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Science – Grade 8
First Edition, 2013
Republic Act 8293, section 176 states that: No copyright shall subsist in any work
of the Government of the Philippines. However, prior approval of the government agency or
office wherein the work is created shall be necessary for exploitation of such work for profit.
Such agency or office may, among other things, impose as a condition the payment of
The borrowed materials (i.e., songs, stories, poems, pictures, photos, brand names,
trademarks, etc.) included in this book are owned by their respective copyright holders. The
publisher and authors do not represent nor claim ownership over them.
Printed in the Philippines by ____________
Department of Education-Instructional Materials Council Secretariat (DepEd-IMCS)
Office Address: 2
Floor Dorm G, Philsports Complex, Meralco Avenue,
Pasig City, Philippines 1600
Telefax: (02) 634-1054, 634-1072
E-mail Address: firstname.lastname@example.org
Development Team of the Learner’s Material
Authors: Pia C. Campo, May R. Chavez, Maria Helen D.H. Catalan, Ph.D., Leticia V.
Catris, Ph.D., Marlene B. Ferido, Ph.D., Ian Kendrich C. Fontanilla, Ph.D., Jacqueline
Rose M. Gutierrez, Shirley R. Jusayan, Michael Anthony B. Mantala, Cerilina M.
Maramag, Marie Paz E. Morales, Eligio C. Obille, Jr., Digna Paningbatan, Genevieve
Faye Pasamonte, Ma. Dulcelina O. Sebastian, Rolando M. Tan, and Rodolfo S. Treyes,
Reviewers: Ernelea P. Cao, Ph.D., Josefina Ll. Pabellon, Ph.D., Ma. Cristina D.
Padolina, Ph.D., Risa L. Reyes, Ph.D., and Merle C. Tan, Ph.D.
Illustrators: Alvin J. Encarnacion, Ma. Laura V. Ginoy, Rizaldo Ramoncito S. Saliva,
Andrew F. Torres
Layout Artist: Cecile N. Sales