Science g8 front matters tg

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  • 1. 8 Teacher’s Guide
  • 2. ii Science – Grade 8 Learner’s Material First Edition, 2013 ISBN: ___________ Republic Act 8293, section 176 states that: No copyright shall subsist in any work of the Government of the Philippines. However, prior approval of the government agency or office wherein the work is created shall be necessary for exploitation of such work for profit. Such agency or office may, among other things, impose as a condition the payment of royalties. The borrowed materials (i.e., songs, stories, poems, pictures, photos, brand names, trademarks, etc.) included in this book are owned by their respective copyright holders. The publisher and authors do not represent nor claim ownership over them. Printed in the Philippines by ____________ Department of Education-Instructional Materials Council Secretariat (DepEd-IMCS) Office Address: 2 nd Floor Dorm G, Philsports Complex, Meralco Avenue, Pasig City, Philippines 1600 Telefax: (02) 634-1054, 634-1072 E-mail Address: imcsetd@yahoo.com Development Team of the Learner’s Material Authors: Pia C. Campo, May R. Chavez, Maria Helen D.H. Catalan, Ph.D., Leticia V. Catris, Ph.D., Marlene B. Ferido, Ph.D., Ian Kendrich C. Fontanilla, Ph.D., Jacqueline Rose M. Gutierrez, Shirley R. Jusayan, Michael Anthony B. Mantala, Cerilina M. Maramag, Marie Paz E. Morales, Eligio C. Obille, Jr., Digna Paningbatan, Genevieve Faye Pasamonte, Ma. Dulcelina O. Sebastian, Rolando M. Tan, and Rodolfo S. Treyes, Ph.D. Reviewers: Ernelea P. Cao, Ph.D., Josefina Ll. Pabellon, Ph.D., Ma. Cristina D. Padolina, Ph.D., Risa L. Reyes, Ph.D., and Merle C. Tan, Ph.D. Illustrators: Alvin J. Encarnacion, Ma. Laura V. Ginoy, Rizaldo Ramoncito S. Saliva, Andrew F. Torres Layout Artist: Cecile N. Sales
  • 3. iii Page Module 1. Forces and Motion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Activity 1: Forces on objects at rest . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Activity 2: Balance of forces. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Activity 3: Investigating inertia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Activity 4: Force and acceleration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Activity 5: Action-Reaction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Module 2. Work and Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Activity 1: Is there work done? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Activity 2: Rolling toy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 Activity 3: How POWER-ful am I? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Module 3. Heat and Temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 Activity 1: Explaining hotness or coldness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 Activity 2: Dye in water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 Activity 3.1: What happens when ice melts? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 Activity 3.2: What happens to the temperature of water as it boils?. 33 Activity 4: What is the relationship between the mass of a material and the amount of heat it can transfer?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 Activity 5: Comparing heat capacities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 Module 4. Electricity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 Activity 1: Current and voltage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 Activity 2: Current and resistance . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 Activity 3: What’s the connection? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 Activity 4: Stay safe! . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 Module 5. Sounds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 Activity 1: The dancing salt and the moving beads!. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 Activity 2: Characteristics of waves: Comparing longitudinal and and transverse waves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 Activity 3: Sound race… Where does sound travel fastest? . . . . . . . . 52 Activity 4: Chimes… Chimes… Chimes… . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . 52 Activity 5: Faster sound… In hotter or cooler? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 Activity 6: Reflecting and refracting sound. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
  • 4. iv Module 6. Colors of Light . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 Activity 1: Refraction of light . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 Activity 2: The colors of the rainbow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 Activity 3: Red versus violet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 Activity 4: Which color has the MOST energy? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 Activity 5: The color spectrum wheel revisited . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 Module 1. Earthquakes and Faults . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 Activity 1: A fault-y setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 Activity 2: Stick ‘n’ slip . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 Activity 3: Stick ‘n’ shake . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 Activity 4: Where does an earthquake start . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 Activity 5: Tsunami! . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 Module 2. Understanding Typhoons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 Activity 1: Plotting the PAR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92 Activity 2: Tracking a tropical cyclone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 Activity 3: Dissecting a tropical cyclone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99 Module 3. Comets, Asteroids, and Meteors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 Activity 1: What happens when a comet or an asteroid hits Earth . . 105 Activity 2: Meteoroid, meteor, and meteorite: How are they related?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108 Activity 3: Do superstitions about comets, asteroids, and meteors have scientific basis? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110 Module 1. The Particle Nature of Matter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117 Activity 1: Which is matter, which is not? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119 Activity 2: What is matter made of? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121 Activity 3: Are the particles of matter moving? What is between them? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122
  • 5. v Activity 4: What changes take place when water is left in an open container? In a closed container? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125 Activity 5: What changes take place when water is heated or cooled? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126 Activity 6: What changes take place when ice turns into liquid water? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128 Module 2. Atoms: Inside Out . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131 Activity 1: “Charge” it to experience! . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134 Activity 2: The big difference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136 Activity 3: Small but terrible . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137 Activity 4: What’s in a number?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140 Module 3. Periodic Table of Elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145 Activity 1: Tracking the path and constructing the Periodic Table . . . 147 Activity 2: Metal… Metal: How reactive are you? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151 Appendix: Element Cards for Activity 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155 Module 1. Biodiversity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169 Activity 1: What’s in a name? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170 Activity 2: How do bacteria in yogurt look like? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173 Alternate Activity: How do bacteria in fermented milk look like. . . . 174 Activity 3: What can you do to prevent dengue?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182 Activity 4: What is the importance of biodiversity to ecosystems . . . 186 Activity 5: I create the future . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188 Module 2. Interactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199 Activity 1: How do you indentify the components of a food chain in an ecosystem? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200 Activity 2: Making food webs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202 Activity 3: Meat eaters vs. plant eaters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203
  • 6. vi Module 3. The Digestive System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205 Activity 1: Part A. A gusty game . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206 Activity 1: Part B. A sweet break! . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 210 Activity 2: How do enzymes affect digestion? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211 Activity 3: How does pH affect enzyme activity? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213 Activity 4: A journey into the digestive system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 214 Module 4. Nutrition and Wellness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217 Activity 1: Am I eating right? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 218 Activity 2: What happens when nutritional needs are not adequately met? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219 Activity 3: Using essential concepts in nutrition to planning a menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220 Module 5. Cellular Reproduction and Genetics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223 Activity 1: Observing mitosis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223 Activity 2: Comparing mitosis and meisosis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224 Activity 3: Tossing coins and probability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225 Activity 4: Comparing genotypic and phenotypic ratios for a typical Mendelian trait . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 226 Activity 5: Filling up the Punnett square for a dihybrid cross . . . . . . 227 Activity 6: Phenotypes and genotypes in incomplete dominance. . . . 229 Activity 7: Inferring genotypes of ABO blood types based on the parental blood types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 229