Michele Kimpton, Director DuraSpace Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • Existing Semantic Digital Libraries Solutions SIMILE Greenstone DELOS BRICKS DuraSpace: FEDORA, DSpace, Mulgara JeromeDL Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • Fedora Semantic Digital Libraries enable Scholarly and Scientific Workbenches Data Curation, Linking, Publishing “Web 2.0” Collaborative Repositories Integrated Knowledge Spaces blog and wiki Copyright @ Fedora Commons
  • The Flexible Extensible Digital Object Repository Architecture (Fedora) Project - a Brief History 2001 2005 2007 2012+ Major Mellon Mellon Moore Partners Funders Foundation Foundation Foundation Donors Copyright @ Fedora Commons
  • Fedora - Technology Integration Information Networks REPOSITORY Digital Objects Contextualization Manage Relationships SEMANTIC Access Query Versioning Inference Storage ENTERPRISE PRESERVATION Workflow Integrity Check Messaging Monitoring Transactions Alerting Replication Migration Copyright @ Fedora Commons
  • Fedora Digital Objects Flexible object model can support Documents, articles, journals Electronic Scholarly Texts Digital Images Complex multimedia publications Datasets Metadata Learning objects More… Create “networks” of objects using RDF Define object relationships and other properties via RDF Collection/member; part/whole; etc. Copyright @ Fedora Commons
  • Fedora and Semantic Technologies A natural model for exposing repository as network of objects Object-to-object relationships Relationships to external entities Query the graph; traversal to discover related stuff Indexing based on generalizable data model Graph-based data model is a common reduction Avoid fixed schema problems and metadata mud wrestling Extensible enrichment of object descriptions Keep overlaying statements from multiple ontologies Organic evolution Powerful queries and inference for repository management Transitive relationships among objects Dependency analysis; Detection/Extraction of sub-graphs Provenance of disseminations Copyright @ Fedora Commons
  • Digital Objects contain their RDF assertions Assert relationships from Fedora base ontology Collection – member Whole – part Equivalence Description Of More… Assert relationships/properties from community ontologies isAnnotationOf isRecommendedBy isCertifiedBy More …. Copyright @ Fedora Commons
  • Example: Copyright @ Fedora Commons
  • Use Case: scholarly objects and annotation in the humanities scholarly objects PID-2 Letter PID-11 annotationOf hasPart PID-3 ntext has desCo Pa provi rtD PID-10 ia gra PID-1 m amazon e-commerce Service museum and library objects commercial web content Copyright @ Fedora Commons
  • Use Case: scholarly objects and annotation in the humanities yy:certifies URI-55 URI-100 s scholarly objects nd me ec om xx:r PID-2 Letter PID-11 annotationOf hasPart PID-3 ntext has desCo Pa provi rtD PID-10 ia gra PID-1 m amazon e-commerce Service museum and library objects commercial web content Copyright @ Fedora Commons
  • Fedora RDF-based Resource Index (RI) NOT the core object store - RI is a graph-based index of the repository Automatic, incremental indexing into triplestore Search/query the repository via Fedora RI Query Interface Digital Object Store RDF Index of Repository RDF datastream Fedora object properties DC datastream Copyright @ Fedora Commons
  • RI Graph - view 1 (abbreviated) … Copyright @ Fedora Commons
  • RI Graph - view 2 (abbreviated) … Copyright @ Fedora Commons
  • The Triplestore Challenge Scalability MPTStore – NSDL has tested to 334M triples Mulgara – targeting 10 billion by 2009 Performance Jena - easy to get out of memory Sesame Native - slow for complex queries MPTStore Very fast for SPO queries (limited support for complex queries) Add/modify significantly faster than Kowari Mulgara Fork of Kowari; complex queries; models; inference Major bug fixes to fix stability and corruption problems XA2 transactions Plans support for billions of triples Copyright @ Fedora Commons
  • Fedora Repository – Notable Features Generic Digital Object Model Automatic content versioning and audit trail Web Service Interfaces (REST and SOAP) Authentication Authorization Flexible fine-grained policy enforcement Built-in support for Extensible Access Control Markup Language (XACML) RDF Each object contains its own RDF assertions Repository-wide index of all object (RDF triplestore) Self-healing – rebuild repository via digital object source files Copyright @ Fedora Commons
  • PLoS ONE and Topaz Open Access Publishing and Collaboration Copyright @ Fedora Commons
  • National Science Digital Library (NSDL) Copyright @ Fedora Commons
  • What is NSDL committed to? NCore as a platform for a collaborative, contributory semantic digital library Supporting communities across the full range of science, technology, engineering and mathematics research, learning and education Supporting the creation of context around library resources to enhance discovery, use, and understanding Copyright @ Fedora Commons
  • Network Overlay View User View API/UI Repository View with Relations & Annotations Resources on the Web Copyright @ Fedora Commons
  • NSDL Semantic Digital Library repository requirements Supports storing both content and metadata Allows arbitrary relationships among resource and metadata objects: organization, annotation, citation Accessible through web service architecture of remixable data sources and transformations Copyright @ Fedora Commons
  • NSDL Data Repository (NDR) Implemented in Fedora 2.2 with MPTStore Moderately large 6.2 million digital objects 334 million RDF triples Digital Objects Resources Metadata Agents Metadata providers Aggregators REST API and authentication In production at nsdl.org Copyright @ Fedora Commons
  • NSDL as Semantic Digital Library: collaboration, context, and contribution Platform: Fedora repository and services Applications: Solution 1: Leverage the existing successful models: blogs, wikis, bookmarking/tagging Solution 2: Leverage the existing software: WordPress, MediaWiki, Connotea, Sakai Solution 3: Engage with partners and the broader community to build applications to the platform Copyright @ Fedora Commons
  • Expert Voices NSDL Blogosphere (http://expertvoices.nsdl.org) Topic-based discussions (e.g. forensics) linked to related library resources A way for NSDL community members to become NSDL contributors of resources, questions, reviews, annotations, metadata Technology: Wordpress-based multi-user multi-blog application (open source, plug-in architecture) Owner controls publication of entries as NSDL resources and visibility of comments (NSDL middleware and Shibboleth) Blog Entries: linked references to NSDL library resources Copyright @ Fedora Commons
  • NSDL Wiki NSDL Wikispace (http://wiki.nsdl.org) Resource pages organizing and annotating existing library resources: Classic Articles in Context An easy way to create new library resources Technology: MediaWiki (code behind Wikipedia - open source, plug-in architecture) Editor controls publication of entries as NSDL resources (NSDL middleware and Shibboleth) Wiki Entries: linked references to NSDL library resources simple Dublin Core metadata about wiki pages and library resources Copyright @ Fedora Commons
  • Create Copyright @ Fedora Commons
  • Add References Copyright @ Fedora Commons
  • Annotate Copyright @ Fedora Commons
  • Describe Contribute Copyright @ Fedora Commons
  • Annotate Aggregate Relate Copyright @ Fedora Commons
  • NSDL 2.0 and the Semantic Web NSDL 2.0 applications situate resources in context, aiding both discovery and use Users become contributors, adding new resources, ratings, annotations, and organizational structure – frequently as a side effect of using the library Fedora-based semantic web technology organizes resources, ties context to content, maintains provenance, enables discovery, empowers the user, and powers the library Copyright @ Fedora Commons
  • Fedora References Fedora Web Site: http://www.fedora-commons.org PLoS One: http://www.plosone.org Topaz Project: http://www.topazproject.org/trac/ NSDL Website: http://nsdl.org NCore Platform Documentation: http://ncore.nsdl.org Copyright @ Fedora Commons
  • Existing Semantic Digital Libraries Solutions SIMILE Greenstone DELOS BRICKS DuraSpace: FEDORA, DSpace, Mulgara JeromeDL Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • Existing Semantic Digital Library Systems SIMILE extends and leverages DSpace, seeking to enhance interoperability among digital assets, schemata, metadata, and services Greenstone an open source suite of software for building and distributing digital library collections DELOS EU Network of Excellence in Digital Libraries; helps to conduct and share results of research on next generation technologies for digital libraries. BRICKS aims at establishing the organizational and technological foundations for a digital library network in order to share knowledge and resources in the cultural heritage domain. DuraSpace (FEDORA, DSpace, Mulgara) provides leadership and innovation in open source technologies for global communities who manage, preserve, and provide access to digital content JeromeDL a social semantic digital library makes use of Semantic Web and Social Networking technologies to enhance both interoperability and usability Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • Outline JeromeDL - Overview, Motivation and Architecture JeromeDL - Semantic Services JeromeDL - Social Services JeromeDL - Ontologies Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • JeromeDL - Overview Joint effort of DERI, National University of Ireland, Galway Gdansk University of Technology, Poland Knowledge Hives sp. z o.o., Poland Distributed under BSD Open Source license Instances all over the world: Ireland, Poland, Brazil, Italy, Mexico, India, Korea Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • JeromeDL - Features interconnection of meaningful resource description of with social media enhanced personalized search facility integrated social networking with user profiling extensible access control based on social networks collaborative browsing and filtering dynamic collections integration with Web 2.0 services Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • JeromeDL - Motivation How to integrate and search information from different bibliographic sources? How to share and interconnect knowledge among people? Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • JeromeDL - Motivation Use Cases Librarians support for rich metadata (MARC21) in uploading resources, accessing bibliographic information and searching persistent identifiers Scientists easy publishing (designed as a institute/university digital library) creating hierarchical networks of digital libraries support for accessing, sharing and searching using bibliography metadata (BibTeX) Everyone simple search (incl. natural language queries) community-aware information sharing and browsing, support for internationalization Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • JeromeDL - Motivation Support for different kinds of bibliographic metadata, like: DublinCore, BibTeX and MARC21 at the same time making use of existing rich sources of bibliographic descriptions (like MARC21) created by human Support users and communities users have control over their profile information community-aware profiles are integrated with bibliographic descriptions support for community generated knowledge Deliver communication between instances P2P mode for searching and users authentication hierarchical model for browsing Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • Metadata and Services in JeromeDL Collaborative Collaborative Filtering Browsing Community Social Driven Services Taxonomies comments Tagging Blogging DMoz Mediation Natural Language Services Query Template Ontologized Semantic Metadata WordNet Identity Filtering and Services Management Browsing KOS Distributed Search Digital resource Classic Library resource Security & Full-text Services Resources Access Control Indexing and Search Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • Outline JeromeDL - Overview, Motivation and Architecture JeromeDL - Semantic Services JeromeDL - Social Services JeromeDL - Ontologies Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • Semantic Metadata and Services Collaborative Collaborative Filtering Browsing Community Social Driven Services Taxonomies comments Tagging Blogging DMoz Mediation Natural Language Services Query Template Ontologized Semantic Metadata WordNet Identity Filtering and Services Management Browsing KOS Distributed Search Digital resource Classic Library resource Security & Full-text Services Resources Access Control Indexing and Search Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • Creating Semantics Each resource is described with: structure annotations - chapters, media parts, attachments basic bibliographic annotations knowledge organization systems - keywords, categories other semantic relations social annotations Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • API for KOS in RDF Unified Java and REST API for accessing KOS Representing complete KOS in RDF SKOS WordNet in OWL/RDF TagOntology Support for: taxonomies (UDC, DDC, LoC, ACM, DMoz, PKT) thesauri (WordNet, OpenThesaurus) free tagging Easily extensible: with new taxonomies (RDF or flat file source) thesauri in RDF (WordNet in OWL/RDF ontology) Fulltext indexing for faster filtering and retrieval Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • Browsing on semantics TagsTreeMaps filtering based on clustered tags using treemaps to present the tag space zoomable interface paradigm MultiBeeBrowse collaborative browsing allows to perform complex browsing operations user can overview browsing context and look up browsing history Exhibit (SIMILE, MIT) powerful faceted filtering Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • TagsTreeMaps - Filtering with hierarchical tags Problems with Tag Clouds: information overload (for large tag clouds) cannot carry structure and/or semantics querying model: only conjunctive queries Solution: limits the information overload: clustering tagging space, limiting popularity range zoomable browser on the tagging space selecting multiple tags: fulltext filtering - easy highlight matching tags, optional conjunctive (AND) and union (OR) mode defined interfaces for delivering processors in the pipeline (e.g., clustering, filtering, coloring) Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • TagsTreeMaps - Filtering with hierarchical tags Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • TagsTreeMaps - Filtering with hierarchical tags Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • TagsTreeMaps - Filtering with hierarchical tags Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • TagsTreeMaps - Filtering with hierarchical tags Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • TagsTreeMaps - Filtering with hierarchical tags Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • TagsTreeMaps - Filtering with hierarchical tags Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • TagsTreeMaps - Filtering with hierarchical tags Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • TagsTreeMaps - Filtering with hierarchical tags Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • TagsTreeMaps - Filtering with hierarchical tags Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • TagsTreeMaps - Filtering with hierarchical tags Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • TagsTreeMaps - Filtering with hierarchical tags Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • TagsTreeMaps - Filtering with hierarchical tags Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • TagsTreeMaps - Filtering with hierarchical tags Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • MultiBeeBrowse - Browsing the data graph – why? The search does not end on a (long) list of results The results are not a list (!) but a graph „Lost in hyperspace” A need for unified UI and services for filter/narrow and browse/expand services Share browsing experience – navigate collaboratively Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • MultiBeeBrowse - Adaptive Browsing Presenting results human-readable names of concepts type-specific rendering limiting information overload with stretch-text Refining queries in-situ each concept is seed to new query different actions based on concept type Suggesting properties and concepts most frequently used recently used Accessible predicated names human-readable names of properties support for inverted properties Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • MultiBeeBrowse - Collaborative Browsing Nowadays people share: photos, music, links, etc. - why not queries ? Collaborative filtering solution adapted for sharing browsing experience based on Social Semantic Collaborative Filtering service users can tag/annotate their queries users can share queries with their friends Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • MultiBeeBrowse - Zoomable Browsing Context Helping users with different problems Finding results Going back and forth in the refinement process Overview of current browsing context Replaying previous queries 4 views: Basic browsing view Structured history view HoneyComb view Life-long history view Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • MultiBeeBrowse - Basic Browsing View Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • MultiBeeBrowse - Basic Browsing View Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • MultiBeeBrowse - Basic Browsing View Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • MultiBeeBrowse - Structured History View Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • MultiBeeBrowse - Structured History View Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • MultiBeeBrowse - Structured History View Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • MultiBeeBrowse - Structured History View Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • MultiBeeBrowse - Structured History View Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • MultiBeeBrowse - HoneyComb View Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • MultiBeeBrowse - HoneyComb View Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • MultiBeeBrowse - HoneyComb View Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • MultiBeeBrowse - HoneyComb View Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • MultiBeeBrowse - HoneyComb View Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • MultiBeeBrowse - Life-long History View Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • MultiBeeBrowse - Life-long History View Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • Search based on semantics Dynamic Collections specified with triples filter or RDF query can be arranged in a tree structure easily extensible Resource-based Recommendations customizable view of recommendations extensible with new similarity plugins Natural Language Query Templates allows to perform complex queries using natural language can be created and modified based on the needs of users easily internationalized Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • Dynamic Collections RDF Query Triples Filters Tree structure Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • Dynamic Collections RDF Query Triples Filters Tree structure Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • Dynamic Collections RDF Query Triples Filters Tree structure Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • Dynamic Collections RDF Query Triples Filters Tree structure Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • Resource-based Recommendations Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • Resource-based Recommendations Library resource Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • Resource-based Recommendations hasKeyword ... hasCreator Library resource hasDomain Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • Resource-based Recommendations A hasKeyword B ... C hasCreator Library resource D E hasDomain F G Step 1: Find similar resources Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • Resource-based Recommendations hasKeyword ... hasCreator Library resource hasDomain ABE A E Step 1: Find similar Step 2: Rank and filter resources according to user’s settings Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • Resource-based Recommendations hasKeyword ... hasCreator Library resource hasDomain ABE A E summary (max. 3) Step 1: Find similar Step 2: Rank and filter resources according to user’s settings Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • Natural language templates Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • Natural language templates Find articles related to mission in the context of aerospace Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • Natural language templates Find articles related to mission in the context of aerospace Query Templates (Regular ... Expressions) English Portuguese Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • Natural language templates Find articles related to mission in the context of aerospace Query Templates (Regular ... Expressions) English Portuguese Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • Natural language templates Find articles related to mission in the context of aerospace Query Templates (Regular ... Expressions) English Portuguese SELECT * FROM .... mission Aerospace skos:narrow er skos:related Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • Natural language templates Find articles related to mission in the context of aerospace Query Templates (Regular ... Expressions) English Portuguese SELECT * FROM .... mission Aerospace skos:narrow er skos:related marcont:hasKeyword marcont:hasDomain results Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • Extensible Access Control Identity management based on social networks support for social networking metadata standard (FOAF) users and authors are part of a community Access control module apply access control licenses to resources and services defines atomic protections based on IP or position in the social network easily extensible Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • Extensible Access Control Trigger Trigger Trigger emits notifies Licensor Source Event Listener foaf:Agent issues by Licensed has license License belongs to Licensee Entity has inherited license is denied first Licensed is in Licensed denies for xsd:boolean Access Service Resource allows for is conjunctive is conjunctive is active Propagation Action Modify State has condition Social IP Condition Create Condition Condition Only Descends With Descends Resource Only Only Children With Children has rule Social Rule IP Rule Remove Rule Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • Extensible Access Control Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • Extensible Access Control Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • Flexible access control Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • Access to semantics Exposing underlying semantics rendering RDF in various flavors exposing semantics in JSON and SIOC syndication feeds (RSS) Querying semantic database RDF query (SPARQL) endpoint OAI-PMH Open Search Delivering metadata to other services MarcOnt Mediation Services Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • MarcOnt Initiative – Overview Motivation provide set of tools for collaborative ontology development MarcOnt Initiative goals: create a framework for collaborative ontology improvement (E-learning) provide domain experts with tools to share their knowledge offer tools for data mediation between different data formats Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • MarcOnt Portal and MarcOnt Ontology MarcOnt Ontology: Central point of MarcOnt Initiative Translation and mediation format Continuos collaborative ontology improvement Knowledge from the domain experts MarcOnt Portal (source of knowledge): Suggestions Annotations Versioning Ontology editor Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • MarcOnt Mediation Services for Legacy Metadata Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • Search Beyond one JeromeDL Distributed search Extensible Library Protocol based on HyperCuP P2P infrastructure Federated Search hierarchical order of JeromeDL instances exposing resources bottom-up OAI-PMH harvesting other libraries exposing resources to other libraries Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • Outline JeromeDL - Overview, Motivation and Architecture JeromeDL - Semantic Services JeromeDL - Social Services JeromeDL - Ontologies Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • Social Metadata and Services Collaborative Collaborative Filtering Browsing Community Social Driven Services Taxonomies comments Tagging Blogging DMoz Mediation Natural Language Services Query Template Ontologized Semantic Metadata WordNet Identity Filtering and Services Management Browsing KOS Distributed Search Digital resource Classic Library resource Security & Full-text Services Resources Access Control Indexing and Search Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • Social Services in JeromeDL Involve users into sharing knowledge Blogs – comments and discussions about documents and resources Tagging – collaborative classification Wikis – collaboratively edited additional descriptions, such as summaries and interesting facts Preserve knowledge for future use users can learn from experience of others instantly recommend new, interesting resources based on users’ profiles Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • FOAF - Describing Social Networks FOAF - stands for Friend-of-a-Friend Defines properties for a person (but it does not have to be a person, can be an “agent”) Does not only have to contain one person per file Can build a network of people with foaf:knows links FOAF can be easily extended to meet requirements, as in the case of FOAFRealm for identity management… Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • Identity management with FOAFRealm Identity defined with extended FOAFRealm Service FOAF metadata FOAF-webapp Policies expressed by social FOAF Realm and Valve networking FOAF Manage Distance between owner and requester HyperCuP P2P RDF Storage Friendship level between owner and requester, calculated across digraph of social network Support for single registration and sign on Distributed identity management with HyperCuP (“D- FOAF”) FOAFRealm is currently implemented as a plugin for Tomcat (Realm/Valve implementation), with PHP and .NET versions coming soon Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • Social Semantic Collaborative Filtering Why? The bottom-line of acquiring knowledge: informal communication (“word of mouth”) How? Everyone classifies (filters) the information in bookmark folders (user-oriented taxonomy) Peers share (collaborate over) the information (community- driven taxonomy) Result? Knowledge “flows“ from the expert through the social network to the user System amass a lot of information on user/community profile (context) Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • Social Semantic Collaborative Filtering Problems? The horizon of a social network (2-3 degrees of separation) How to handle fine-grained information (blogs, wikis, etc.) Solutions? Inference engine to suggest knowledge from the outskirts of the social network Support for SIOC metadata: SIOC browser in SSCF Annotations and evaluations of “local” resources Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • What is SSCF Goal: to enhance individual bookmarks with shared knowledge within a community Users annotate catalogues of bookmarks with semantic information taken from DMoz or WordNet vocabularies Catalogs can include (transclusion) friend's catalogues Access to catalogues can be restricted with social networking-based polices SSCF delivers: Community-oriented, semantically-rich taxonomies Information about a user's interest Flows of expertise from the domain expert Recommendations based on users previous actions Support for SIOC metadata Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • Social Semantic Collaborative Filtering Keyword A Tag 3 Annotated directories Keyword B Resource R1 Taxonomies Semantic Tags Tag 2 Resource R2 Directory Taxonomy A Tagged resources Resource R3 Tag 1 Recommendations Tag 2 based on users’ Prolog Engine profile/interest Resource R3 Prolog engine Resource R2 Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • Social Semantic Collaborative Filtering Alice 80% Bibliographic Ontologies Mediation Bob Caroline 30% Artificial Digital Intelligence Libraries Distributed Systems Damian Eric Libraries Semantic [2/80%] Web P2P Systems Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • Towards Library 2.0 Users become active producers of the content and metadata JeromeDL turns a single resources into a blog post users can annotate it users can rank it metadata about user annotations is exported in SIOC Community annotations for multimedia (alpha) region of interest (ROI) tagging in photos time-tagging of video streams Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • Support for online communities in SSCF Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • Support for online communities in SSCF Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • Outline JeromeDL - Overview, Motivation and Architecture JeromeDL - Semantic Services JeromeDL - Social Services JeromeDL - Ontologies Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • Structure ontology in JeromeDL Dynamic Dynamic Collection xsd:boolean Collection Type has collection type is visible is size with sub collections has specification Context xsd:string xsd:datetime Submission Status has submission status Type has context has version comment has version date has previous version has upload date To Be Submitted Information Computed Submitted Published xsd:integer Accepted has version number Object Resource invokes service acts on Resource Aggregation xsd:string Service has parts [REST service] has part URI has pages has version creator has representation is uploaded by published at foaf:Person Resource Binary Resource has simpler representation Part Media Resource Media Chapter Page Image Part Resource Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • MarcOnt Bibliographic Ontology foaf:Agent has affiliation Organization (foaf:Person) has reviewer is peer of Review sioc:Post has creator has review date (has human creator) organized by xsd:date Access Medium has review has review comment has date xsd:string has original publication medium has abstract has identifier has description has note has URL s3b-tag:Tagging has title has tagging has URL Resource presented at Event has domain has month has keyword has month has pages has topic xsd:int skos:Concept has address is part of Coverage adr:Address has related event has source published in has coverage Publication has publisher has related event Medium Social Website Book Booklet Proceedings Medium Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • SSCF ontology s3b-tag:Term sioc:Post xsd:int xsd:date s3b-tag:has term annotates resource hits issue date Web created by foaf:Person Resource Resource is in foaf:knows Imported Browsing is evaluated with Resource Query sioc:has_creator importedFrom imported from Directory Evaluation xfoaf:trust level imported from accessibleTo value URI is in suggested xsd:string removed suggested xsd:float [FOAFRealm-Rule] Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • S3B Tagging Ontology date_time title description URI hasTime dc:title dc:description linksTo hasCrossReference Tagging dc:creator Tagger hasActionTerm hasAgentTerm hasClipping hasSettingTerm hasTerm hasObjectTerm hasTagging sioc:related_to Clipping Document Term Excerpt ROI Circle Rectangle ROI ROI Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • Ontologies in JeromeDL Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • JeromeDL - Useful Links home page: http://www.jeromedl.org/ user guide: http://www.jeromedl.org/guide/ movies: http://jeromedl.blip.tv/ ontologies: JeromeDL 2.0: http://www.jeromedl.org/ontology/2.0/ MarcOnt 2.0: http://www.marcont.org/ontology/2.0/ SSCF: http://s3b.corrib.org/sscf/0.2/ FOAFRealm: http://www.foafrealm.org/xfoaf/0.1/ Tagging: http://s3b.corrib.org/tagging/ EAC: http://www.jeromedl.org/eac/1.0/ mailing list: jeromedl-users@lists.sf.net Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • Tutorial: Semantic Digital Libraries Comparison, Evaluation, and the Future Sebastian R. Kruk sebastian.kruk@knowledgehives.com Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • Comparison, Evaluation, and the Future Comparison between existing solutions Evaluation of Semantic DL Technologies Semantic Digital Libraries Scenarios Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • Comparison: General Properties JeromeDL BRICKS Fedora OS Support Any Any Any Hardware 500MB RAM, min 500MB RAM, 500MB RAM, Requirements 128MB HD min 100MB HD min 100MB HD Java 1.5, Tomcat Java 1.5, Tomcat, Software Java 1.4/1.5, 6, Sesame or Kowari/Mulgara or Requirements Jena RDF2Go MPTStore Research Stable Second Production Current Stage version 2.1 / 3.0a Prototype Version 2.2 ~50 monitored; No. Installations 12+ ~8 large # of downloads unmonitored Support Model Open Source Open Source Open Source Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • Comparison: Architectural Aspects JeromeDL BRICKS Fedora Distributed federation via searching (P2P), Fully nameresolver Distribution aggregated decentralized search services; browsing (P2P) Alvis P2P (hierarchical) Medium (main High (core building blocks High repository service Architecture extensible with (many with configurable Granularity modules and Components) modules; loosely plugins) coupled services) Any Sesame- or Any Jena MySQL, Postgres, RDF2Go- DB - Support compliant Oracle, McKoi; compliant backend Kowari/Mulgara backend Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • Comparison: Content & Metadata JeromeDL BRICKS Fedora Content Types All All All JeromeDL Content Models Any Any ontology MarcOnt + Any XML Metadata Any RDF/S & extensions Schema, RDF/S Schema OWL schema (SKOS, SIOC, ...) & OWL schema Full-text, Filed- Field Search, Search, Ontology-based Full-text, Field- Ontology-based, (itql, rdql, sparql, Search, Query types NL Query spo), Ontology-based Templates, Open Full-Text (Lucene (sparql) Search, SPARQL or Zebra backed endpoint service) Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • Comparison: Security & DRM Aspects JeromeDL BRICKS Fedora Security Model FOAFRealm RBAC XACML Policy Object, Resource with Component, Datastream, Granularity aggregation Method, Object Dissemination model method Extensible Access Control DRM DRM Model model + Fair use MPEG-21 REL Datastreams DRM under development DRM Enabling Watermarking Tool Support Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • Semantic Aspects & Community Features JeromeDL BRICKS Fedora Recommendation Configurable Holding pattern; Reasoning engine based on inference engine look to Mulgara; Prolog Free tagging, Annotation middleware/apps ROI and Time- Tagging middleware (e.g., NSDL/NDR; tagging, component PLoSONE/Topaz) Taxonomy-based Taxonomies Any (JOnto) Any Any Knowledge via middleware via middleware SSCF component Sharing upon BRICKS upon Fedora SIOC and FOAF Communities compliance Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • Overall Features Comparison Semantic Feat. Social Feat. Recommend. Out-of-Box Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • Comparison, Evaluation, and the Future Comparison between existing solutions Evaluation of Semantic DL Technologies Semantic Digital Libraries Scenarios Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • Evaluation Do the social and semantic services increase the quality of the answers provided by the users in response to given problems? Do the social and semantic services increase overall satisfaction of using the digital library? Which services, i.e., semantic, social, or recommendations, are found to be most useful by the end users? Do the social and semantic service improve memorizing of information? Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • Semantic DL - Evaluation Results Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • Semantic DL - Evaluation Results Comparing information discovery in JeromeDL and DSpace Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • Semantic DL - Evaluation Results Comparing information discovery in JeromeDL and DSpace Similar precision Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • Semantic DL - Evaluation Results Comparing information discovery in JeromeDL and DSpace Similar precision Improved recall JeromeDL (%) DSpace (%) 17.50 15.84 16.22 7.32 14.15 4.62 -2 ÷ 2 0÷2 0÷1 Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • Semantic DL - Evaluation Results Comparing information discovery in JeromeDL and DSpace Similar precision Improved recall Improved user satisfaction 30 24 18.38 16.69 18 14.38 12 14.36 14.07 6.62 6.77 5.92 6 9.64 9.36 5.36 0 3.07 -6 -12 -18 ease of use simplicity intuitiveness interestingness attractiveness usefulness ρ(impression) Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • Semantic DL - Evaluation Results Comparing information discovery in JeromeDL and DSpace Similar precision Improved recall Improved user satisfaction 30 24.00 24 18.38 16.69 18 14.38 14.85 12 14.36 14.07 15.29 5.92 6.62 6.77 12.43 6 9.64 9.36 5.36 0 3.07 -13.79 -9.29 -6 -12 -12.85 -18 -14.85 ease of use simplicity intuitiveness interestingness attractiveness usefulness ρ(impression) Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • Semantic DL - Evaluation Results Comparing information discovery in JeromeDL and DSpace Similar precision Improved recall Improved user satisfaction 30 24.00 22.62 24 18.38 16.69 24.14 16.99 18 14.38 14.85 12 15.29 9.92 15.10 14.36 14.07 6.62 6.77 6.46 5.92 12.43 6 9.64 9.36 5.36 4.86 4.21 0 3.07 -13.79 -9.29 -6 -12 -12.85 -18 -14.85 ease of use simplicity intuitiveness interestingness attractiveness usefulness ρ(impression) Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • Semantic DL - Evaluation Results Comparing information discovery in JeromeDL and DSpace Similar precision Improved recall Improved user satisfaction Improved retention 29.11 2.8 2.78 21.11 2.1 2.44 10.89 1.4 2.00 -1.00 0.7 0 -17.22 Quality of answers ease of understanding ease of execution intuitiveness Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • Semantic DL - Evaluation Results Comparing information discovery in JeromeDL and DSpace 84.62% 46.15% Would you like to continue using this library? Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • Which features did you like best ? Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • Which features did you like best ? blog ranking 2.63% 2.63% sscf recommendations 2.63% sscf 10.53% resource bookmarks recommendations 18.42% 5.26% MBB 2.63% Exhibit 2.63% TTM 7.89% search 23.68% NLQ 7.89% advanced search 13.16% Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • Comparison, Evaluation, and the Future Comparison between existing solutions Evaluation of Semantic DL Technologies Semantic Digital Libraries Scenarios Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • Geo, Time, and Machine Tagging Geo-tagging for resources with a specific geographical location Time-tagging – community driven process of assigning auxiliary multimedia content Machine-tagging – ability to mix structured annotations into tags ROI-tagging: Regions of interest ERP game Asynchronous version with annealing of annotations for less frequently visited libraries Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • SDL in eLearning One of potential sources of future e-Learning systems On the verge between formal (libraries) and informal (communities) learning sources Semantic interoperability with Learning Management Systems Improve knowledge creation, delivery and sharing Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • SDL in Future Museums Museums have physical objects Should bind digital annotations with physical objects Real-virtual tours Start with real, guided tour Ubiquitous browse through context information Locate other exhibitions in the vicinity Share your knowledge and experience with others, leave bread-crumbs for others Get the most of the exhibition during your visit Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • Special Thanks to Stefan Decker, Henryk Krawczyk, Daniel Schwabe, Bernhard Haslhofer, Predrag Knežević, Sandy Payette, Dean Krafft, Bill McDaniel, Tomasz Woroniecki, and Mariusz Cygan Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • Discussion – Feedback More info at: http://semdl.corrib.org/Tutorial/ http://semdl.corrib.org/Book/ Don’t forget to sign up to: semdl@googlegroups.com Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • Hands-on Session Installing and using JeromeDL Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com
  • Installing JeromeDL Make sure you have Java (JDK, version 5 or higher) installed on your computer or go to: http://java.sun.com/javase/downloads/index.jsp Download JeromeDL installer from http:// sourceforge.net/projects/jeromedl/ or ask me for the USB stick Install and run JeromeDL, than go to http://localhost:8080/jeromedl/ Feedback: jeromedl-users@list.sf.net opensource@lists.knowledgehives.com Copyright @ KnowledgeHives.com