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Module 2.4 no limits

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    Module 2.4 no limits Module 2.4 no limits Document Transcript

    • No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms i Foreword The Department of Education in the Philippines is committed to providing a quality system of education that prepares young people for participation in Filipino society. This involves providing school experiences that enable learners to reach their potential, and develop the skills, attitudes and abilities they need to respond to the demands of a rapidly changing world. In pursuit of this commitment, a range of initiatives have been undertaken, to ensure equal access to quality education for all learners in Filipino schools. No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms, is a Region XI initiative supported by Basic Education Assistance for Mindanao. It recognizes the crucial role teachers play in maximizing positive learning outcomes for learners. The resource reflects best practice models and focuses on regular teachers as planners and implementers of inclusive learning experiences for learners with a range of abilities. Led and shaped by Technical Working Groups in Region XI, Region XII and the Autonomous Region of Muslim Mindanao, the resource represents the voice of the profession. Leaders from each Region and Division, principals and teachers from regular schools and special education centers, and parents, contributed technical expertise, wrote, edited and critiqued materials. My gratitude to all of them. The culmination of this work is a practical tool encouraging collaboration at all levels towards improvement of educational outcomes for learners with disabilities. The resource supports educators to understand the legislative and ethical frameworks related to inclusive education, and apply it in their everyday work integrate mainstream models of teaching and learning, with special provisions for learners with disabilities access professional learning to increase the effectiveness of teaching and learning for learners with disabilities seek, utilize and maintain collaborative partnerships with stakeholders in the education community I recommend this document to all educators, as a comprehensive guide to quality service provision for learners with disabilities. I encourage its wide use by the whole school community, to enhance their knowledge, skills and capabilities as they work together for better learning opportunities for learners most at risk in our schools. Susana Teresa B. Estigoy BEAM Philippines Project Director June 2007
    • No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms ii Acknowledgments No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms was developed and written as a result of work undertaken by Regions XI, XII and the Autonomous Region of Muslim Mindanao in partnership with BEAM The project was managed by Dr Minerva Fabros – Assistant Chief Elementary Education Department Deborah Moulton – BEAM In-Service Adviser The primary writer of the material was Genevieve Reynolds, Consultant support and disability, Southern Sea & Vines, Department of Education and Children’s Services, South Australia The writer wishes to acknowledge the contributions of Carmen Diamante Carina Frasco Cristeleen Luceros Rosalinda Adlaon Arlyn Lim Djhoane Aguilar Reynante Solitario Design: Genevieve Reynolds Layout: Flordelyn Alagao Artwork: McRobert Nacario Project Support: Cherry May Edison, Dovie June Montañer, Sammy Muda
    • No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms iii Technical working groups Working groups comprising leaders from Regions, Divisions, Districts, Special education centers and schools guided development at each stage with provision of materials, information and editing. DepEd Central Office Mirla Olores – Chief of Special Education Division Region XI Region XII ARMM Minerva Fabros Carmencita Diamante Sara Marie Exala Lorelie Limoran Rosalinda Adlaon Mary Metche Fiel Carina Frasco Mary Glor Tabanao Lucita Payot Richlie Solis Rolando Orbita Cristileen Lucero Vicente Apolinares Amy Malbun Corona Dilangalen Riza Guiana Teofilo Morala Pacita Balabbo Elsa Duran Bai Tusla Cabilo Jelen Maripor Francisca Sabenicio Virginia Amanon Juanita Lee Joseph Pilotos Juliet Sison Teresita Gardonia Pepito Porquez Emerenciana Robin Garilene Agnes Dona-al Estrella Kamed Rahima Salik Armela Bansil Heraton Alang Nora Watamama Patalinang Pangcatan Teachers Over seventy teachers presented classroom perspectives and provided valuable enhancements. Parents The input of Mr & Mrs Cesar Cuyugan is greatly appreciated.
    • No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms iv Context Dr Minerva T Fabros Why has this resource been developed? The increasing enrolment of learners with disabilities in special education (SPED) centers, special classes and regular class settings has signalled a real need to assist regular classroom teachers identify and support these learners. The Department of Education mandates that all learners, including those with disabilities are accorded equal access to quality education. Article 11, Section 1 of the Policies and Guidelines for Special Education Handbook defines special education as ‘the education of persons who are gifted or talented and those who have physical, mental, social and sensory impairment and cultural differences so as to require modifications of the school curricula, programs and special services and physical facilities to develop them to their maximum capacity.’ This resource has a particular focus on inclusive education and learners with disabilities. The project recognizes the importance of the collaborative work of the special education teacher, the regular teacher, school administrator, parents and other stakeholders in improving outcomes for learners with disabilities and specifically focuses on regular teachers in the inclusive setting. It summarizes the responsibilities of leaders and teachers as outlined in Philippine legislative frameworks and examines how leaders and teachers can plan, adapt instruction and work collaboratively to implement the DepEd inclusive education policy. Teachers must be cognizant of learners’ strengths and needs and develop the skills to plan programs accordingly. This resource provides information to assist teachers with the design of inclusive curriculum and use of a range of models supporting learners with disabilities.. It is important to emphasize that some learners benefit from individualized approaches that address their current and future needs. The Individualized Education Plan is the DepEd framework for this purpose, and is provided in this resource. Who is this resource for? The intended audiences for the resource are: Receiving teachers of learners with disabilities or grade level teachers needing additional information to identify the learning needs of others in their classes Leaders who are new to the area of special education or require additional information to support teachers Special education teachers who are specialists in particular areas and need general information about other disabilities, curriculum and ideas Region and Division personnel with responsibility for special education Other stakeholders, volunteers and parents. Leaders and teachers may find some resources and information in the kit useful for sharing with these groups.
    • No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms v What is in this resource? Four sections provide practical information, suggested activities for professional development and an extensive glossary and list of acronyms. An E learning resource is available to support the resouce. Section one, Our work in the Department of Education Legal and ethical aspects of working in DepEd related to special education Roles and responsibilities of DepEd employees Section two, Our work in schools and communities Adult learning, communication and problem solving and their contribution to collaborative relationships Considerations and ideas for positive relationships with families and stakeholders Section three: Our work with learners Inclusive curriculum including teaching methodologies and strategies for working with a range of learners Information and strategies supporting learners with disabilities Section Four- Monitoring and Review Professional learning options Region, Division and school level monitoring processes and templates How can this resource be used? The resource is designed as a ‘front line’ general resource for educators. It allows discreet sections to be provided to schools as required. For example: A teacher may receive a learner with hearing impairment and need some information to assist them to make adjustments until an Individualized Education Plan can be organized. The relevant section can be copied and forwarded. It can also be used as a comprehensive professional learning program in sections or as a whole teacher intervention planning to inform Region, Division, School based action planning a basis for professional discussion and learning with School Based Learning Groups information sharing with families and stakeholders a reference self directed learning with the resource or using the E-Learning CD
    • No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms vi Table of contents Foreword i Acknowledgements ii Context iv Table of contents vi How to use this resource viii Section 1 Our work in the Department of Education 1 About our work in the Department of Education 2 1. Legislation, policies and guidelines 3 About legislation, policies & guidelines 4 The legislation 8 The policies and guidelines 11 2. Roles & Responsibilities of DepEd personnel 15 About roles & responsibilities of DepEd personnel 16 Roles & responsibilities of leaders 19 Roles & responsibilities of teachers 20 Professional ethics and conduct 22 Section 2 Our work in schools & communities 26 About our work in schools and communities 27 1. Working in schools 28 Adult learning 29 Communication 32 Problem solving 36 2. Working with families 38 3. Working with the community 44 Section 3 Our work with learners 48 About our work with learners 49 1. Holistic approaches and learners with disabilities 50 Different ways of learning 51 Learning preferences & learning styles 52 Multiple intelligences 55 Learners with disabilities 58
    • No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms vii 2. Inclusive Curriculum 60 Individualized Education Plans 61 Inclusive teaching 71 Effective teaching 72 Explicit teaching 79 Inclusive planning: Higher order thinking skills (HOTS ) 80 Inclusive planning: All, Most, Some & Bloom’s Taxonomy 89 Modifications and adjustments 97 3. Including learners with disabilities 102 About including learners with disabilities 103 Attention deficit disorder 105 Autism spectrum disorder 112 Intellectual disability 122 Learning disability 134 Physical and multiple disabilities 146 Sensory impairment: Hearing 159 Sensory impairment: Vision 172 Social and emotional problems 180 Speech and language impairment 191 Section 4 Monitoring and review 199 About monitoring and review 200 1. Professional development 202 2. Templates 203 Acronyms 208 Glossary 211 References 213 References: Websites 215 Appendix 216
    • No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms viii Using this resource The resource has been designed to facilitate easy access to information for busy teachers with a range of preferred ways of receiving and perceiving and understanding. The design attempts to model supportive ways to present information Information has been presented in note form wherever possible Important points are in bold and italics rather than underlined A san serif font has been used for clarity and is larger than many publications A mixture of diagrams, tables, graphic organizers, pictures and symbols have been used to add meaning to print. Icons have been used throughout the resource to enable teachers to quickly scan sections and locate the information required. Question Key questions Answer Response to question Methodology A teaching practice Information General information about a topic Characteristics Clues to recognizing learners with disabilities Adjustments Accommodations to support learners Teaching strategies Methodologies to support learners Ideas Activities to use with learners Resources Sources of extra information
    • No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 1 Section 1 Our work in the Department of Education
    • Section 1 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 2 About our work in the Department of Education This section of the induction kit examines the frameworks under which we work as employees of the Department of Education (DepEd) in the Republic of the Philippines. Learning outcomes You will gain an overview of national legislation, policies, guidelines and systems related to special education the values underpinning the policies of DepEd the roles and responsibilities of leaders in supporting special education in DepEd schools and the community the roles and responsibilities of teachers working with learners with special education needs
    • No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 3 1. Legislation, policies and guidelines
    • Section 1 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 4 About legislation, policies and guidelines All citizens of the Philippines are accountable under national laws. Key national legislation impacts on the work of DepEd employees. Some legislation refers particularly to people with disabilities and highlights the education of learners with disabilities. DepEd has an inclusive education policy which is underpinned by international agreements about human rights and education. Additional frameworks expand on this legislation and make more explicit what provisions are to be made for learners with disabilities. DepEd, as a government department, institutes policies that delineate how it plans to comply with legislation. DepEd Orders announce specific application of policy elements. Policies and Orders are updated regularly on the DepEd website: www.deped.gov.ph. DepEd also develops and publishes guidelines and handbooks to assist schools with how they will put policies into operation. At the Region, Division and school levels, policies and guidelines are translated into action plans that detail the strategies that will be implemented. At school level, the learner is at the center of plans.
    • Section 1 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 5 Region/Division Local publications Action Plans The cycle of legislation, policies, guidelines Schools Action Plans National Legislation 1982 Education Act 1987 Constitution of the Republic of the Philippines 1987 Child and Youth Welfare Code PD 603 1992 Magna Carta for Disabled Persons 2001 Governance of Basic Education Act DepEd 1997 Policy & Guidelines for Special Education 1997 Handbook on Special Education revised 1999 Handbook on Inclusive Education 1997 Code of Ethics for Professional Teachers
    • Section 1 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 6 What impact does legislation and policy have on my work? National legislation impacts on educators’ work The Education Act 1982 Constitution of the Republic of the Philippines 1987 Child and Youth Welfare Code PD 603 1987 Magna Carta for Disabled Persons 1992 Code of Ethics for Professional Teachers 1997 (within Republic Act 4760) Governance of Basic Education Act 2001 All of these Acts have articles and sections that relate to working with learners with disabilities National Policies and Guidelines make more explicit, what schools will do to comply with legislation Department of Education ‘Policies and Guidelines for Special Education(Revised Edition)’ 1997 DECS Order no. 26 Institutionalization of SPED programs in all schools Handbook on Special Education’ 1997 ‘Handbook on Inclusive Education’ 1999 These policies and guidelines outline the objectives of DepEd for the education of learners with disabilities and provide a framework from which regions, divisions and schools develop their education plans.
    • Section 1 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 7 Does DepEd legislation link to international developments? Yes. DepEd lists the legal mandates underpinning inclusive education in the Philippines Universal Declaration of the Rights of the Child 1959 The World Declaration on Education for All 1990 The Salamanca Statement 1994 The Agenda for Action of Asian & Pacific Decade of Disabled Persons 1993-2002 The Dakar Framework 2000 Philippine participation in these significant events has culminated in the Philippine Education for All 2015 Plan (2005) accessible on the UNESCO website www.unescobkk.org Each of these international developments seeks to redress the disadvantage experienced by various groups and asserts the right of every child to an education. DepEd’s vision for Filipino children with special needs encompasses the vision of the family and community for a discrimination free quality education that supports development of potential productivity self expression of rights national pride love of God
    • Section 1 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 8 The Legistation Constitution of the Republic of the Philippines 1987 & Magna Carta for Disabled Persons 1992 The mandate for provision of education to all people including those with a disabilities is couched within the Constitution of the Republic of the Philippines. ARTICLE XIV: Education, science and technology, arts, culture and sports EDUCATION ‘Section 1: The State shall protect and promote the right of all citizens to quality education at all levels, and shall take appropriate steps to make such education accessible to all.’ The subsequent Act – ‘The Magna Carta for Disabled Persons’ – makes more explicit what provision is required specifically in the area of education for learners with disabilities The Act covers: increased opportunities through development of skills and potentials the rights and respect of persons with disabilities service provision collaborative support Section 12 describes requirements: access to quality education opportunities to develop skills it being unlawful for any learning institution to deny admission to courses on the grounds of handicap or disability. formulation of educational policies and programs taking special needs into account
    • Section 1 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 9 Section 14 addresses special education, requiring the State to establish, maintain and support in all regions ‘complete, adequate and integrated system of special education’ for those with vision impairment hearing impairment intellectual disabilities other types of exceptional children The Education Act 1982 The Education Act recognizes the right of all people to quality education ‘regardless of sex, age, breed, socio-economic status, physical and mental condition, social and ethnic origin, political and other affiliations.’ The primary objective of the Act is the provision of ‘…A broad general education that will assist each individual …to attain his (sic) potentials as a human being enhance the range and quality of individual and group participation in the basic functions of society acquire the essential educational foundation of his (sic) development into a productive and versatile citizen.’ The Act outlines the rights of learners ‘…to receive, primarily through competent instruction, relevant quality education in line with national goals and conducive to their full development as person with human dignity.’ It further outlines the duties, obligations and functions of The Region/Division Office ‘Implement education laws, policies, plans, programs, rules and regulations…’ Administrators ‘…the promotion and preservation of academic freedom and effective teaching and learning…’ Teachers Accountability for ‘..the efficient and effective attainment of specified learning objectives’
    • Section 1 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 10 The Governance of Basic Education Act 2001 The Governance of Basic Education Act otherwise known as Republic Act 9155, affirms that all citizens have the right to access quality basic education attendance at elementary school is compulsory for Filipino children the goal of basic education is the provision of skills, knowledge and values enabling learners to become caring, seIf-reliant, productive and patriotic citizens schools have the single aim of providing the best possible basic education for all learners Within the Act there are details of the roles and responsibilities of DepEd personnel in ensuring that these outcomes are met. This will be addressed in the next subsection. What does this legislation mean for me? Compliance with national legislation is mandatory. All employees of DepEd must comply with this legislation It is compulsory for all learners to attend school including learners with disabilities Access to schooling must be provided to all learners Appropriate teaching and learning experiences must be provided to all learners
    • Section 1 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 11 The policies and guidelines Policies and Guidelines for Special Education (revised edition) 1997 The ultimate policy goal of DepEd for special education is ‘…the integration or mainstreaming of learners with special needs into the regular school system and eventually in the community.’ The policy reiterates the messages found in all of the legislation mentioned so far with a particular focus on learners with: gifts and talents physical impairment intellectual impairment social impairment sensory impairment cultural differences Learners with special needs have the right to: relevant quality education an educational program suited to the particular needs of the learner that maximizes o potentials for learning o values development o equal opportunities for authentic inclusion in society This induction kit focuses on learners with disabilities The policy recognizes a variety of program and service options for learners with disabilities couched in a philosophy of providing the least restrictive environment for the learner.
    • Section 1 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 12
    • Section 1 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 13 Mainstreaming/Integration: regular school, regular classroom with negotiated levels of special education support Itinerant teacher: visiting specialist or trained teacher providing direct or consultative support in regular schools Resource room: regular classroom with targeted individual or small group support from trained teacher Community-based delivery system: Instruction provided by a range of people to learners with special needs in remote communities Special class: part time or full time inclusion in specialized program usually with specialist teachers Special education center: a school within a school; centers of expertise in regular schools providing a range of special class options and a base for services ( resource room, itinerant teacher) Special day school: specialized programs for learners with significant needs. Access to other services – medical, psychological, social Residential school: a highly specialized school for identified learners who require comprehensive service provision Hospital & homebound instruction: Programs provided by teachers for learners under clinical care DECS (DepEd) Order No 26 (1997) called for the institutionalization of Special Education (SPED) programs in all schools. The Order directed all Divisions to organize at least one SPED center all districts to form SPED programs in schools where there are enrolments of these learners training in special education to be implemented at all levels The Policy also provides an overview of roles and responsibilities of DepEd personnel and stakeholders curriculum for special education – based on the prescribed curriculum parent and wider community involvement program samples
    • Section 1 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 14 Handbook on Special Education 1997 & Handbook on Inclusive Education 1999 These handbooks provide comprehensive information to support school heads and teachers with Legislation and policy Assessment and screening of learners with disabilities Modification of curriculum and instruction for learners with special needs Program samples and activities for teachers Individual education planning Parent involvement Where can I find out more about the Policies and Guidelines for Special Education? Regional offices have copies of these documents Regional Education Supervisors with responsibility for Special Education can assist Divisions and schools with accessing this information and supporting education access for learners with special needs and those with disabilities DepEd has published a range of other resources to support leaders and teachers These are also available through Regional Office Education Supervisors with responsibility for special education.
    • No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 15 2. Roles & responsibilities of DepEd personnel
    • Sections 1 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 16 About ‘Roles and responsibilities of DepEd personnel’ Every employee needs to be clear about the roles and responsibilities connected to their position. The Department of Education has a range of publications available that spell out the general roles and responsibilities of administrators and teachers. Other frameworks make more explicit their roles in relation to learners with disabilities. Legislation: The Education Act The Governance of Basic Education Act The Code of Ethics for Professional Teachers Policies and guidelines Policies and Guidelines for Special Education Handbook on special education Handbook on inclusion This subsection provides an overview of the roles and responsibilities of Region, Division and District personnel as well as principals and teachers. Roles were synthesized from the Governance of Basic Education Act for the purpose of understanding the connection points at various levels in the DepEd structure.
    • Sections 1 Region Division Districts Principals Teachers Values & Mission Define regional educational policy framework that reflects values, needs and expectations of communities served Mission Values School direction Discharge responsibilities in accordance with the philosophy, goals, and objectives of the school. Standards Developing regional educational standards towards Promoting awareness of and adherence to accreditation standards Creating an environment within the school that is conducive to teaching & learning Accountability for the efficient and effective attainment of specified learning objectives Education Plans Regional basic education plan Division education development plan School education and improvement plan Participate as an agent of constructive social, economic, moral, intellectual, cultural & political change in school & community within the context of national policies Research Research and region wide projects Establishing school and community networks, encourage active participation of teachers and wider community, families and organisations HR compliance Comply with national criteria for recruitment, selection & training of all staff in region and divisions Recommending the staffing complement of the school based on its needs; Maintain, sustain professional growth and advancement & professionalism in behaviour at all times. HR recruitment Hiring, placing and evaluating all employees in the regional office; Hiring, placing and evaluating division employees, & school heads Responsibilities of DepEd personnel Nolimits:Teachersincludinglearnerswithdisabilitiesinregularclassrooms 17
    • Sections 1 Nolimits:Teachersincludinglearnerswithdisabilitiesinregularclassrooms 18 Region Division Districts Principals Teachers HR planning Planning, managing personnel, physical & fiscal resources of the regional office, including staff professional development Planning, managing personnel, physical & fiscal resources of the division office, including staff professional development Administering and managing all personnel, physical and fiscal resources of the school Budgeting Formulating budget to support the regional educational plan Monitor utilization of funds from national and local government to schools & learning centers Accepting and reporting donations, gifts, bequests and grants for school improvement Evaluation Evaluation of division personnel Supervise operations of all schools, and learning centers Encouraging staff development Accountability for higher learning outcomes Regularly report on performance of students to students, parents and guardians with specific suggestions for improvement. Curriculum Monitoring, evaluating and assessing regional learning outcomes Compliance of quality standards in basic education programs Strengthening role of division subject area specialists Providing professional and curriculum advice and supervision Implementing the school curriculum innovative modes of instruction to achieve higher learning outcomes Offering programs, projects & services accessible for all learners in the community. Data Collection Information management Resources Approving establishment of schools & learning centers Other Other functions Other functions Other functions Responsibilities of DepEd personnel
    • Sections 1 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 19 Roles and responsibilities of leaders "Principals must live with paradox: They must have a sense of urgency about improving their schools, balanced by the patience to sustain them for the long haul. They must focus on the future, but remain grounded in today. They must see the big picture, while maintaining a close focus on details. They must be strong leaders who give away power to others." Richard DuFour ("Help Wanted: Principals who can Lead Professional Learning Communities." NASSP Bulletin (1999).) In brief, leaders of schools have responsibility for curriculum leadership welfare of staff and learners encouraging staff professional development day to day operation of the school building and maintaining positive school and community networks quality environment for teaching and learning
    • Sections 1 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 20 For teachers and other staff, this means leaders will be ensuring roles and responsibilities are clear providing leadership to teaching staff supporting them to successfully meet the needs of learners making time for school based learning groups to meet, plan and solve problems planning professional learning needs with teachers assisting teachers to access expertise about learners with disabilities and their leaning Responsibilities of teachers ‘Who dares to teach must never cease to learn.’ John Cotton Dana ‘I touch the future. I teach.’ Christa McAuliffe Teacher’s roles and responsibilities include management of the learning environment in which they teach development of teaching and learning opportunities for learners o planning and programming o instruction o specific modifications and interventions o assessment of and for learning behaviour management reporting to families and the system community linkages – eg identifying children with disabilities who are not attending school and encouraging families to take them to school
    • Sections 1 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 21 For teachers this means keeping professionally up to date undertaking the communication necessary to provide for all learners including those with disabilities designing curriculum responsive to learners’ needs and implementing intervention and support programs active positive involvement and advocacy in the community
    • Sections 1 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 22 Professional ethics and conduct The Code of Ethics for Professional Teachers1997 charges licensed teachers with clearly stated obligations. The obligations cover all educators in all educational institutions and list 10 areas of conduct expectations Article Refers to 2. Teachers and the state Supporting the laws of the state and contributing to the positive cultural future of the nation. Not engaging in political and religious promotion. 3. Teachers and the community Teachers as leaders and advocates in the community, active in the promotion of education for all. 4. Teachers and the profession Upholding the standards of the profession. Maintaining a commitment to continuous learning. 5. Teachers and the teaching community Professional loyalty, cooperation, recognition, support, confidentiality and standards. 6. Teachers and high authorities in the Philippines Supporting departmental policies The right to access grievance procedures 7. School officials, teachers and other professionals Professional standards of supervision Commitment to policy implementation Encouragement of professional learning and recognition 8. Teachers and learners Recognizing as a priority, the interests and welfare of learners. Treating all learners and their families equitably 9. Teachers and parents Establishing and maintaining respectful relationships and communication with parents 10. Teachers and business The right to engage in business activity as long as it is not a conflict of interests – ie selling text books 11. Teachers as people Modelling exemplary behavior and dispositions. Recognizing destiny as the province of God
    • Sections 1 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 23 The Code of Ethics for Professional Teachers provides the values framework for all educators. Twenty two values are mentioned in the code.
    • Sections 1 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 24 How do ethics and values impact on my work? Our values shape our beliefs and are sometimes tested. Each employee has a values and belief system. Although we may have the same values, our interpretations of what they mean can differ. This becomes an issue if the values mandated in our workplace are different to ours or those of the community. It can also be a factor affecting how school teams function. Some areas for professional discussion and the development of agreed norms/understandings could be: Beliefs and values about learners with disabilities Interaction with families & organizations Language, sharing, storage of documentation Behavior management Student voice Teaching methods & assessment
    • Sections 1 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 25 How can I resolve it if my values and beliefs seem different to those of my workplace? Developing workable beliefs and values can help to acknowledge the range of realities that exist. When educators hold strong opinions about the way things should be in a perfect world, it means the working day begins from a deficit and not the way we believe it should be. The word should is often a feature of these beliefs. An example of this type of belief could be Families should provide enhancement activities for their children every day It would be wonderful if families could provide learning enhancements everyday but the reality is very different. Holding on to a belief like this may create frustration for teachers and leaders make the holder of the belief feel powerless and a victim of circumstance prevent action and taking responsibility Formulating a working set of beliefs can allow the spectrum of reality to co-exist. An example of the above statement as a working belief could be Families are important in providing learning enhancement for their children. The working statement acknowledges the ideal does not apportion blame enables a variety of starting points to be recognized
    • No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 26 Section 2 Our work in schools & communities
    • Section 2 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 27 About our work in schools and communities This section recognizes the collaborative nature of teachers’ work in the school and the community. Ideally teachers will not only establish and maintain quality relationships with learners but will also form supportive partnerships with families and make strong links with community groups and organisations that form part of school life. Within the school, teachers, leaders and stakeholders will work together to meet the goals of the school. The ability to work collaboratively is especially crucial in supporting learners with disabilities many of whom may have a range of people contributing to their education. Learning outcomes Teachers can expect to: gain an overview of the principles of adult learning and how they contribute to collaborative partnerships and teams increase understandings about effective communication recognize positive approaches to problem solving explore examples of strategies and approaches that promote positive and productive partnerships with stakeholders
    • No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 28 1. Working in schools
    • Section 2 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 29 Adult learning Schools in the Philippines are mandated to build strong linkages with the community and stakeholders. As schools and communities are complex social environments, skills in working together are crucial to maximizing positive learning. Dealing with adults takes on special significance when we consider their particular characteristics. Because of their life and work experiences over time, adults have valuable knowledge and experience to share respond to respectful approaches respond to acknowledgement of their capacities and experiences can experience a loss of confidence in new learning situations How are adults best supported? As well as acknowledgement of the skills they bring to a situation, in general adults prefer when things are planned and the outcomes are explicit to be actively involvement with things that have a real purpose interaction in groups problem solving opportunities multi-modal methods – doing, seeing, hearing choice that their physical needs are catered for room temperature lighting furniture – comfortable chairs, tables refreshments appropriate facilities
    • Section 2 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 30 What are the implications for working together? What does this look like in practice? Positive and productive interactions can be a feature of working relationships. Respect for the skills of each team member, sets the scene for successful collaboration. This provides a foundation for shared learning and problem solving rather than conflict. A diversity of ideas can result in creative solutions owned by everyone. Rather than…. Try…. Informing of meeting times Negotiating mutually convenient meeting times Presenting the agenda Asking if there are additional items for an agenda Controlling the team Establishing agreed norms for how the team will work Waiting for a crisis before raising problems Setting up communication processes for continuous feedback Reacting negatively to feedback Using questioning to understand Interrupting or forming responses while others are speaking Actively listen and build in time for responding Assuming understanding Checking perceptions, asking others for their understandings Imposing the solution to a problem or issue Investing in openness, sharing ideas, skills and resources Raising issues in front of others Negotiating a time and place to discuss privately
    • Section 2 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 31 School-Based Learning Groups (SBLG) are an example of a collaborative team among colleagues Small groups of teachers and administrators form School-Based Learning Groups to discuss explore reflect share understandings plan, implement and review educational ideas and practices establish monitoring & evaluation When leaders model understandings about adult learning, and they are incorporated into SBLGs, team members can gain confidence in expressing and trialling new ideas benefit from the collective wisdom of the group give and receive feedback in a supportive environment support their own learning by developing self reflection and self assessment skills Including the special education teacher in the SBLG can provide particular expertise in helping teachers build practice inclusive of learners with disabilities. Idea SBLG Input
    • Section 2 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 32 Communication “True communication is the response you get.” (Robert Kryosaki in Taylor 2005, p266) If meetings with stakeholders and school based learning teams are to be successful, then leaders and teachers will need to communicate effectively interacting in ways that project to stakeholders that they are in a respectful and supportive environment. What is effective communication? Communication is effective when there is congruence between the message the speaker expressed and what the listener understands. Members of school communities participate in a range of meetings: School-based learning groups Staff meetings Planning meetings with specialist teachers Parent ,Teachers and Community Association School Governing Council Parent-Teacher meetings Individual Education Plans There are often additional meetings with a range of stakeholders in order to provide ongoing support to learners with disabilities But no matter what the context, an organized approach helps maximize participation and productivity. It is important to establish agreement on the goals and purpose of the team/meeting the roles of participants norms and expectations meeting timelines and planning
    • Section 2 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 33 Active listening is crucial to effective communication. It can build team cohesion and support positive relationships with stakeholders by ensuring information sharing is a two way process. Active listening means focusing on the speaker using a range of senses to try and fully understand what the speaker is saying adopting body language that indicates interest and listening allowing people to speak without interruptions Interruptions can be Verbal- saying ‘Yes’ ‘I agree’ ‘That’s interesting’ ‘Really?’ Nonverbal- nodding, facial expressions, hand movements Verbal communication Non verbal communication Sometimes people interrupt, make a point and even elaborate. This could mean that during the talking, the ‘listener’ has been forming a response. They may cause the speaker’s full message to be unrealized.
    • Section 2 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 34 Verbal and nonverbal interruptions can give a message to others that their input does not warrant dedicated listening allow dominant personalities to takeover proceedings take the conversation in directions governed by the interruption cause the potential of the information to be lost stop the conversation or stop some people from contributing Responding in appropriate ways contributes to effective communication and can prevent conflict. This is very important when providing feedback or checking understanding. Responding serves a number of purposes checking understanding continuing conversation clarifying perceptions making a point Responding is a positive experience when it focuses on strengths it has been organized for a dedicated time – a separate event or section in a meeting process confidentiality is observed and privacy respected
    • Section 2 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 35 Tips for positive responding and giving feedback Build in time for thinking before responding Checking understanding Express appreciation for sharing Restate key points Summarize key points Ask questions that will give you additional facts Making a point Express appreciation for sharing Briefly summarize the idea heard Tell your idea in a reflective way Invite a response Asking questions Express appreciation for sharing Briefly summarize the point in question Ask a clarifying question or Continuing conversation Express appreciation for sharing Relate your own experience Link your experience to the information Generalize it to another possible example
    • Section 2 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 36 Problem solving Effective communication will go a long way towards creating a CONFLICT PREVENTION environment where problems are opportunities for learning rather than threatening. From time to time however, even the best collaborative groups may experience challenges. Occasionally challenges escalate into conflict situations. Conflict can occur as a result of strongly held beliefs, misunderstandings and incomplete or absent communication. Some common problems schools face could be related to: family concerns or involvement behavior management teachers’ work student learning staff relationships A problem-solving strategy can help to work through issues in an organized and depersonalized way Focus on issues not people Use depersonalized statements Personalized Depersonalized Nante is a problem student. His behavior is dangerous. There have been some recent behavior issues involving Nante. It would help to look at this together? It is your duty to make sure Cherry does her homework Homework seems to be difficult. How could we do things differently? Your learning program modifications are not up to standard. Assessment results are indicating a need to look at learning program modifications.
    • Section 2 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 37 If the problem involves a conflict event, it is crucial to put ‘space’ between the event and reacting to it Stop, breathe Wait! Think! How did that happen? What part did I play? What are the real issues?
    • No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 38 2. Working with families
    • Section 2 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 39 Working with families The families of learners with disabilities are valuable partners for educators. Family members are the first teachers of their children and so at the time their child commences school, parents and the child themselves are the holders of the most information about what the child knows and can do. This is the right time to organize an Individual Education Plan (IEP) meeting. Parents are often anxious at points of transition in their children’s lives and this can be especially so when their child has a disability. A respectful and welcoming school environment can alleviate the anxiousness of parents and their children. Everyone benefits when parents and teachers work together. Strong partnerships and regular communication can support the learner build appreciation and support for each other’s roles help to develop consistency between home and school help keep everyone informed and up to date
    • Section 2 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 40 What needs to happen when parents come to school to enrol a child with a disability? Education for All is mandated by DepEd. There is a ‘no rejection’ policy for learners with disabilities. Schools need to enrol the learners. Teachers are required to be alert for children with disabilities in the community, who are not attending school and encourage families to enrol them. Conducting an IEP meeting will: demonstrate to families that they are valued contributors give the school head and teacher information about the learners needs at school provide a foundation on which to prepare for how the needs of the learner will be met Encourage involvement of the learner in IEP Armed with this information, they might approach the Local Government Unit for support. (see flowchart on page 106 ) What communication should I undertake with families of learners with disabilities? Regular contact keeps communication lines open and provides opportunities to give positive feedback about the learner. Teachers can negotiate regular ‘catch up’ meetings arrange home visits use a diary between home and school design a specialized daily or weekly communication
    • Section 2 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 41 An example for a specialized daily communication Date Teacher Student The best thing today. Parent comment Mon Achievements today Information Tues Achievements today Information Wed Achievements today Information Thurs Achievements today Information Fri Achievements today Information
    • Section 2 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 42 What about homework for learners with disabilities? There are many questions about homework that need consideration. Is the homework necessary? o Is all of it essential? o What are the essential parts? Will the learner be able to do the tasks in the same time as expected for others or is it likely to take much longer? o Are there modifications that can be made to ensure the time is equitable? o Are there tasks in the family context that are achievable and will support similar learning? Can the learner do what is being asked? o independently? o with support? o how much support? o is support available? o How fatigued is the learner at the end of each day? **Learners with disabilities often have to work harder to concentrate and achieve leaving them more tired at the end of school What is the capacity of the family to support the task? o What chores take priority in the home in the evening? o What time do they leave in the morning/get home? o What other commitments do they have?
    • Section 2 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 43 Some alternative ideas for homework for learners with disabilities Subjects Alternatives English Traditional homework activities: Writing a journal Writing a procedure Writing a story Putting spelling words into sentences Fill out the daily communication sheet Draw pictures of what you did after school or will do next week List the TV programs you watched List what you will watch next week Help to cook the meal Make the shopping list Plan a morning news talk Tell a story Invent a story and retell Family share favourite stories Make flash cards of spelling words and play games with them or tell a sentence for each Write the words in a fancy way once each Maths Traditional homework activities: Complete exercises Write out tables Get the table ready for meals Help to cook the meal – measuring out items Follow and check the daily schedule Keep the family informed about when their TV programs are on Tend the animals o Measure out food o Monitor eggs and graph how many over time o Keep track of births Graph the growth of corn or other plants Shopping o Estimate the costs o Find the cheapest Play card games and keep scores
    • No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 44 3. Working with the community
    • Section 2 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 45 Working with the community The Code of Ethics recognizes the teaching profession in the community, especially the barangay, as leaders and advocates active in the promotion of education for all. The local community comprises organizations, networks and people that are a valuable resource for schools: Local Government Unit Parent Teacher Community Association School Governing Council Government and Non Government Organisations (GOs and NGOs) Community members Families Other specialist organizations may be involved with learners with disabilities. Special Education Centers Resources for the Blind Incorporated Deaf Ministries International Down Syndrome Association of the Philippines Incorporated Autism Society Philippines Strong relationships facilitated by schools supports them to tap into the expertise, materials and resources both physical and in kind, that exists in the community at large.
    • Section 2 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 46 How can schools work with communities to support learners with disabilities? Communication and information sharing within the school and community can create advocacy for learners with disabilities and their families. The DepEd inclusive education mandate and no rejection policy is creating growing awareness about disability in the community. Schools, as the centers of expertise in this area have a role to play in supporting community members to embrace the diversity within them. Schools could work with their division personnel, special education center or special education teachers to develop a range of activities.
    • Section 2 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 47 canvas for volunteers to support in the school train volunteers to work with learners with a disability invite disability organizations to work with the school develop, circulate community awareness brochures, fact sheets involve the community in a disability awareness event/week start a community disability action group Ways schools can work with communities
    • No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 48 Section 3 Our work with learners
    • Section 3 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 49 About our work with learners “What is taught isn’t the same as how it is taught.” Howell, Fox, Moorehead When teachers adopt multigrade teaching and learning, incorporate multiple intelligences and cater for preferred learning styles with multi sensory approaches, they will meet the needs of most learners in their classes. In this section, these practices and approaches which are increasingly used in Philippine schools, are overviewed. You will find additional strategies and information to help understand the particular needs of some learners with disabilities and how to design interventions that support their inclusion. Learning outcomes You will gain an overview of the nature and characteristics of learners with some types of disability early indicators that a learner is at risk of being identified with a disability holistic approaches to working with learners with disabilities different ways of learning and the implications for inclusive teaching the importance of multi-sensory teaching and learning adjustments and strategies that support learners with disabilities the individualized education plan and planning process some resources available to support the teaching of learners with disabilities
    • No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 50 1. Holistic approaches & learners with disabilities
    • Section 3 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 51 Different ways of learning ‘If a child can’t learn the way we teach, maybe we should teach the way they learn.’ Ignacio Estrada DepEd mandates Education for All. Republic Act 9155 (2001) states Schools shall have a single aim of providing the best possible basic education for all learners…..translated into programs, projects and services developed, adapted and offered to fit local needs. This subsection looks at current ideas about different ways in which learners make sense of learning. Two principles underpin the models presented. All children can learn Regardless of circumstance all children are capable of learning. Circumstance may, however, contribute to the rate at which children learn. All learners are unique When they enter school, learners’ predispositions and distinctive range of experiences have framed their perceptions, knowledges and strengths. How do different ways of learning impact on teachers work with learners? Different ways of learning need different teaching approaches. Teachers also have preferred ways of learning. Teachers need to be aware of their own preferences as well as those of learners, in order to provide a variety of approaches and learning opportunities rather than preferred approaches.
    • Section 3 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 52 Learning preferences and learning styles Research suggests that regardless of culture, age, gender and ability, all learners have preferred ways of learning. Learners with disabilities also show learning preferences. What are some preferred ways of learning? We all have different ways of thinking, acting, processing and approaching learning. Some key ways include Visual – seeing Auditory – hearing Kinesthetic – doing Tactile – touching
    • Section 3 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 53 The direction of eye gaze or head tilt can give clues about learning preferences. As well as having preferences for which senses are engaged in approaches to learning, research by McCarthy 1987 identified 4 learning styles. Dynamic – active Innovative – creative Analytic – theorist Procedural - practical
    • Section 3 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 54 How are learning styles important to teaching and learning? Using a variety of approaches supports learners to access and participate in activities. If teachers understand their own learning style/s they can get insights into the style they are teaching in the style of the activities and assessment they are planning for learners For example: A lecture style lesson, followed by research on the issues will be accessible to analytical, auditory learners. But dynamic learners with visual strengths might prefer a group discussion followed by presenting a poster. They are less likely to be engaged in the the other style and may not process the information to the same level. Teachers need to teach beyond their preferred styles and develop skills using a variety of pedagogies and activities. This is particularly important for learners with disabilities. A learner who is not engaged may not be lazy but rather, having trouble accessing the learning. Understanding the preferred learning styles of the class cohort, supports teachers to make informed decisions about curriculum design and delivery to improve engagement and learning. Multi sensory teaching and learning, (pg 75) incorporates different ways of learning. This section provides additional information about activities that support different ways of learning.
    • Section 3 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 55 Multiple intelligences Howard Gardner’s theory of Multiple Intelligences (MIs) names 8 human intelligences accounting for the range of strengths and potentials in adults and children. Verbal/linguistic intelligence ("word smart"): Logical/mathematical intelligence ("number/reasoning smart") Visual/ spatial intelligence ("picture smart") Body/ kinesthetic intelligence ("body smart") Musical/rhythmic intelligence ("music smart") Interpersonal intelligence ("people smart") Intrapersonal intelligence ("self smart") Naturalist intelligence ("nature smart")
    • Section 3 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 56 Are there benefits in using multiple intelligences approaches? Multiple intelligences provide an extra dimension to help understand learner diversity and different ways of learning. Like learning preferences and learning styles, considering the MIs when designing curriculum can broaden learning opportunities for learners. Some possible benefits: All learners can be included. A broader understanding and appreciation of intelligence may develop. Multiple ways of learning are valued. Learner motivation and engagement increase Learners experience the strengths of others and improve their ability to work in diverse groups As learners build their own strengths mutual recognition from others can build self esteem and self realization. As learners understand their own multiple intelligences they may become more self directed learners A variety of opportunities to enter the learning experience supports learning How do all of the different ways of learning fit together? Designing learning opportunities inclusive of a range of intelligences, is likely to also be inclusive of different modes of learning and learning styles as well as support a range of ability levels.
    • Section 3 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 57 Integrating MIs, learning preferences and styles Strategy MIs Learning preference Learning style Story maps Verbal/linguistic Logical/mathematical Visual/spatial Visual Auditory Procedural Analytic Dance/performance Body/kinesthetic Musical/rhythmic Kinesthetic Auditory Dynamic Innovative Graphing plant growth Naturalist Logical/mathematical Interpersonal Kinesthetic Tactile Procedural Dynamic Experiments Intrapersonal Body/kinesthetic Logical/mathematical Kinesthetic Tactile Visual Innovative Procedural Dynamic Journal sharing Intrapersonal Interpersonal Verbal/linguistic Auditory Kinesthetic Analytic Innovative
    • Section 3 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 58 Learners with disabilities The inclusive education policy of DepEd aims for shared meaningful learning for all learners including those with disabilities. As far as possible, learning experiences should occur within the same classroom for all learners and meet their individual learning needs. Research affirms that good teaching for learners with disabilities is good teaching for all learners and what constitutes quality teaching and learning is the same for all. ‘Good teachers build on the individual strengths of each student and recognize that all students have something valuable to contribute to the classroom community’ Giangreco & Doyle, 2000. As for other learners, those with disabilities are unique. Disability manifests differently for every individual. It is important to gather information about the learner with disabilities in order to know if personalized approaches are actually required. The Individualized Education Plan can be used to document these. An holistic approach involves looking at the learner as a whole, planning with all of their contexts and school contexts in mind. Friends Strengths Disability information Intelligences Family Services Health Interests Equipment Learning preferences
    • Section 3 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 59 What types of disabilities are supported in Philippine schools? Not all disabilities have a name and the name of a disability does not determine what support is needed at school. Support for a learner with a disability is determined by what they need in order to access, participate and attain in the curriculum. DepEd recognizes the following groups in the Special Education Policy and Guidelines. The disability areas covered in Section 3 Including learners with disabilities (pg 102) use internationally recognized terminologies used to describe some areas of disability. The table below shows how the current disabilities supported by DepEd are grouped in this section. Section 3 terminology DepEd policy terminology Attention Deficit Disorder Attention Deficit Disorder Autism Spectrum Disorder Children with autism Intellectual disability Mentally retarded Mentally handicapped Learning disability Learning disabled Physical and multiple disabilities Orthopedically handicapped Cerebral palsy Sensory impairment: Hearing Sensory impairment: Vision Hard of hearing, Deaf Low vision, Totally blind Social and emotional Behavior problems Speech and language Speech defective
    • Section 3 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 60 2. Inclusive Curriculum
    • Section 3 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 61 Individualized Education Plans The Individualized Education Plan (IEP) meets legal and ethical mandates associated with the education of learners with disabilities outlined in Section 1. What is the purpose of the IEP? An IEP documents curriculum and service provisions for learners with disabilities in regular classes and special education settings. It ensures that learners with disabilities have appropriate and supportive placement systematic, focused and developmentally appropriate programming meaningful curriculum outcomes linked to the BEC access to the services they require records of achievements a coordinated approach to learning and service provision congruence between the home and school How is the IEP developed? The school initiates a meeting with stakeholders to document agreements in the IEP IEP meetings are usually held once each year. A suitable time is negotiated with the family. Parents and class teachers are essential participants. A range of other professionals may be valuable contributors. It is suggested that their attendance be negotiated with families.
    • Section 3 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 62 Other participants may include: the special education or SPED center teacher the principal or administrator service providers or specialists other relevant personnel as negotiated e.g Guidance counsellor Prior to the IEP, teachers need to prepare assessment results and developmental evaluations a plan of learning priorities, building on the learner’s strengths map the priorities into the targets for the quarter In the IEP meeting this preparation will be used to develop an agreed action plan of goals and objectives, the expected time frame and the services, resources and people contributing to outcomes. What needs to be considered when participating in an IEP meeting? An IEP meeting can be a sensitive occasion so a number of considerations are important. Ask parents who they would like to attend the meeting Show sensitivity to the parents. What is the parent/ professional ratio? Keep numbers to a minimum. To support privacy, find a suitable location free of interruptions Maintain confidentiality Institute quality meeting procedures Make sure language is depersonalized (if the learner is present be more sensitive) Keep the meeting a jargon free zone Prepare other professionals in relation to sensitivity Read back documentation/agreements to check accuracy In Section 2 ‘Working with families’ additional information is provided
    • Section 3 Nolimits:Teachersincludinglearnerswithdisabilitiesinregularclassrooms 63
    • Section 3 Nolimits:Teachersincludinglearnerswithdisabilitiesinregularclassrooms 64
    • Section 3 Nolimits:Teachersincludinglearnerswithdisabilitiesinregularclassrooms 65
    • Section 3 Nolimits:Teachersincludinglearnerswithdisabilitiesinregularclassrooms 66
    • Section 3 A sample of an Individualized Education Plan Nolimits:Teachersincludinglearnerswithdisabilitiesinregularclassrooms 67
    • Section 3 DepEd logo Region XI Davao City School Name Davao City Elementary IEP for Felipa Mangos 2007 Area Goal Objective Time frame Persons involved Remarks Walks independently from gate to class In 10 months Felipa will be walk from the gate to class using cane with less assistance 10 months Teacher Parent Guard Fading of prompts and cues as independence increases Eats snacks independently In 10 months Felipa will be able to open foil snack packs 10 months Teacher Buddies Uses the comfort room independently In 10 months Felipa will use her cane to go to the CR and will manage hygiene with prompts 10 months Teacher Parent Volunteer CR Program to be shared with family SELFHELP Independently clears up after classes In 3 months Felipa will independently pack up work books and put them in her bag 3 months Teacher Buddies Parents Family focus will be clearing own plate after meals Uses courteous expressions when talking with others In 10 months Felipa will greet others the first time she meets them each day ask for help appropriately express thanks at appropriate times 10 months Teacher Volunteer Parents Family and school to work on same words LITERACY Names objects in class and surroundings In 10 months Felipa will identify common class objects and landmarks on the way to class and CR 10 months Teacher Parents Volunteer Family to work on names of common household objects Nolimits:Teachersincludinglearnerswithdisabilitiesinregularclassrooms 68
    • Section 3 Area Goal Objective Time frame Persons involved Remarks Master concept of numbers 1-10 In 10 months Felipa will count to 10 with 1:1 correspondence provide correct number of objects up to 10 10 months Teacher Volunteer Parents Buddies Practice opportunities at home with real objects – counting and handing 10 pegs to mother at clothes line MATH Identify spatial terms and use in mobility In 10 months Felipa will describe her journey from the gate to the class, to the CR 10 months Teacher Volunteer Buddies Parents Parent signature Class teacher signature School administrator signature Special education teacher signature Nolimits:Teachersincludinglearnerswithdisabilitiesinregularclassrooms 69
    • Section 3 INFORMATION TO ASSIST CLASSROOM PROGRAMMING NAME: GRADE DATE Area Information Teaching: What works Fine & Gross Motor skills Tires easily in motor tasks Fearful of new places Vary tactile activities Rehearsal for new place before going. Tell stories of Felipa’s new place/activity Joining in with class mates Language & Communication Talks to herself about friends and new places Write/tape her stories and retell them. Get other students to read them Braille key words – her name, friends Socialization Behaviour: Aversion to strangers & rushing Prone to outbursts if food or dress is not to her liking Reacts to the word ‘jeep’ If upset doesn’t talk Over-excited when happy & shouts Music to calm Candy, icecream Rewards Warning of what is coming up Taking time to do things Solitary time with favorite things Self Help Toileting: daily toilet schedule Dressing: some assistance with shoes Eating: uses spoon, assistance with opening packets and containers Guided assistance Verbal prompts and cues Time to practice Praise Functional academic Needs prior motivation to engage in activities Reacts to changing tasks Learning styles: Auditory, Tactile Music, singing Rewards, favorite objects Short structured tasks (10 mins) Warning to change tasks Concrete materials, limited materials In seat activities Physical & verbal prompts Nolimits:Teachersincludinglearnerswithdisabilitiesinregularclassrooms 70
    • Section 3 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 71 Inclusive Teaching ‘Inclusion is not a strategy to help people fit into the systems and structures which exist in our societies; it is about transforming those systems and structures to make it better for everyone. Inclusion is about creating a better world for everyone.’ Diane Richler, President, Inclusion International Inclusive teaching approaches enable all learners in the class to take part in learning opportunities To have a successful plan for all learners in the class, teachers need to: Know about the learners in the group Much can be learned from the learner themselves, their parents, their former teachers and from a teacher’s own observations. strengths and interests skills and knowledge what is being learned concerns and areas for focus Know about the curriculum Teachers need a comprehensive understanding of the BEC curriculum and a range of pedagogies (methods of teaching) appropriate for learning. Skills are needed in developing a variety of ways to engage learners ways to presentation options for participation means of expression assessment methods ‘A competent, caring general education teacher who is effective with students without disabilities, already possesses most of the critical skills necessary to successfully educate students with all kinds of learning challenges, including various disabilities’ Giangreco, 1997
    • Section 3 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 72 Effective Teaching Multigrade teaching and learning What is multigrade teaching and learning? A multigrade class has two or more grades in one class with one teacher. These methods are also successful in regular classes. In the Philippines, many schools in remote and isolated areas have more than one grade per classroom. Rather than treat each grade as a separate entity, learners are grouped in a variety of ways and taught using a variety of methods inclusive of all learners in the class. This has application in regular classes where there are learners with disabilities. Why is multigrade teaching and learning effective? Multigrade teaching and learning incorporates quality teaching and learning principles. The features of inclusive teaching are the same as those for teaching diverse groups knowledge of students knowledge of the curriculum having a good repertoire of teaching strategies and a variety of activities utilizing their own and the collective creativity of colleagues to plan and share teaching flexibility, openness, organization
    • Section 3 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 73 Quality learning principles Supportive learning environment Valued, safe, collaborative, positive challenge Opportunity to learn Engagement through observation, practice, development & application of knowledge Connection & challenge Building on existing knowledge to construct new knowledge Action & reflection Active learning and reflection on and incorporate new understandings Motivation & purpose Clear relevant outcomes Inclusivity and difference Experiences that respect and reflect differences between other learners Independence & collaboration Working both together, and individually to gain collective and personal perspectives
    • Section 3 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 74 Multigrade teaching and learning have positive outcomes for both learners and teachers. Multigrade classrooms cater for learners of different ability, personality and learning style, intelligences, culture, gender, age and years at school. Positive outcomes for learners Acceptance of diversity Learners are prepared for the diversity of society Social skills development through working with a variety of others in a variety of roles Increased independence as learners Increased options for learning – a range of groups to work with Positive outcomes for teachers Greater curriculum knowledge from working across levels Increased repertoire of methodologies and teaching flexibility Opportunities to use and develop the skills of learners How is multigrade teaching & learning useful in a regular class with learners with disabilities? Multigrade methodology allows teachers to work with many different learners together. Every class has learners with a variety of abilities, personalities, intelligences and learning styles, cultures, ages and years at school. As no class is homogenous, teachers need to be using an assortment of methodologies and strategies to engage and progress all of the learners across the levels in their class. How can I find out more about multigrade methodology? Your Region and Division Education Supervisors can provide information and training. The DepEd Multigrade Teacher’s Handbook 1994 and BEAM Multigrade Teaching & Learning 2007 are available resources.
    • Section 3 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 75 Multi-sensory teaching What is multi-sensory teaching? Multi-sensory teaching involves designing learning experiences so learners can engage more than one of the senses as they explore and learn. Visual learners may benefit from colour cues designing books, posters, charts, signs exciting stationery, pens graphic organizers flashcards, board work writing, and highlighting tables and graphs films, video, DVDs, art, pictures, images Auditory learners may benefit from listening to stories debates and discussion talking and explaining, repeating back self talk recording, cooperative activities, team situations music
    • Section 3 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 76 Kinesthetic, tactile learners may benefit from cooperative activities, interactive lessons writing, signing feelings, emotions making models, construction dressing up plays and performances painting and clay playing music, rhythms games, outdoor activities different writing mediums Are there other considerations for multi-sensory teaching? Classroom organization plays a role in planning for multi-sensory teaching. Furniture arrangement can be altered to enable different types of engagement. Learners can be taught different arrangements for different activities and become very quick at changing the room and suggesting plans Learning Centers Groups Individual areas Check that the environment is supportive for viewing and listening. Check for visibility from various seats. Are displays in the way? Improve auditory quality with wall-hangings of decorated cardboard Scaffolding for writing and math can be made into posters/cards and displayed
    • Section 3 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 77 Furniture arrangement ideas for different purposes Group work with quiet tables Activity Learning Centers Individual work
    • Section 3 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 78 Circle time/class meetings Floor time in elementary grades- group listening(big book) or activity time
    • Section 3 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 79 Explicit teaching The explicit teaching cycle provides a framework to help introduce new concepts. Learning success is more likely to be recorded when the cycle is used alongside other effective strategies like multi-sensory teaching making appropriate adjustments (pg 100 - 101) The cycle, below, is a relevant strategy for all learners and allows teachers to monitor learner progress at each stage. Some learners with disabilities may need to repeat stages 3, 4 and 5 Cited in Department of Education & Children’s Services. 1994-5, Cornerstone, Modules 6 & 7
    • Section 3 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 80 Inclusive planning: Higher Order Thinking Skills (HOTS) BEC wants: Learners in the Philippines to be active learners using information in meaningful ways rather than only listening to lectures and recalling the information Teachers in the Philippines to use constructivist methods for teaching and learning Assessment that encourages learners to apply Higher Order Thinking Skills (HOTS) The role of teachers in constructivist methodology is to structure the learning environment for all learners to learn Guide the learners as they construct their own understandings building on what they have already learned What are HOTS and why are they important to teaching and learning? HOTS are thinking strategies that help learners understand a concept or topic at a deeper level than when they began. The intellectual challenge possible through use of HOTS: promotes learner engagement in tasks helping maintain attention & interest encourages links between what is already known and new information creates opportunities to use the old and the new to create new tasks/products/answers The methodology benefits learners by supporting them to: develop thinking skills grow understandings while learning increase enjoyment of learning & the subject for both the learner and teacher
    • Section 3 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 81 Build and develop skills for life self-direction and responsibility creativity and originality intrinsic motivation through success a sense of increased competency confidence and independence This happens because Connections are made between what is known & new learning Existing skills are built upon Problem solving, critical thinking and a sharing of knowledge are integral to the process These characteristics create scaffolds that support all learners to be successful Tasks are multi-modal and so cater for learning preferences How do I use the HOTS to plan activities for learners? HOTS incorporates a 3-layered learning process Identifying and planning Processing Applying
    • Section 3 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 82 Adapted from BEAM Learning Guide Help Tasks: • Identify what the task is • Identify what needs to be done • Identify who/ how it will be done • Develop a plan & timeline 1. Identify & Plan (Comprehension) - What am I asked to do? Tasks: • Gather information • Sort it for usefulness • Classify • Analyze • Make decisions on what to use and why 2. Processing (Analysis) What information do I need to find? What information will I use? Tasks: • Decide on layout • Decide on order of information • Select the information & use it • Check that it answers the task given 3. Applying (Synthesis) How will I put this information together? What order and why? What will I leave out and why? How do I check I have finished the task?
    • Section 3 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 83 The teacher plans the learning sequence around a rich question for learners to explore. The teacher has mapped out the evidence that will show if a learner has achieved the BEC competency. A rich question is one that stimulates thinking and initiates a variety of learning directions. The example on the next five pages illustrates how to integrate HOTS in a lesson sequence with adjustments to include learners with disabilities. The levels of questioning on activity sheet 1 can be viewed in Section 3 Speech and language impairment (pg 191).
    • Section 3 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 84 Everyone needs a pet?
    • Section 3 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 85 ACTIVITY SHEET 1 Draw or write the answers in the boxes What is Sammy’s gift? What colour is the puppy? Where will the puppy stay or sleep? Who gave the puppy to Sammy? Why is the gift special? What is the best place for a puppy to sleep? Why? How do you think Sammy feels about the puppy? Your question Level 1 questions Level 2 questions Level 3 questions Level 4 questions
    • Section 3 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 86 ACTIVITY SHEET 2 Record what others say NAME Do you have pets? What type? What other animals do you have?
    • Section 3 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 87 ACTIVITY SHEET 2 Record what others say Which ones are our pets? (Mark beside the picture.) Which other animals do you have? (Mark beside the picture) Other pets… Other animals…
    • Section 3 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 88 What does this look like when the teacher does it with the class? ALL: Whole class Sharing & Reflection SOME: Possible investigations:- Difference between pets and other animals Animals and survival Animals and business Regional agriculture Self assessment Teacher assessment ALL: Whole class introduction to poem ALL: Whole class works on Activity 1 Learners work through questions at their ability level. then.. MOST: Most learners work on Activity2 Choose appropriate recording format to maximize inclusion of learners BEC Competency Self assessment Teacher assessment Self assessment Teacher assessment Self assessment Teacher assessment Adjustments: Enlarge sheet to A3 and give Level 1 questions only Adjustments: Seat learner in front of teacher Adjustments: Learner makes bar graph of pets. Large paper, cut and paste 1:1 match of tally Adjustments: Learner talks about their graph with teacher prompting Adapted from a model by the BEAM In-service Team Adjustments: Learner uses picture sheet & puts tally marks
    • Section 3 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 89 Inclusive planning: All, Most, Some & Bloom’s Taxonomy "Think left and think right and think low and think high. Oh, the thinks you can think up if only you try!" (Theodor Seuss Geisel) All, Most, Some is a curriculum planning model conceived by Schumm, Vaughn, and Leavell (1994) It is an inclusive model because it is designed to cater for all learners in a class. What some will learn What most will learn What all will learn Bloom’s Taxonomy is a framework for thinking at different levels. The six levels are thought to be useful for development of higher order thinking skills or HOTS. The levels are sometimes described as hierarchical. Bloom’s taxonomy is a useful framework for planning using the All Most Some pyramid and also a useful tool for curriculum modifications and adjustments. (pg 98) This enables learners with disabilities to be included in a classroom program.
    • Section 3 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 90 Foundational thinking Higher order thinking Remembering (factual recall) Analyzing (examination of data) Understanding (comprehension) Creating (new products) Applying (using information) Evaluating (justification, decisions) Bloom’s Taxonomy
    • Section 3 Designing inclusive curriculum using All, Most, Some Nolimits:Teachersincludinglearnerswithdisabilitiesinregularclassrooms 91
    • Section 3 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 92 How do I use this model to plan inclusively? The process Choose the BEC curriculum competency or competencies you will be addressing Select a topic List what learners need to know and demonstrate in order to achieve the result List the prerequisite skills and capacities learners will need in order to be successful Rationalize the list to reflect what All, Most & Some learners will do and learn Identify the adjustments, strategies and resources needed Select assessment methods There are some things to consider when using these 2 models. The pyramid does not mean that learners with disabilities can only be taught at the All level. Learners interests, knowledge and capacities will vary depending on the topic, previous experience and strengths. Learners need opportunities to learn in all domains Learning at the All level should include hands-on active learning discussion group work interesting recording and reporting Learning at the All level should NOT rely on worksheets repetitive exercises fact finding Direct instruction may be needed at various points at all levels The verbs the teacher uses when designing lessons help to tell the thinking level of each task Use the chart to design activities at each level.
    • Section 3 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 93 Bloom’s Taxonomy Verbs Possible activities Some Evaluate Judge, Select, Decide, Justify, Debate, Recommend Determine, Critique, Evaluate, Prepare a list of criteria to judge something, Write a report Debate an issue Make a brochure to sell an idea Make a presentation Create Create, Invent, Compose, Plan, Construct Design, Imagine, Devise, Formulate, Hypothesize Invent a product for.. Plan how to sell something Design a record, book or magazine cover. Devise a way to … Compose music or a song Most Analyze Analyze, Distinguish, Examine, Compare Contrast, Investigate, Separate Advertise, Take apart, Differentiate Design a questionnaire Write an advert or report Construct a graph Make a diagram to show relationships, Put on a play Write a song, poem Apply Solve, Show, Use, Complete, Examine, Classify, Choose Make, Put together, Change, Apply, Calculate, Modify Construct a model, mural Make a scrapbook or map Make a puzzle or game showing the ideas Design a plan Write an outline. Understand Explain, Outline, Discuss, Restate, Translate, Compare, Describe, Put into your own words, Find out more about Cut out or draw pictures Illustrate the main idea Make a cartoon strip Retell in your own words, Write a summary Prepare a flow chart All Remember Tell, List, Describe, Locate, Write, Find, State, Name, Identify, Label, Recall, Recite Make or draw a list of.. Make a timeline, Make a poster Make a chart showing.. Tell a story or poem
    • Section 3 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 94 YEAR 3 Math Lesson- Points, Lines, Planes Reynante Solitario The lesson aims to consolidate basic terms in geometry and show the relationships among these terms. Aside from learning and seeing the importance of the study, the lesson is inclusive and fun. The use of HOTS is evident because at every stage, as learners engineer their product, they are analyzing and refining creating and recreating evaluating and re-evaluating The lesson is designed with a class of 60 students in mind. In the class there is a learner with physical disability, a learner with intellectual disability, a learner with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Materials for the whole group sticks (could be locally collected) plastic twine (50 cm. length cut-outs) newspaper (half-page cut-outs) masking tape (3 inches length cut-outs) class money The teacher will act as a store owner who buys and sells products. They will sell personal belongings and buy the materials needed to complete the task. The only available products will be the materials used for building a tower. Introduce learners to the process. ALL LEARNERS CAN BE INVOLVED AT EVERY STAGE IN THIS LESSON Adjustments for optimum inclusion of some learners are suggested. The design of the lesson is very supportive for learners who have visual, kinaesthetic, auditory learning styles logical/mathematical, interpersonal, verbal/linguistic, visual/spatial, body kinaesthetic, naturalist intelligences
    • Section 3 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 95 Task: POINTLINE TOWER Adjustments 1. Form groups of 6-10. Assign roles. a team leader that will lead you in planning and building a tower a timer who will keep time and record data 2 builders who will stay with the tower plan and talk with others about it 6 travellers who will consult with other groups builders about their towers Provide written instructions (board or paper) Cross out as completed Draw symbol pictures next to instructions to enhance understanding Rehearse process with class Learners are likely to self select a job that suits them. eg Active learners will enjoy travelling, learner with physical disability can be a builder, the learner with intellectual disability can be a builder’s labourer 2. Your group has no money to buy the materials you need to build the tower, so you have to sell your personal belongings to the store. The store owner buys the following belongings Polo (worn,removed) - Php 1,000/pc Shoes - Php 1,000/pair Socks - Php 100/pair Pack Bags - Php 100/pc Hat - Php 50/pc. The teacher chooses one or two learners needing extra practice with money to assist in the store job. Provide a buddy to help with transactions. Teacher asks key questions of some learners One learner can make calculations and keep a record of the money and materials Learner can record in pictures/symbols if literacy is low 3. Sellers/buyers will line up to sell their belongings and later purchase the materials. All groups will plan to build a tower based on the materials they have. They will have 15 minutes. Learner with intellectual disability arranges materials in groups as purchased & counts, records in pictures Learner acts as timing assistant & warns when 5 mins to go.
    • Section 3 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 96 4. The groups will now consult for 10 minutes. Builders stay with the timer & leader and talk to visiting travellers Travelers visit other groups and return to their group. They share what they have seen. Plans may be refined. Learner with intellectual disability cuts tape lengths and arranges on table edge Builder with physical disability responds to travellers questions Provide structure for gathering ideas – key questions, comparing amount of materials 5. When all groups are ready, give them a GO signal. Allow only 15 minutes to build a tower. When the time is up, students gather data on their outputs. Using a ruler to measure the height of group's tower. Record points, lines, planes Learner with intellectual disability hands materials on request to builders Learner with physical disability checks plans against design Learners with ADD are actively building and scanning other groups 6. Winning group/s will be determined by tower strength tower height most points most lines most planes least materials used creative design Learner with intellectual disability records points, planes on tally sheet Learner with physical disability may orally report / check figures, have buddy scribe 7. Leaders report to group on How they made the tower How their consultation affected their plan The data about their construction Team may select the most appropriate members to report. Roles may include: Holding report leading the speaking telling your piece of information with prompts showing a drawing 8. Display towers with data and reports around classroom
    • Section 3 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 97 Modifications and adjustments Teachers will plan for learners with disabilities in ways that support the learner to achieve require the least modification for success adjust the learning contexts to ensure access and participation Modifications What modifications can be made to a class program to ensure participation of the learner? Four levels of intervention can be considered. 1. Same as for other learners with adjustments 2. Same activity/different level 3. Same activity/embedded skill 4. Different activity/different skill At every stage the learner could have some adjustments (pg 100-101) in place. Learners might need less modification or fewer adjustments for some lessons because of their skills, knowledge and strengths.
    • Section 3 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 98 Some examples of modifications at each stage. Participation level Lesson/activity Modification Adjustments English writing none Dark lined paper Writing framework 1. Same with adjustments Maths exercises none Paper in columns Answers given for checking Maths addition Class- tens, units Learner with disability 1:1 correspondence Concrete aids, prepared sheet, peer or volunteer if needed 2. Same activity Different level Learner is working as others but on a task at own level Geography maps Class – map scaling Student learning Map labelling Finished model shown One instruction at a time given Science report Simplified format – First, then, what happened? Student learning sequences Format provided Verbal prompts & cues, rehearsal Verbal presentation 3. Same activity Embedded skill Goals may be different to the rest of the group Sport games Learner time keeps - focus is 5 minute clock intervals Adult or buddy Time sheet to mark Clock, prompts English reading Class –reading activities Learner in small group – letter recognition Concrete letters or cards or game ie fish game, prepared sheet 4. Different activity Different skill Parallel activities or alternatives Maths calculating area Learner cutting and pasting to fill a shape- focus gross motor & shapes Prepared work area Modelling Adult monitoring
    • Section 3 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 99 Adjustments What are adjustments? Adjustments are special measures put in place to ensure learners can access and participate in learning activities. Particular adjustments may need to be available to the learner every time they undertake some tasks. For example Dark lined paper for a learner with vision impairment each time they write A learner with hearing impairment in the left ear, seated at the front with the right ear closest to the teacher Others adjustments may be contextual. For example A learner may benefit from additional time in writing tasks but not need it when doing maths. A small group might be needed for developing reading skills but is not required in Makabayan How do I find out what adjustments are needed for learners with disabilities in my class? Ideally, information about adjustments will be documented in the learner’s IEP. Other sources of information could be Itinerant teachers Special Education or Resource Room teacher the learner or their parents reports from specialists, support services colleagues, previous teachers When adjustments are specified in the IEP, teachers are required to implement them. ** Some learners without disabilities may also need adjustments
    • Section 3 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 100 What types of adjustments can be made in regular classes? Adjustments can be made to how learning is presented, the class setting in which it is presented, the type of tasks students will do, the timing considerations for various components of the learning process. Presentation of learning Variations in student tasks alternate new learning with practice repeat instructions visual cues- pictures, charts, drawings tapes, videos use large print, different paper low vision aids, Braille provide models of what is required hearing devices signing& interpreters provide overviews and summaries before explanations highlight key words, ideas, scribing by adult or peer verbal hands on access to a computer model making, drawing photos watch DVD rather than read voice activated software signing Braille writer modified homework(equitable time) accept drafts, note form
    • Section 3 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 101 Class settings Timing considerations small groups in class with peer support hospital separate venue or room home provision of special equipment vary seating arrangements provide a quiet place adjust lighting improve auditory quality with wall hangings, posters, floor mat extra time to look, think, read extra wait time for answers extra time to complete task reduce tasks alter time of day for task completion task in short bursts over the day task completed in several sessions over a few days frequent breaks during activity to refocus, re-energise
    • Section 3 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 102 3. Including learners with disabilities
    • Section 3 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 103 About including learners with disabilities The previous subsections ‘Holistic approaches & learners with disabilities’ and ‘Inclusive curriculum’ have set the scene for success for learners with disabilities. The sections emphasize that effective teaching methodologies are supportive of all learners the planning models presented can incorporate additional modifications and adjustments for learners with disabilities in a whole class context This section ‘Including learners with disabilities’ now looks at the specific characteristics and learning needs of students with Attention deficit disorder Autism spectrum disorder Intellectual disability Learning disability Physical and multiple disabilities Sensory Impairments Hearing Vision Social and emotional problems Speech and Language impairment Teachers can quickly locate the information they need to support referrals for specialist services, and to help plan for the inclusion of learners requiring specific modifications and adjustments. What do I do if I think a learner may have a disability? The flowchart can assist teachers to visualize a process for planning and intervention.
    • Section 3 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 104 Planning process for learners with disabilities Note: Referral to the Sped Center, Medical Center, Specialists or LGU will depend on the identified needs of the learner. The LGU provides assistance for further assessment, screening and medical diagnosis. START HERE
    • Section 3 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 105 Attention Deficit Disorder About Attention deficit (hyperactivity) disorder (ADD & ADHD) Attention deficit (hyperactivity) disorder is referred to as a hyperkinetic disorder. It can occur with and without hyperactivity. Hyperactivity means overly active and is characterized by persistent inattention, hyperactivity or both outside what would be expected at a similar developmental level. More boys than girls present with the hyperactive form. In very young children it is difficult to separate normal behavior variations from disordered behavior. The American Psychiatric Association diagnostic manual focuses on children from 7 years. Recognizing ADD & ADHD ADD/ADHD requires a formal diagnosis by a qualified professional. First, the practitioner will rule out a range of other problems and conditions that might be causing the behavior. They should seek information from a variety of sources to see if the behaviors are present in all the settings of the learner. Teachers Parents Others who know the learner well They will look for the presence of characteristics/behaviors before 7 years of age occurring for at least 6 months in multiple settings – school and home affecting the learner’s functioning in various settings There is no certain medical test that confirms or refutes a diagnosis and research indicates that learners may have other learning difficulties or conditions as well as ADD/ADHD. The following checklist is a guideline for observation only. Teachers should discuss information gathered about any particular learner with parents and special education teachers.
    • Section 3 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 106 Attention Deficit Disorder Checklist Name: Grade: Date: Teacher: School: Learner may display a range of characteristics with varying frequencies Hyperactivity – impulsivity Attention Restless Fidgety Constant repositioning on seat Fast, chaotic movement Leaving a seat in situations Interrupting, blurting out Difficulty waiting Difficulty taking turns. Often distracted by irrelevant sights and sounds Misses crucial details in information Makes mistakes often as a result of incomplete information Significant difficulty following instructions Superficial or erratic task completion Changes activities often- without completing Mislays items Forgets things o names o personal gear o special occasions o essential equipment for homework Poor organization Delays in processing information Seems ‘dreamy’ or unobtrusively disengaged
    • Section 3 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 107 Parent comment and observations: Teacher comment and observations: Follow up: When:
    • Section 3 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 108 Adjustments Develop an IEP for the learner Find out about medication and set up recording measures to monitor this Create a routine environment. Let the learner doodle or fiddle with an appropriate object to help keep focused and satisfy kinesthetic needs Use visual organisation techniques o display timetables and refer to them o label things o put up cue questions Avoid components that are distractive o minimize dangling display o ensure line of sight to teacher/board is clear o minimize interfering noise o keep formal aspects of lessons shorter Arrange the learner’s seating for their needs Teach relaxation techniques Give templates for writing formats Support development of organization skills(see Autism Spectrum Disorder) Teaching strategies Learners with ADD/ADHD will be supported by good teaching practices. Some things to do of particular benefit:- Keep learner involved by talking less and asking the learner more Talk with them in a direct way Explicitly teach attending behaviors and strategies o Giving eye contact or focusing on a spot near the speakers eyes (ears?) o Using an acronym to help self regulate – SAFE (see Ideas) Use group work approaches to allow interaction and activity Incorporate learning preferences and multiple intelligences – especially the kinesthetic Choose multi-sensory activities
    • Section 3 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 109 Be visible and accessible Teach routines, practice, role play Use buddies to help with routines Break tasks into smaller chunks & list on checklists-teach the learner to make lists Use rewards and reinforcements Develop an intervention plan for dealing with unexpected issues Be aware of the learner’s legitimate need to move and program for breaks:- a run, energizer, exercise, game **All learners will benefit from this Ideas SAFE Make up a cue card/poster for the class that reminds learners about attending Sit upright Act interested Follow the teacher Look Enthusiastic
    • Section 3 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 110 CHECKLISTS/TIMERS Develop lists for the learner to keep track of what they need to do Provide times next to list items. Use a stop watch STOP! THINK! DO! Make a poster to help the child plan and manage problem solving Stop! Look and listen What is the problem? Think! What can we do? Think of ways to solve the problem Do! Let’s do it! Try out the solution (Petersen 2002)
    • Section 3 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 111 Resources Attention difficulties, poor impulse control, overactivity or ADHD (attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder):Teaching and managing children and school students Department of Education and Children’s Services, Sth Australia. A pdf document available on the website. http://www.decs.sa.gov.au/speced2/pages/health/chessPathways Learning Difficulties On Line – extensive resources and information on ADD/ADHD for teachers, parents and learners. http://www.ldonline.org/adhdbasics Stop! Think! Do! website with social skills programs for learners www.stopthinkdo.com
    • Section 3 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 112 Autism spectrum disorder About autism spectrum disorder Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is collective terminology. encompassing Autism and Asperger syndrome. They are pervasive developmental disorders (PDD). Other disorders in the group are Rett’s Disorder Childhood Disintegrative Disorder Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS). The word spectrum describes the wide variations in behavior, communication, intellectual and social functioning of those with Autism. Autism is characterized by impaired social interaction problems with communication both verbal and nonverbal repetitive, restricted activities and interests sensory difficulties International diagnostic criteria, recognizes differences between high functioning autism and Asperger syndrome, Both are part of the autistic spectrum, but those with autism show a delay in language and cognitive development Although they may have disordered language development these delays are not seen in Asperger syndrome. People with Asperger syndrome generally show more interest in the social environment but still require social skills to be taught explicitly. Both show mixed overall development with higher verbal abilities in those with Asperger but often a higher prevalence of motor difficulties.
    • Section 3 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 113 Recognizing autism spectrum disorder Learners with Autism may experience difficulties in the following areas Communication Social interaction Motor skills Sensory processing Organization Transitions Repetitive behaviors The checklist provided is a guide only, to assist teachers to better understand the learner who is having significant difficulties with learning. The information may then support referral to relevant specialists. Diagnosis of autism spectrum disorders is confirmed by qualified professionals.
    • Section 3 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 114 Autism Spectrum Disorder Checklist Name: Grade: Date: Teacher: School: Communication Social skills Motor skills Difficulties with both verbal and nonverbal communication, expressive and receptive communication. limited/no language lengthy monologues unusual language e.g. echolalia (repetition of language heard), modulation recurring questioning unusual and speech volume control undeveloped conversation skills attention, eye contact following instructions, sequencing literal interpretations of humor /sarcasm /idioms gestures; absent to exaggerated unaware of body language/facial expressions of others lack of response to questions, both verbal and written interest in facts/information appears naïve, socially immature lacks an awareness of their own and others emotions misunderstands social situations unaware of the effect their behaviour has on others insensitive to needs and feelings of others reactive to criticism, suspicious of others at risk of harassment perseverates on injustices limited/no initiation of social interaction reluctant or averse to risk taking for fear of failure poor motor planning skills e.g. judgement of space poor gross and fine motor skills avoids physical activities poor fine motor skills – writing legibility immature grasp/pencil grip reluctant to start work moves with an unusual gait
    • Section 3 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 115 Transitions Organization skills Sensory issues becomes upset when interrupted or asked to stop starts again if interrupted becomes upset when activity finishes refuses to stop is anxious if there is a change in routine reacts poorly to the unexpected behaves poorly around strangers demands things be done in a particular way messy work area frequently unable to find items easily distracted from the task assignments late, not finished (or started) forgetting to give notes to parents forgetting to return notes, bring gear written work erratic limited diet reactions to smells negative responses to dirt, paint, glue adverse reactions in noisy situations ie covering ears – assembly, music removes clothes leaves clothes on for inappropriate weather appears frightened reacts to touching parent reports afraid of hairdresser, dentist distracted by the sensory input becomes upset when sensory input is stopped doesn’t seem aware of or indicate injury over reacts to minor scrape, bump Comment/Action: When:
    • Section 3 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 116 Adjustments Communication Know about the learners communication method e.g. verbal, pictures, signing expressive and receptive language level the learner’s ‘nuances of language level of questioning (pg 197) provide instructions at individual level and in multi modal way - verbally, written, chunked and check for understanding Social skills provide clear expectations and be prepared to revisit often role model social situations teach flexibility and cooperation – allow time to incorporate – give cue cards of skills to learner provide positive strategies for reporting and dealing with harassment help student monitor own social behavior with positive reinforcements Motor skills provide prompts, cues for starting work involve in motor skills program provide larger sized pencils or special grip alter expectations of writing allow more time to write Organization set up a personal work space for the learner clearly name personal items have visual lists of things in the learners work area or diary give a copy to parents workbook/folder place tray near student or attach a bag for books to student’s desk
    • Section 3 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 117 colour code folders, workbooks, worksheets provide student with a map which has classroom colour coded to corresponding subject to keep things consecutively fold back tip of page or number pages consecutively provide home with a time schedule picks up notices on specific day when she picks up her son/daughter Transitions Get to know o learners reaction to changes o what works in preparing for change o particular rituals and routines accommodate routines if possible and appropriate share information and strategies with other teachers provide family with a visual schedule for home engage in small changes rather than big changes provide adequate time for transition provide student with a map of the school Repetitive behaviors Learners with Autism Spectrum Disorders may engage in repetitive actions such as hand flapping, flicking items, rocking. Sometimes these actions allow them to disengage from sensory overload in their environment. Other times they could help the learner relax. Behaviors can be more prevalent in times of stress or anxiety. Control of the behaviors is often more achievable than trying to remove them completely. Designate a particular time for the behavior Replace inappropriate objects with appropriate objects – ie banging hands on a basketball rather than a table, throwing a ball against a wall rather than stones Sensory processing monitor after falls/accidents change the environment if possible tailor learner’s work area place leaner’s things out of main traffic zones allow movement at another time or different direction
    • Section 3 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 118 give lunch at an alternative time provide equipment that can be used e.g. ear plugs, walkman, rubber cushion, heavy blanket skill the student as to what he/she can do e.g. get a tissue and wipe paint off handle of brush provide sensory input Teaching strategies Communication use simple precise language avoiding idioms or sarcasm seat at the front of the class repeat/rephrase instructions and use visuals allow wait time to process information and give a response encourage eye contact but do not demand it – many learners with Autism have peripheral vision and have a good view prepare for attending by giving verbal cues:- Say their name and instruct ‘Flordy, look at me! Listen to this, it’s important!’ explicitly teach o conversation skills o how to ask for help o class routines make a special time for talking about special interests Social interaction teach rules use social stories (see Ideas) design and implement a social skills program o feelings o taking turns o sharing o play o interpreting body language/facial expressions o displaying facial expressions
    • Section 3 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 119 Motor skills accept alternative assessment to writing- verbal, graphic organizers, scribing, dot points involve in sport lessons in interesting ways – time keeper, scorer, referee, equipment manager reward alternative roles as authentic components of sport Organization have extra pencils and other equipment to avoid delays in getting started, or anxiousness break instructions into chunks and give visual back up use folder with divider pages, rather than a lot of separate books provide scaffolds to help organize writing - templates organize alternative ways to get information home to parents monitor recording in the diary Transitions teach relaxation introduce change to the learner ( see Ideas) use visual schedules (pg130-131) timetables, calendars use social stories (see Ideas) use pictures, photographs of student doing a variety of tasks and use them to forecast changes eg: - Show picture of learner packing up and say ‘Sammy, in 5 minutes it’s time to pack up.’ Repetitive behaviors include on visual timetable, time for learner to engage in the behavior minimize needs by providing opportunities for sensory input
    • Section 3 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 120 Sensory processing get to know sensory stimuli affecting the learner make time for positive stimuli and use as a reinforcer provide sensory activities as part of the program predict difficult stimuli times for the learner and prepare or reschedule make use of social stories provide visual cue cards Adapted from Autism SA Factsheets www.autismsa.org.au Ideas Q CARDS For learners who ask many questions in class, provide a designated number of question vouchers per session. Role play how to use them. Teach using a social story. SOCIAL STORIES Social stories are short personalized stories explaining a social situation to the learner. They can be on any topic where the learner is having difficulty working out the hidden social rules. Social stories have 4 parts. Each part has one or two sentences Descriptive Sentence Directive Sentence Perspective Sentence Control Sentence Use the model on the next page to help design social stories.
    • Section 3 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 121 An example of a social story Rhiza’s Questions The teacher tells the class what to do. Everyone listens. When she stops talking we all start our work. I am listening to the teacher. I have a question to ask. I wait to see if the teacher tells the answer. If I don’t know what to do I think I look at what my friends are doing I ask my friend If I still don’t know I can use a question card. I can use 2 question cards in the lesson. When the teacher is telling the class what to do she is happy when we all listen. It is good to wait until she has finished talking to see if I know what to do. The teacher likes me to ask my friends what to do and to use a question card only if I still need help. I remember that I need to listen when the teacher tells us what to do. I think about what she is saying. I try to find out what to do by myself. When I have tried to find out what to do, I can use one of my question cards.
    • Section 3 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 122 SURPRISE SESSION This strategy may assist learners with Autism who are sensitive to transitions. At the end of each day, forecast the next day’s activities. Include a ? box in the schedule. This spot is the surprise session . Resources Autism South Australia www.autismsa.org.au Autism society of America www.autism-society.org Autism Web: a parent’s information website www.autismweb.com/
    • Section 3 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 123 Intellectual disability (mental retardation) About intellectual disability Learners with an intellectual disability will have skills significantly lower than their peers of the same age. They are likely to need significant support and curriculum adjustments in order to have success with learning. They will have impaired skills in: cognitive ability learning adaptive behavioural skills (skills needed for everyday living: communication, self-care, home living, social and/or interpersonal skills, use of community resources, self-direction, functional academic skills, work (if appropriate), leisure, and health and safety There is a range of intellectual disability; mild, moderate, severe and profound. The term intellectual disability is now more commonly used than others such as mental retardation, mentally handicap, intellectual handicap. Some common causes of intellectual disability are: Factors occurring before birth Rubella and other diseases Rhesus blood incompatibility Drug, alcohol abuse Injury to the mother Genetic or chromosomal syndromes (Down syndrome, Fragile X) Problems with the birth ie Lack of oxygen, injury at birth
    • Section 3 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 124 Factors following birth Diseases like meningitis, encephalitis, measles Accidents – electrocution, on the road, near drowning Severe allergic reactions Malnutrition – iron and iodine deficiency Poisoning Recognizing intellectual disability Intellectual disability needs to be diagnosed by a qualified practitioner. Impairment criteria Intellectual disability is determined by a standardized psychometric assessment and/or adaptive behavior assessment. The checklist provided is a guide only for teachers in order to better understand the learner who is having significant difficulties with learning. The information may then support referral to relevant specialists. Learners with intellectual disability are likely to need support in the classroom in one or more of these areas attention engagement behaviour management relationships with other students resources curriculum planning health & personal care
    • Section 3 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 125 Intellectual Disability Checklist Name: Grade: Date: Teacher: School: Early development Social skills Curriculum Difficulties significantly below age peers with sitting up, crawling or walking learning to talk correct articulation ( for age) remembering things –eg safety rules playing, singing dressing and undressing eating & drinking independently learning personal information, to count Significant difficulty with learning social rules picking up social cues displaying appropriate emotional range playing with others (parallel rather than with) seeing consequences of actions solving problems independently self regulation of behaviour eg perseveration, wating thinking sequentially obsessive or repetitive behaviours/actions adherence to routines – finds transitions hard self help eg personal hygiene Significant difficulty with most/all curriculum areas learning letters and words
    • Section 3 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 126 Attention Motor development understanding and responding to questions oral expression – retelling events learning a second language following instructions, repeating reading general knowledge writing counting, matching other Significant difficulty with listening concentrating attending mental fatigue physical restlessness impulsiveness Significant difficulty with pencil grip drawing letter formation self-management in the physical movement – eg sitting still physical stamina physical activity coordination
    • Section 3 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 127 Comments Follow-up Who/What When
    • Section 3 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 128 Adjustments One list will not necessarily meet the needs of all learners with intellectual disability. In the first instance:- Utilise the learner’s IEP for information about the best supports for them Liaise with others – the special education teacher, resource room teacher, services, colleagues, parents Seek out local resources - volunteers Think big and start small Negotiate with your principal for the support you need to plan effectively In the classroom Remember to personalize curriculum Set learners up for continued effort and motivation 80% success, 20% challenge Negotiate homework Look for learning in smaller chunks Praise and encourage effort rather than outcomes Use learner strengths Remember that all children can learn
    • Section 3 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 129 Teaching strategies Find interesting relevant things to learn Use real things in the child’s experience to help connect learning Use favourite things for the same purpose Keep the child active in tasks rather than listening and answering Break tasks into smaller chunks Use prompts as needed Use backwards chaining Use a multi-sensory approach o gestures o actions o facial expression o practical demonstrations & written examples o verbal explanations Use repetition Lots of active practice Say the same thing in a different way Say the same thing with gestures Say the same thing and show a visual cue One thing at a time Model what to do Give practical demonstrations Talk as you show Let the learner copy alongside you, then repeat what you did with verbal coaching Stick to a routine way of doing things, even use the same language Show what the finished product looks like Demonstrate how to deal with mistakes too! Teach & practice self talk:- o Talk through routines as you go
    • Section 3 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 130 o Repeat & practice internally the things that need to be learnt o Demonstrate - multi sensory o Prompt to help internalise Give help when it is needed Set up for success Give a choice of two answers Quietly put a marker under/near needed text Start a sentence for the learner to finish Tell the answer as if you knew they were about to say it and re ask in a few moments eg ‘Yes, Rhiza was on her way home…where did you say she was going?’ Use guided movement Ideas Communicate regularly with the learner’s parent through a communication diary or note book (Section 2 pg 41) VISUAL SUPPORTS Put a range of visual supports in the class Labels and signs Tape a cross on the floor where the learner will sit for some activities Provide proformas to help the learner organize work PERSONAL ACTIVITY KIT Set up a container or area with preferred activities and resources for the learner to access if a break is earned or they are tired. Books, games, sensory toys/equipment, tape
    • Section 3 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 131 VISUAL SCHEDULES Make visual schedules to help with routines and transitions. Send copies of the visual schedule home or make a home specific one. Sammy’s schedule Unpack my bag Reading for10 minutes Writing for 10 minutes Do my maths Choose an activity
    • Section 3 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 132 ACTIVITIES FOR MOTOR SKILLS Play dough (make shapes, letters, numbers) Using pegs Cutting Packing up activities, bunching things with rubber bands Playing with puppets Typing ACTIVITIES FOR INDEPENDENCE Give responsibility and then record efforts Putting up the chairs at the end of the day Giving out equipment Taking messages to another class Make charts to show progress, achievement, earn rewards Try to instigate cooperative rewards – the learner completing their schedule earns rewards towards the whole class total. Encourage social skills development and class team building by getting everyone to ‘catch’ the positive behaviours of classmates. When someone reports ‘catching’ a classmate, a piece of paper with their name on it is added to a container. At the end of the day/week a name is drawn at random from the container and that learner chooses a class activity for everyone to do I was caught… Listening in group time Helping someone Sharing ideas Attending Asking a question Self correcting in reading Trying hard Using manners Finishing my work
    • Section 3 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 133 Resources Resources for teachers in many areas of disability and learning difficulties http://specialed.about.com/od/devdelay DepEd to input local resources here. Down syndrome association of the Philippines http://downsyndrome.org.ph/ Dual diagnosis – Autism and down syndrome http://uk.geocities.com/grahamdavidcook@btinternet.com/index.htm Teachnology website – online resources for teachers of students with intellectual disability http://www.teach-nology.com/teachers/special_ed/disabilities/down/
    • Section 3 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 134 Learning disability About learning disability Learners whose skills are below expectation for their age and ability may be identified by parents or teachers as having learning difficulties. A small percentage of these may have learning disabilities. Learning difficulties and learning disabilities are different. Research suggests that about 10-16% of learners may have a learning difficulty which could develop as a result of one or more of the following: developmental delay, eg speech and language difficulties poor coordination, eg fine and gross motor skills emotional difficulties and/or trauma limited environmental experiences deficiencies in appropriate educational opportunities interrupted or non attendance at school illness Learning disabilities is a term used for learners with average or above intelligence yet who show signs of developmental and academic skills considerably below expectation for their age and general ability. Research suggests around 2-4% of children and students may have a learning disability A learning disability may include difficulties with the following: 1. confusion with text 2. working memory 3. sensory processing 4. communication 5. motor skills
    • Section 3 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 135 What are some different types of learning disability? Several types of learning disability are well documente d.
    • Section 3 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 136 Recognizing learning disability As soon as teachers recognize that a learner is experiencing difficulty they have an ethical and professional responsibility to address these needs. The following checklists will assist with identification of learners who are at risk of having a learning disability Teachers can gain additional insights into the areas for intervention find out about specific areas to design interventions discuss with the school-based learning group provide a basis for discussion with the special education teacher identify learners who may require further assessment
    • Section 3 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 137 Learning Disability Checklist Name: Grade: Date: Teacher: School: Language Difficulties with: phonological skills understanding and responding to questions oral expression sequencing words in sentences summarising information retelling stories, events learning a second language articulation reading comprehension reading decoding naming words written language spelling
    • Section 3 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 138 Motor skills Difficulties with: pencil grip copying text handwriting legibility letter formation motivation to write writing speed self-managing of physical movement – eg sitting still physical stamina Attention Difficulties with: listening concentrating attending mental fatigue physical restlessness impulsiveness self-management strategies Memory Difficulties with: recall of facts learning lists – ie alphabet remembering and following verbal instructions remembering sight words sound sequences trouble studying for tests Comment:
    • Section 3 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 139 Follow up: When: Adjustments Do Ask the learner about their strengths what things are helpful for them what things are not helpful how they can show what they know and can do Highlight the correct things in the learners work Provide scaffolds that help the learner Possible strengths practical dexterity problem solving approach spatial skills creative thinking imaginative visual thinking average/above average IQ strategic thinking oral presentation skills social
    • Section 3 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 140 Don’t Correct every mistake in the learner’s work Ridicule or compare to other learners Give the learner screeds of information to learn Make the learner copy notes read aloud if not confident redo written work finish off everything no matter how long it takes change their writing style Handouts Use supportive fonts when designing handouts – Arial, Comic Sans MS and Microsoft San Serif ***Fonts that have serifs like Times New Roman can make the letters in words appear to run together Use a larger font size – about size 14 Use note form in succinct dot points instead of prose Instead of underlining important things, put them in bold Start new sentences at the beginning of lines Leave space between paragraphs Provide the learner with a highlighter to mark important points or words Teaching strategies ** All learners will benefit from these approaches Recognize and use the strengths and interests of the learner Reward learner efforts Focus on assessment of concepts rather than conventions
    • Section 3 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 141 Break instructions into chunks Provide clear, unambiguous, sequential instruction Teach prerequisite skills beforehand Build in practice opportunities to internalize new skills Use multi sensory (pg 75) approaches Incorporate the explicit teaching cycle (pg 79) when teaching new concepts Reading Spend 5-10 minutes previewing texts before reading and reviewing texts when resuming reading Look at the cover, title, pictures Discuss, predict, question and relate to learners experience. Teacher scans pictures/text for difficult words and asks learner to find item and then the words Use Paired Reading (see Ideas) to familiarize learner with a new text and build fluency Writing Give more time for drafting & editing Select key tasks to be undertaken rather than all Model – show a completed example of what is required Accept notes and drafts as the assignment Use cloze Use images, story boards, cartoons
    • Section 3 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 142 Teach editing strategies TOWER & WATCH (see Ideas) Allow use of word processors if available Provide scribing (teacher or buddy) Provide notes to highlight and learn from Create user friendly handouts Note taking Why is the learner taking notes? Write down the main points & terminology for learners Provide handouts, summaries, copies of notes, OHTs Avoid dictation Provide guided, structured lectures – write key points on the board Indicate key points/changes in topics Allow students time to absorb and process information Teach use of graphic organizers to map key points Tests, assessments, reports Prepare learners with what will be in tests Allow open book tests Give oral instead of written tests Allow test questions to be read out Provide opportunities for learner to clarify Provide a scribe Use cloze sentence completion Use multiple choice Allow highlighting, underlining or circling of answers Allow for tests to be taken home Prepare alternative tests State questions in the positive – which one is correct? Allow use of supports – calculator, dictionary Give a mark out of questions answered
    • Section 3 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 143 Don’t penalize for spelling or grammar errors – focus on the answer Allow extra time or no time limits if learner is keen to finish Allow to resit Ideas PAIRED READING 1. Choose a text to read together. 2. The text should ideally be at an instructional level. 3. The learner holds the book and is instructed to follow the text while the adult reads a paragraph. 4. The adult reads at a reasonable rate and uses appropriate expression. 5. Next, the learner and adult reread the paragraph together. They do not stop for errors. The adult ‘pulls’ the learner along reading expressively. 6. The adult asks the learner if they would like to reread it alone. a. If no, the adult and learner read together with the adult fading in and out to let the learner take more control. b. If yes, the learner reads alone. The adult does not intervene or correct during the reading process. DICE WRITING & SPEAKING This simple strategy helps to extend ideas, structure story telling, reporting or writing, projects. Individuals or groups can form writing Cover the faces of the dice with the words Who? What? When? Where? Why? How? Learners roll the dice and add information as a result of the question that falls.
    • Section 3 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 144 SENTENCE MAKEOVERS This strategy assists learners to extend vocabulary and build understanding of grammatical structures. It aids learners in seeing how phrases and words in different positions in a sentence can preserve or change the meaning. It can also be used to understand the components of individual words and to learn mathematical facts 1. Learner writes a sentence or teacher scribes sentence on a strip of paper. Writer sounds out as they write. 2. Learner cuts sentence into individual words and reforms. 3. Student arranges words in other orders and comments on meaning changes. Provide punctuation marks as needed. 4. Teacher asks questions to elicit additional words to add into the sentence, writes the words on additional paper and has the learner place them. 5. Continue asking questions using who, what, when, where, why, how 6. The teacher can change the beginnings of extended sentences by moving phrases. The learner completes the sentence. Where is Mt Apo? Mt Apo is beautiful. Mt Apo is beautiful. Mt Apois beautiful. ?
    • Section 3 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 145 What is beautiful about Mt Apo? Where is the scenery? How beautiful is it? SUPPORTING WRITING & EDITING Teach these strategies to learners to help them maximize independence with their writing TOWER T think about the topic O organize the information W write E edit R rework WATCH W write down the assignment, due date, any special requirements A ask yourself if you understand Ask for clarification T Analyse the tasks of the assignment – how many parts, how many sessions available to do it. Schedule tasks. Ch Check each task as you do it with CAN C completeness A accuracy N neatness Mt Apo is beautiful.near Davao City The scenery on very
    • Section 3 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 146 Resources Learning disabilities and ADHD www.ldonline.org Dyslexia Action: assessment, education, training www.dyslexiaaction.org.uk Learning disabilities, learning styles www.ldpride.net
    • Section 3 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 147 Physical & multiple disabilities About physical & multiple disabilities A physical disability substantially limits one or more basic physical activities. Like other disabilities, physical disability can be mild to severe. At a mild level, a learner may successfully do most things that their peers can do. At a severe level they may require significantly more assistance in such areas as personal care, movement, communication and social inclusion. A learner with a physical disability could also be gifted. Learners with multiple disabilities have more than one disability of varying severity, affecting speech and language physical mobility learning intellectual functioning vision hearing Learners with physical /multiple disabilities can also present with behavior and or social problems and may have medical complications affecting their continuity at school, and the support they will need at school. Physical disability and multiple disabilities can occur for many reasons brain or other injuries before, during birth or close to birth brain and other injuries (eg spinal) through accidents, near drowning, electrocution, violence, abuse injury to the mother before birth premature birth syndromes genetic abnormalities disease malnutrition progressive conditions
    • Section 3 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 148 Some known conditions which can result in physical disability and/or multiple disabilities are: o cerebral palsy o spina bifida & hydrocephalus o muscular dystrophy o rheumatoid arthritis o arthritis o ontogenesis imperfecta o congenital malformation of the limbs o acquired brain injury o cancer o motor neurone disease Three physical disabilities are discussed in more detail. Cerebral palsy Cerebral palsy is caused by damage to the developing brain either before birth, during birth or in the first few years of life. The impairment depends on where in the brain the damage occurs. Often control of the muscles in the body is affected and the learner can experience uncontrollable spasms. It is not a curable condition. Cerebral palsy can impact on learning, but as with other disabilities, to varying degrees, depending on the severity of their condition. The range could include severe multiple disability to mild physical disability profound intellectual disability to gifted any combination Spina bifida & hydrocephalus Spina bifida occurs in the first few weeks of pregnancy and is a condition in which the bones in the spinal column do not completely develop and join. Children are born with a damaged spinal cord usually with part of it exposed. Usually surgery is required to minimize further damage. The higher up the spinal column the exposure occurs the more the person will be affected. Learners with spina bifida often have hydrocephalus which is caused by an abnormality blocking the proper circulation of spinal fluid. A build up of fluid creates pressure on the brain. A special tube called a shunt is placed in the head and the fluid can go to another part of the body. As the learner grows new shunts need to be inserted.
    • Section 3 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 149 Learners with spina bifida could also experience paralysis or loss of sensation to some parts of the body incontinence problems with learning ( although the full range of capability exists) Muscular dystrophy Muscular dystrophy is an inherited disorder characterised by gradual weakening of the voluntary muscles of the body. The most common type of muscular dystrophy is Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) an incurable, degenerative condition which only affects males and is inherited from a gene carried by females. Life expectancy is severely shortened. The condition is often diagnosed when children are toddlers. They may have problems attaining physical milestones, be excessively clumsy, have an unusual gait, and or lack physical stamina. As the condition progresses, symptoms become more pronounced, until the affected person becomes dependant on others for their care. Recognizing physical and multiple disability A learner with multiple disabilities is unlikely to escape notice in a regular school. However the characteristics particular to the individual learner will need to be ascertained. It is essential to seek specific information from parents and if possible, other specialists/therapists involved. An IEP needs to be developed to assist the school to plan for the needs of the learner The effect of physical disability on learning will vary from those who may have a relatively mild disability to more severe disability. The development of a learner with physical disability may be affected in one or more of the following areas: muscle tone, strength gross/fine motor skills mobility communication skills
    • Section 3 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 150 social skills personal health This could affect the way a learner participates in the classroom. They may experience difficulties with self esteem social inclusion information processing receptive language expressive language problem solving motor planning memory, attention learning new skills and concepts access and participation in learning stamina continuity of attendance at school owing to health issues The learner with multiple disabilities is highly likely to have significant difficulties in more than one of the areas above A learner with multiple disabilities enrolling at or attending a school is likely to be easily identifiable. Depending on the severity, it may also be obvious that a learner has a physical disability. The checklist provided is a guide only, intended for use by leaders or teachers to gather general information about the learner from parents, the student themselves guide discussion with other specialists form the basis of initial planning for support and modifications
    • Section 3 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 151 Physical & Multiple Disability Checklist Name: Grade: Date: Teacher: School Cause of disability brain injuries before birth during birth close to birth other injuries before birth during birth close to birth brain injuries through accidents near drowning electrocution violence/trauma abuse other injuries (eg spinal) through accident near drowning electrocution violence/trauma abuse injury to the mother before birth premature birth syndromes genetic abnormalities disease malnutrition progressive conditions other
    • Section 3 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 152 Diagnosed conditions cerebral palsy spina bifida rheumatoid arthritis muscular dystrophy arthritis ontogenesis imperfecta congenital malformation of the limbs acquired brain injury cancer motor neurone disease other Areas of development affected muscle tone muscle strength gross motor skills fine motor skills mobility communication skills social skills health other Impact at school self esteem social inclusion information processing receptive language expressive language problem solving
    • Section 3 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 153 motor planning memory, attention learning new skills and concepts access and participation in learning stamina continuity of attendance at school owing to health issues self help skills other Others involved: Additional information: Follow up Who/what? When?
    • Section 3 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 154 Adjustments Most learners with physical disabilities will be included in the same curriculum as others in their class. They may or may not need adjustments to better access and participate. Adjustments may be required in the four areas profiled in the section on adjustments (pg100 -101) Learners with multiple disabilities will usually need significant adjustments and curriculum differentiation to maximize inclusion in the classroom program. A range of people may be involved and a team approach is recommended. The IEP can be used to document what needs to be done differently to support individual learners. Where the learner has multiple disabilities or a significant physical disability the IEP is crucial in identifying how they will access the learning environment as well as what learning outcomes will be the focus. Particular attention may need to be given to physical access. Physical environment & class setting Ramps and pathways may need construction Classroom location may need to be negotiated:- one classroom may o already have a ramp o be larger and have room for special equipment to be used and stored o be close to the office or comfort room o be downstairs A comfort room may need modification The classroom furniture may need special arrangement to make space for the learner and easier access. The school yard may need to be vetted for access Equipment Learners with high support needs may require a range of special equipment to help them access and participate in curriculum. augmentative communication devices adjustable tables, chairs or wheelchair table frames/hoists to assist with repositioning for different tasks
    • Section 3 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 155 Respect for the learner with physical disabilities and multiple disabilities is paramount. Work with the learner, not on the learner. Check with the learner to find out what help they would like/need Involve the learner in discussion about them or talk about them somewhere else rather than in front of them. Give learners the opportunity to solve their own problems As for learners with other disabilities ask first and/or explain what you are doing or are about to do ie if you are going to reposition the learner explain and involve the learner throughout the process Repositioning Teachers and other staff involved in repositioning learners with physical disability need to lift and move learners in ways that are safe for themselves as well as the learner. Good movement takes practice and concentration. Two people may need to work together to move a learner. Professional advice may be available. Ask your principal to find this out. Some general principles to follow are Plan the move before attempting it Minimize the range of movements Protect your back Minimize repeated stress on the spine:-twisting, height of the load Move in a considered and smooth way – informing the learner will help them to contribute to the lift as much as they can Teaching strategies Having made adjustments to enable the learner to access the learning environment, the next stage is modification to curriculum to ensure participation in learning that maximizes independence for the learner.
    • Section 3 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 156 Social skills Encourage peer interaction and teach how to interact Provide disability awareness information for class members. Teach them to ask the learner first to see if they want help Award wheelchair buddy licences to other learners who want to support their classmate. Train them in safe wheelchair pushing. Be aware of the impact of health and personal care and mobility on social time with peers Count the lost time each week to get a picture of this Communication Learners will have a range of communication abilities depending on the level of disability. Severe physical disability and inability to communicate does not indicate an intellectual impairment. The less opportunity for practice given, the longer it will take for skills to develop. It is very important to ensure the learner has opportunities to communicate. Utllize the communication system that has been designed. Get to know the communication nuances of the learner eg poking out the tongue may be the learners way of indicating ‘no’, a kissing noise may mean ‘yes’. A grimace may mean ‘stop’. Wait for the learner to process the incoming information, motor plan and perform a response. Do not speak for the learner. Ensure the learner is positioned for optimum participation. Position yourself for optimum communication/interaction. Encourage others to speak directly to the learner. Social and emotional needs Teachers can take the lead in advocacy for o the learner, their strengths, their value as a contributor in the class o building positive attitudes in the community o setting a positive environment for the learner with a newly acquired disability, as they return to school o sensitive and supportive approaches for learners, aware of their limitations in comparison to peers and, of their declining condition
    • Section 3 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 157 Learners in secondary schools may need additional support and consideration as they encounter the issues associated with adolescence. This can be a particularly difficult time for the self esteem of learners with physical disabilities Learning program strategies Beneficial strategies will be different for each learner. Depending on the needs of the learner, the sections on intellectual disability and sensory impairments may provide useful strategies and ideas. Ideas that may match the profile of some learners include providing larger work sheets to allow for motor skills provide handouts to remove the need for notetaking. simpler work sheets/posters/wall displays- not text dense providing larger items to assist with grasp textas, foam around pencils modify sport to include the learner (see Ideas) volunteers to assist in the class use the equipment and programs assigned to the learner through the local consultants use different assessment methods – see section on Modifications and adjustments (pg 98) for learners with multiple disabilities or severe physical disability a higher level of curriculum differentiation is likely to be needed:- same activity/embedded skill or different activity/different skill Ideas Strategies which may assist students to learn include: SENSORY ACTIVITIES Provide a range of sensory opportunities for learners. Set up noisemakers, shiny objects, textures objects and toys, moving objects, different smells. Suspend objects in front of the learner Use guided movement to let the learner experience textures, noises so building knowledge of cause and effect relationships
    • Section 3 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 158 BALL GAMES Many mainstream ball games can be modified into table top games. Most learners are at a similar level – or équalizer’ restrictions for able-bodied learners can be introduced. Keep scores and as an added surprise, to decide winners roll dice and decide if team A(odds) wins or team B (evens) A range of games can be provided in a circuit as a tournament. Table bowling: Set up objects on a table top and roll a ball to knock them down. Able bodied learners replace them. Scores are kept. Able bodied learners can have restricted bowling – eg no hands Table basketball: Teams of learners roll balls off the table into a large bucket or bin. Keep scores. Time quarters and change ends at half time. Table ‘tennis’: table tennis balls are blown across the table top into ‘nets made of paper’. Blowing activities are excellent for respiratory health of learners with limited mobility. GROUP ACTIVITIES Tailored relays or obstacle races’: get the class to help identify what could be in a race that includes everyone Freeze: the learner with a disability can be responsible for ‘releasing’ classmates who are ‘frozen’ because they were caught in a game of tag. Time keeper: The learner times sporting matches and blows the time whistle. The learner throws the ball back to the referee after a goal is scored. MUSIC Design in-chair aerobics lessons for fitness, energizers during the day. Learners have wonderful imaginations for thinking up activities. Use the collective wisdom of the class to workout how to include the learner in folk dances and music performances. A learner with a significant disability may be able to beat a drum or blow a whistle or shake a maraca.
    • Section 3 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 159 Resources Christine Stopka, Ann Goodman and Claudia Siders. Inclusive ideas for learners with multiple disabilities. http://www.palaestra.com/featurestory.html Education Queensland website with resources to support a range of disabilities. Downloadable documents on physical disability http://education.qld.gov.au/curriculum/learning/students/disabilities/ Publications from the National Dissemination Center for children with disabilities http://www.nichcy.org/pubs/factshe/fs10txt.htm
    • Section 3 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 160 Sensory Impairment: Hearing About hearing impairment Hearing loss occurs when there is a problem with or damage to one or more parts of the ear or ears. Some people are born with hearing impairment and some can lose their hearing for many reasons like: physical trauma prenatal infections disease or illness upper respiratory tract infections heredity malnutrition blood incompatibility of parents medications long term exposure to excessive noise Hearing impairments can range from mild to moderate moderate to severe severe to profound People with hearing loss are sometimes referred to as “hard of hearing” or deaf. People who are hard of hearing can hear speech tones when wearing hearing aids. People who are deaf do not benefit from these.
    • Section 3 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 161 Recognizing hearing impairment An audiogram shows the results of a formal hearing assessment Page 153 of DECS 2004 Early intervention learning difficulties: Working collaboratively : Improving outcomes for learners The checklist provided is a guide only for teachers in order to better understand the learner who is having significant difficulties with hearing. The information may then support referral to relevant specialists. . A sample audiogram
    • Section 3 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 162 Hearing Impairment Checklist Name: Grade: Date: Teacher: School: Observations of one or more shows strained expression when listening be less responsive to noise, voice or music moves closer to speaker when talked to watches faces especially the mouth and the lips of the speaker often asks for repetition when talked to delayed or no responses to questions makes use of natural gestures, signs and movements has limited speech uses limited vocabulary speaks in words rather in sentences talks with poor rhythm Non-formal auditory screening tests Complete observation checklist Whisper test – stand or sit the learner 1-2 metres away, back facing the teacher. The teacher says numbers/words familiar to the learner and asks them to repeat. Coin-click test / noisemakers test – The learner sits or stands 2-3 metres away, back facing the teacher. The teacher tosses the coin/noisemaker and instructs the learner to raise their hand every time the clicking of the coin or sound of the noisemaker is heard. Comment: Follow up: When:
    • Section 3 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 163 Adjustments Teachers can learn the basics of the manual alphabet/signing and teach other learners.
    • Section 3 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 164 Numbers
    • Section 3 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 165
    • Section 3 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 166
    • Section 3 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 167 Words/Sentences
    • Section 3 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 168
    • Section 3 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 169
    • Section 3 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 170 Teaching strategies Communicating with learners who are hard-of-hearing Put the learner close to the teacher for better sound reception and visual cues Be sure the light, natural or artificial, falls on the teacher’s face rather than behind Reduce classroom noise levels with wall hangings, mats, curtains Get the learner’s attention before commencing talking Make use of the residual hearing by using amplification Speak slowly, clearly and face to face with the learner Rephrase - especially if the learner does not understand what was said Write key words or outlines when shifting to a new topic Seat or place the learner in a position with full visual access to the teacher May I go out?
    • Section 3 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 171 Communicating with learners who are profoundly/totally deaf Enunciate clearly to support lip reading Utilise sign language – teach signs to the whole class Finger spelling Back up verbal communication with writing/typing Provide the learner with copies of instructions assignments, summaries of discussions and key points Use body language, pantomime and natural gestures Prepare visual aids to supplement the lesson Use multi-sensory approaches Break up long sentences and instructions Choose simple words Repeat new words numerous times Assign a buddy for note sharing and discussion Have learners work in groups Use concrete aids Ideas “Talk to them not about them.” Reading While reading a story to the class, show the book or prepare visual aids. After the story, group the class into 5. Give each group strips of paper with the important details of the story. After 5 minutes or so, let them arrange the strips according to the sequence of the story. Each member of the group will stand while holding the strip. The first group to finish the sequence correctly will be declared the winner. Music Let the hearing impaired hold a stick or drum. While the other students are singing a song, the child can beat the drum every four counts. The teacher has to count showing his fingers for the child to follow. This way, the child knows that when the teacher shows four fingers, he has to beat the drum. After a week, the teacher may let the child beat the drum at the second and fourth beats.
    • Section 3 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 172 Survival Tips! Be patient. Stay positive and relaxed. Plan, plan, plan Be flexible Congratulate yourself for a job well done! Use the learner’s strengths Resources Strategies for teaching learners with hearing impairment http://www.as.wvu.edu/~scidis/hearing.html Hear-it AISBL is comprised of IFHOH (The International Federation of the Hard Of Hearing), AEA (Association Européenne des Audioprothésistes). Extensive resources to support teachers, families, stakeholders. http://www.hear-it.org/ Deaf Ministries International. Links to project in the Philippines http://www.deafmin.org/
    • Section 3 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 173 Sensory Impairment: Vision About vision impairment When one or more parts of the eye or brain used for processing images becomes diseased or damaged, a loss of vision can occur. Loss can be mild to severe. Treatment will depend on the severity and range from medical treatment and/or surgery to prescribing corrective lenses. Vision impairment is a term used to describe any kind of vision loss, whether total or partial vision loss. Vision impairment can interfere with acquiring information or interaction with the environment to the extent that special education instruction and related services may be needed. Some terminology Visual acuity: clearness of vision Partially sighted: visual acuity between 6/18-6/24 in either eye, with more than perception of light Low vision generally a severe visual impairment, not limited to distance vision. Low vision applies to all individuals with sight, unable to read the newspaper at a normal viewing distance, with the aid of eyeglasses or contact lenses. A combination of vision and other senses are used to learn, adaptations in lighting or the size of print or Braille may be needed. Other descriptions of low vision include: o Myopic - near-sighted or short-sighted, impairment seeing distant objects o Hyperopic - far-sighted or long-sighted impairment seeing close objects Legally blind: person has less than 6/60 vision in the better eye or a very limited field of vision ( see table below) Totally blind:- No vision. Learners use Braille or other non-visual media.
    • Section 3 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 174 Visual Acuity measures One way of understanding vision loss is to compare measures on a visual acuity scale. A visual acuity of 6/6 could be explained in this way. Detail from 6 metres away is what a learner with normal eyesight would see from 6 metres. If the visual acuity is 6/18, this person would need to be 6 metres away from an object that a person with normal eyesight could see from 18 metres away. Visual Acuity Distance from Object normal patient 6/60 60 6 6/48 48 6 6/36 36 6 6/30 30 6 6/24 24 6 6/18 18 6 6/15 15 6 6/12 12 6 6/9 9 6 6/7.5 7.5 6 6/6 6 6 Recognizing vision impairment The checklist provided is a guide only for teachers in order to better understand the learner who is having significant difficulties with vision. The information may then support referral to relevant specialists.
    • Section 3 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 175 Eyesight Checklist Name: Grade: Date: Teacher: School: Comment Behavior Limited attention span in reading or writing activities Makes excessive head movements or tilts when looking at print or reading Reluctant to commence reading, writing or close work Makes errors when copying, missing letters, words, lines Squints or frowns when looking at things- near or far Has problems tracking print- Loses place when reading, skips lines Holds book very close Omits words or makes errors when reading or copying Closes or covers one eye when reading or doing near work Confuses similar words Has unusual sitting posture when reading Tilts head excessively to one side, up or down Holds head forward to look at a distance Rubs or pokes eyes Turns head to apparently favor one eye Is nervous, irritable, tense or restless after maintaining visual Concentration is slow Misses some nonverbal cues Misinterprets social cues
    • Section 3 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 176 Comment Appearance of eyes Turned eye/eyes- in or out Frequent eye movements, quivering Frequent blinking Red eyes Frequent eye infections Watering eyes Light sensitivity Physical issues Headaches Sore eyes Feeling of pressure in, near, behind eyes Difficulty seeing clearly at distance Blurring of vision while reading or writing Print moves while reading or writing Seeing double Burning or itching eyes especially during or after close work Additional information: Follow up: When:
    • Section 3 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 177 Adjustments Respect the learner and build independence. Ask them what they need. Classroom environment Learners may need mobility training in their environment. Arrange class in an open plan, at least one wider aisle with easy access/egress Remove clutter Only change the environment if the learner has had prior warning Arrange space for special equipment Seat the learner in the most optimum position for their available vision (ask experts about this) Assign sighted buddies (ask first! ) Curriculum materials Increase the size of the font on printed materials or enlarge photocopies to the recommended size Use concrete materials Use dark lined paper (make a master of this to copy) Investigate supportive colors and textures for the learner and use these on the board, posters, flashcards, printed materials, embossed print Equipment There are many devices to help the learner with vision impairment. Equipment plus residual vision and other senses help with reading, writing and participation. Low vision aids include: computers –voice-activated software magnifiers special lighting large print materials Aids for learners who are blind voice activated computers, talking clock and calculator cane guide dog sighted guide Brailler - a system where print is converted to Braille
    • Section 3 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 178 Teaching strategies Multi-sensory teaching will ensure there are multiple entry points for learners. The kinesthetic, tactile and auditory domains are crucial for learners with vision impairment. Use the primary motivators of the learner Use the time to describe where objects are placed eg ‘Your pencil is at 3:00 o'clock.’ Use sighted classmates to dictate homework or other important tasks or ideas (ask first) Give explicit instructions and oral presentations ie If you are showing the class something, think of the exact language that describes – ‘on the top left corner of the page put ..’ rather than ‘up here put..’ Face the learner when you are speaking. Avoid commentating between instructions. Use local examples and teaching materials. Program in additional time for the learner to complete tasks or adjust tasks to make this equitable. Seek advice about this.
    • Section 3 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 179 Use alternative assessments (other than writing) to allow the learner opportunities to demonstrate the potentials of their skill and knowledge. Seek advice from experts to assist you with modifications Ideas Support the appreciation of classmates by making posters of inspirational statements of people the class admire. “The greatest tragedy in life is for people who have sight, but no vision.” - Helen Keller Profile the diversity in the class to build understanding that adjustments are made for everyone from time to time. Include all learners in the class in learning about Braille. Classmates will enjoy writing their spelling words or tables in Braille. Engage volunteers to make Braille resources using the Braille alphabet and a pen or pencil Make all flashcards, posters, resources with a tactile component. Other learners will also benefit. eg glue sand on letters Think of inventive ways to ‘write’ Learners write new words/key words on each others backs. Find inspirational material to build self esteem. A CREED FOR SUPPORT I am a person, just like you It is not necessary to shout when you talk to me Ask me what I want, not my companion I would like to know who is in the room with me Please identify yourself and the other people around Please tell me when you are leaving Show me the rail and some obstacles along the way Don't help me, ask me if I need help
    • Section 3 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 180 Resources Resources for the Blind Inc – a guide to services and locations in the Philippines www.blind.org.ph Wikipedia online encyclopaedia with information from a variety of sources. Other links are usually http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Visual_impairment Information about particular conditions affecting vision http://www.kidshealth.org/teen/diseases_conditions/sight/vi sual_impairment.html Inspiration from a sporting organization http://www.blindsport.org.nz
    • Section 3 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 181 Social and emotional problems About social and emotional problems They are many types and causes of social and emotional problems. Two areas will be covered in this section. Mental health Child abuse Mental health and mental illness are different. Mental health refers to the balance between all aspects of life - social, physical, spiritual and emotional. Mental health can affect how the various aspects of life are managed. It is an integral part of overall health. Mental illness refers to variety of diagnosed disorders and conditions, some are better known than others. Depression Schizophrenia Manic depression International research suggests that 1:5 people will experience a mental health problem some time in their lives. Mental Health is concerned with how a person: feels about themselves feels about others manages the ups and downs of daily life The most common forms of mental health problems in children and young people are emotional disorders, such as anxiety, phobias and depression hyperkinetic disorders, such as attention deficit (hyperactivity) disorder habit disorders, such as tics, sleeping problems, soiling post-traumatic syndromes after traumatic events like disaster, abuse
    • Section 3 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 182 Depression is the most likely medical disorder seen in school aged children. It affects thoughts, feelings, physical health and behaviors. Depression may be caused by family history, other general medical illnesses, some medicines, drugs and/or alcohol, other psychiatric conditions. Child abuse refers to ill-treatment of children. Abuse can be physical sexual emotional neglect Child protection in the Philippines is mandated in law: Republic Act No. 7610, "The Special Protection of Children Against Child Abuse". Other decrees make it more explicit what actions will be undertaken. Some targeted areas are child labor and prostitution. Details are available through the Department of Justice, Philippines http://www.doj.gov.ph/children1.html. Resources and support are available through the Child Protection in the Philippines resource network at http://www.childprotection.org.ph/ Recognizing social and emotional problems Risk factors for developing mental health problems Learners could be at risk of developing mental health problems when one or more of the following risk factors apply disability- learners with some disabilities are overrepresented in mental health prevalence data (autism, learning disability) family history of mental health problems family trauma- death, divorce, new marriage/family other health or development problems, such as physical illness communication difficulties low self esteem ,self concept having no friends
    • Section 3 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 183 bullying low school performance abuse, neglect inconsistent or unclear discipline low socio-economic circumstances Protective factors for prevention of mental health problems Learners may be less at risk of developing mental health problems, when one or more of the following preventative or resilience factors apply higher intelligence calm and positive temperament good communication skills at least one positive parent-child relationship a range of significant other people in the learners network secure attachments to and affection from others supervision and consistency from carers and teachers positive school experiences:-learning achievement, friendships, recognition positive home environment The checklist below is a guide for discussion only and cannot diagnose mental health problems or mental illness. It is important for teachers to discuss concerns with parents. The checklist does not confirm child abuse and is a guide only to raise awareness of teachers of the possibility of child abuse. Teacher need to discuss suspected child abuse with the principal. Reporting of suspected child abuse is made to Bantay Bata 163. Further information is available at the Bantay Bata 163 website http://www.bantaybata163.com/ There is a higher incidence of mental illness and abuse in people with disabilities.
    • Section 3 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 184 Checklist for social and emotional problems Name: Grade: Date: Teacher: School: Mental health indicators Feelings about the self enthusiasm coping with stress coping with disappointment tolerance of others happy with self Feelings about others consideration of others strong friendships positive connections to family trust of others trusted by others empathy Managing day to day life sets and achieves goals takes responsibility works through problems flexible approach to life involves themselves in new experiences Depression One or more symptoms will be present for an extended period of time. It is suggested that 2 weeks of continuous feelings requires further investigation loss of interest in previously enjoyed activities feelings of panic feeling sad, upset feeling lethargic or tired all the time feeling anxious feeling restless feeling worthless or guilty indigestion, constipation, diarrhoea loss of appetite weight loss thoughts of self harm
    • Section 3 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 185 forgetting things difficulty concentrating trouble making decisions sleeplessness or too much sleepiness headaches unexplained pain Child abuse Although these signs do not necessarily indicate that a child has been abused, they may help adults recognize that something is wrong. The possibility of abuse needs to be investigated if a child shows a number of these symptoms, or any of them to a marked degree: Sexual Abuse inappropriate affection or sexual knowledge for age complaints of pain in genital area extreme behaviors personality changes, mood swings regression in behaviour, wetting changes to eating behavior social withdrawal limited concentration, attention in school fear of known person/s nightmares becomes worried about clothing being removed drawing sexually explicit pictures trying to be 'good' or perfectly behaved’ Physical Abuse unexplained injuries covering of injuries running away fear of physical contact self harm aggression excessive punishment disclosed afraid of perpetrator finding out of disclosure
    • Section 3 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 186 Emotional Abuse underweight, failure to thrive onset of speech disorders self denigration fear of making mistakes fear of new situations rocking, hair twisting, head banging extreme passivity or aggression extreme reaction to raised voices reports being frequetly yelled, screamed or shouted at Neglect unusually hungry or signs of malnutrition lack of cleanliness and personal care fatigue, extreme tiredness often ill untreated medical problems poor social relationships scavenging lack of care for belongings/property frequent unexplained absences from school Adapted from the Kidscape website 2007 http://www.kidscape.org.uk/professionals/childabuse.shtml Risk/Protective factors The lists earlier in this section can be used as a framework to guide further discussion. Follow up: Who/what? When?
    • Section 3 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 187 Adjustments Learners with mental health problems, may not recognize that they are experiencing problems and so do not get the help they need. They might have trouble asking for help blame themselves not be aware that treatment is available or can help The teacher has an important role because they are often the first to notice problems. They can actively listen to the learner (if they choose to disclose to the teacher) advise of others the learner might prefer to talk with: friends, special relatives, a priest, imam or other spiritual advisor, another teacher or the principal use the checklist to guide discussion with the learner reassure them that they are not to blame for the difficulties they are experiencing and that help is available communicate with parents following discussion with the learner (a crucial step in getting the help that is needed) If there is a learner in the class experiencing problems in this area set up a support network for them at school create a ‘safe’ place for the learner to go if they are feeling anxious, overwhelmed, emotional work with families to manage medication, monitor the wellbeing of the learner, communicate
    • Section 3 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 188 Teachers are crucial in recognizing suspected child abuse If you suspect abuse and/or a learner discloses: • reassure them • find a quiet place to talk • believe them- even if the events did not occur the learner still needs help • actively listen • express respect that the learner has told someone • Affirm that you will do your best to protect and support them • Follow the procedures outlined in DepEd child protection policies • Put support mechanisms in place to support the learner (see Depression) • Stress that the learner is not to blame Adapted from the Kidscape website 2007 http://www.kidscape.org.uk/professionals/childabuse.shtml Teaching strategies It is important to raise awareness about mental health, wellbeing and child protection with the whole class, especially that help is available. When you notice some changes in behaviour or mood Start by saying you have noticed some changes and ask how things are going? Actively listen to the learner and tell them you will not judge them Recognize the point at which the problem needs to be referred to others After the diagnosis or report Take an interest in the treatment and how the learner is going Encouraged exercise, healthy eating and involvement in class and social activities Keep in touch with families or carers Develop support mechanisms to help the learner when
    • Section 3 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 189 problems arise at school Be flexible: Modify and adjust learning programs and expectations to cater for fluctuations in the learner’s wellness and emotional state It is NOT helpful to blame family circumstances tell the learner to get over their problems tell the learner they are lazy or need to try harder avoid the learner hope the problem will disappear Ideas WEBSITE RESOURCES See resources for a range of websites. Visit the Beyond Blue website for resources to share with learners and colleagues. The site deals with depression, anxiety, bipolar disorder and post natal depression. Many fact sheets and resources for teachers are available. A downloadable 30 session learning program is available that teaches skills to increase the capacity to deal with 'life' challenges. The program is built around the development of protective factors in learners sense of self worth sense of control sense of belonging sense of purpose sense of future sense of humor http://www.beyondblue.org.au/
    • Section 3 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 190 FEELINGS CHART Support learners with limited ability to identify feelings by providing a feelings chart. Specifically teach feelings. Happy Angry Tired Unwell Scared Bored Sad Confused Worried
    • Section 3 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 191 Resources The Philippines Bantay Bata 163 child welfare website http://www.bantaybata163.com/ Headroom: A mental health and wellbeing resource site for teachers, students, parents, service providers http://www.headroom.net.au/ Australian Institute of Health & Welfare free publications with the latest research http://www.aihw.gov.au/publications/index.cfm/ Federal Emergency Management Agency website for kids: After the disaster post trauma mental health checklist for children. Colouring book/story to help children understand disasters. Many games and resources. http://www.fema.gov/kids/tch_mntl.htm Bright futures, Georgetown University mental health resource website. http://www.brightfutures.org/mentalhealth/pdf/tools.html
    • Section 3 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 192 Speech and language impairment About speech and language impairment Speech and language impairment occurs when problems occur with the parts of the brain and/or body used to process and produce speech and language. This results in a communication disability. Speech and language delays may influenced by many factors, including environmental factors. Speech refers to talking. Language refers to the whole system of communication Other impairments may not cause speech and language impairment but could coexist with speech and language impairment. For example:- A student with a hearing impairment, could also have a communication disability. Five areas commonly affected by speech and language impairment are speech processing:-what happens in the brain after we hear speech or other noises speech production:-sequenced and coordinated movement of all the body parts needed for speech language processing:-understanding the communication message- whether written, oral, non-verbal language production:- planning and sending a message in the brain, using a conventional language system – written, oral, non-verbal language use:- choosing the right type of language for the context A learner with a speech and language impairment will have problems in at least one of these areas and as with other disabilities, each learner will be unique. Some learners may have severe communication disabilities that require augmentative communication devices or alternative language systems (signing).
    • Section 3 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 193 Recognizing speech and language impairment Speech and language impairments may occur in one or more of these five areas and be across the range mild to severe. speech processing:-recognizing speech sounds coming to them from a variety of sources speech production:-articulation, enunciation language processing:-understanding the way communication is sent to them- whether written, oral, non-verbal language production:- creating their own language using a language system understood by others – written, oral, non- verbal language use:- choosing and using the right type of language for the context The list below outlines some speech and language milestones that could reasonably be expected of most learners of about 5 years old – in their first language. Understanding of spatial concepts such as behind, next to, in front of Command of speech with some difficulties with long words eg sgabetti instead of spaghetti Spoken vocabulary of around 300 words Descriptions of simple processes and events- how to get to school Categorization of some words:- animals, fruit Understanding and answering complex questions eg using why?, why not? The following checklist is a guide only and cannot diagnose speech and language disorders and disabilities. The components are useful for teachers as a tool to better understand learners whose speech and language skills are of concern form the basis of discussion with families and educators with expertise in this area
    • Section 3 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 194 Speech and language impairment checklist Name: Grade: Date: Teacher: School: Speech processing Difficulties will be experienced with one or more of the following distinguishing differences between sounds following instructions completing all of a task tiring during talk sessions responding to questions Speech production articulation substitutions of sounds omissions of sounds distortion of sounds stuttering or lack of fluency hoarseness voice volume control vocabulary development Language processing understanding sounds and their connections to pictures interest in stories (lacking) understanding and asking questions understanding instructions attention and concentration word finding comprehension Language production asking questions and responding to questions responding to instructions summarising and retelling sequencing reading, decoding finding the right word learning a second language
    • Section 3 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 195 Language use cocktail language- retelling lacks substance or detail. eg We went there on the weekend and we saw them and they were good written language spelling Other depends on others to get started with tasks looks around when instructions are given or questions asked may do only part of a task answers to questions may be inappropriate may respond literally- ‘It’s a heavenly day!’- ‘No, it’s not it’s Monday.’ Comment: Follow up: Who/what? When?
    • Section 3 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 196 Adjustments provide written back up of instructions, tasks on the board or copied display charts and posters o class routines o checklist for starting a task o independently finding out what to do o getting ready in the morning/afternoon o with question starters teach self help skills teach routines Teaching strategies Rule out the presence of vision and hearing problems Use a multi-sensory approach to ensure learners have a range of modalities through which to understand Do introductory activities for new lessons to get learners tuned in to what is happening Pre-teach the vocabulary needed for the lesson- all learners will benefit from this Allow time for the learner to process language and formulate responses Questioning o Teach levels of questioning ( see Ideas) and ask the learner questions at their level of skill and to develop skills o Use a hierarchy of supports • Repeat • Repeat with different words • Simplify • Reframe as a statement • Add visual cues • Say the sentence and leave a gap where the right word or phrase will go • Say the answer as if the learner was about to say it, re-ask the question for the learner to repeat the answer
    • Section 3 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 197 Ideas ARTICULATION Speech games that target the focus sounds Rhyming games Tongue twisters Songs Nonsense words Have fun specifically teaching idioms and metaphors CUE CARDS/POSTERS An example of a visual cue to help learners with a routine remembering the routine of things to do in the morning A hand is ideal for a list of up to 5 things Homework on my table Look at schedule Bag on hook Check the time Pencils & books ready
    • Section 3 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 198 QUESTIONS Play cooperative card games in which learners need to ask for cards, match Use the who/what/when/where/why/how dice to frame stories, telling news, recounting events Use the Blank, Rose and Berlin levels of questioning to help plan the questions asked of learners at different levels. Level one questions equate closely to the Remember level of Bloom’s taxonomy (pg 93) Level 1 Show me what you touched. Show me what you heard. Show me a …. What’s this called? What did you touch? What did you hear? Can you find one like this? Say this … What did you see? What is this? Level 2 What is s/he doing? Find one that is … Tell me it’s … (colour, size…) How are these two different? Finish this … (eg ‘I like to…’) Where? Who? What things … (eg fly) Find one that can … (eg cut) What is happening? Level 3 Which one is not …? Find one that is … and … Find one that is not… Tell the story. What happened to all of these? Tell how …? (eg we made cakes) How are these the same? What could s/he say? What else … (eg flies)? What will happen next? What is a … (eg car)? Level 4 What could we use … (to fix…)? What could you do if …? How can we tell …? Why will…? Why wouldn’t you….? What will happen if…? Blank, M, Rose, S A, & Berlin, L, 1978, The preschool language assessment instrument, Pro Ed, Australia
    • Section 3 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 199 Resources Philippine Association of Speech Pathologists http://www.pasp.org.ph/pasp_pages/faqs_pg.html Online speech and language activities http://www.angelfire.com/nj/speechlanguage/Onlineactivities.html American speech, language and hearing associaiton http://www.asha.org/students/professions/overview/sld.htm About.com Special Education information website. http://specialed.about.com/cs/exceptionalities/a/speech.htm
    • No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 200 Section 4 Monitoring and review
    • Section 3 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 201 About monitoring and review The Republic of the Philippines Department of Education is committed to quality assurance and continuous improvement. Monitoring of the implementation of this resource, aligns with the purposes of the National Competency Based Teacher Standards (NCBTS). The standards are designed as ‘an integrated theoretical framework defining the dimensions of effective teaching where effective teaching means being able to help all kinds of students learn the different learning goals in the curriculum.’ The framework recognizes, that what teachers know and do, is the most important factor influencing student learning outcomes. It covers teacher self reflection on practice development of new teaching practices professional development planning use of common language in the profession, to frame discussion around teaching practices The Philippine Education for All 2015 Plan (2005) aims for a 2% increase in the numbers of learners with disabilities identified each year. Implementation of concepts and strategies in this resource will support the DepEd plan and the NCBTS by increasing the knowledge of teachers about planning and teaching for all learners, including those with disabilities enhancing the capabilities of teachers in regular classrooms in identifying learners with existing or emerging needs enhancing the capabilities of teachers in provision of quality educational programs, modifications and adjustments to support all learners increasing awareness of disability and disability issues in schools and their communities increasing connections between schools, special education expertise and the community advocating structures that build a culture of inquiry and partnership among teachers
    • Section 3 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 202 The intended audiences for the resource are: Receiving teachers of learners with disabilities or grade level teachers needing additional information to identify the learning needs of others in their classes Leaders who are new to the area of special education or require additional information to support teachers Special education teachers who are specialists in particular areas and need general information about other disabilities, curriculum and ideas Region, Division and District personnel with responsibility for special education Other stakeholders, volunteers and parents. Leaders and teachers may find some resources and information in the resource useful for sharing with these groups.
    • Section 3 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 203 1. Professional development The resource is designed as ‘front line’ general information for educators. It allows discreet sections to be provided to schools as required. For example: A teacher may receive a learner with hearing impairment and need some information to assist them to make adjustments until an Individualized Education Plan can be organized. The relevant section can be copied and forwarded. It can also be used as: a comprehensive professional learning program or as a whole or in sections teacher intervention planning to inform Region, Division, School based action planning a basis for professional discussion and learning with School Based Learning Groups information sharing with families and stakeholders a reference self directed learning with the E-Learning resource The Division Office can monitor the use and implementation of the resource through existing processes Monitoring the school action plan Accomplishment reports twice a year Visits twice a year Interviews and consultations Surveys and questionnaires School administrators can monitor improvement through existing processes. Quarterly accomplishment reports Performance management Interviews, consultations and feedback Informal and formal observation Implementation of the Individualized Education Plan
    • Section 3 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 204 2. Templates for monitoring and review The following pages provide models of interview guides used in some divisions. Two of them have a focus on special education. Division special education interview guide for principal Division special education interview guide for teachers Teacher observation checklist Your division or region may have their own proformas.
    • Section 3 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 205 Sample: Division special education interview guide for principal Provided by Carina Frasco ES1Pvt. Schools/SPED Compostela Valley Name School Date District Division Region List any problems with implementation of the SPED program List actions undertaken to solve problems List follow up or assistance provided for teachers (including observation) List disabilities observed List teacher strengths and points for development List best practices in special education evident as a result of professional learning List how parents, community and LGUs have been involved List involvement in co-curricular activities, awards/honors received Other comments Follow up Interviewed by
    • Section 3 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 206 Sample: Division special education interview guide for teachers Provided by Carina Frasco ES1Pvt. Schools/SPED Compostela Valley Name School Date Qualifications District Division Region List any problems with implementation of the SPED program List suggested actions to solve problems List follow up training or assistance provided in special education and who provided it List how training has been implemented in the classroom List how training has been shared with colleagues List how parents and community members have been involved in your school activities What additional professional learning and support required Other comments Follow up Interviewed by
    • Section 3 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 207 Teacher observation checklist Teacher Grade Subject School Date District Teacher Behavior Observations Observer comment Teacher comment Presentation of lesson Checks assignment Explains objectives Motivates learners Involves all learners Relates to previous lesson Development of lesson Anticipates learner difficulties Mastery of lesson Logical sequence Uses inclusive methods Utilizes appropriate aids Appropriate tasks Asks appropriate questions Gives appropriate feedback to learners Integrates values Keeps learners engaged Monitors progress Gives appropriate assessments Utilizes instruction time Teacher delivery skill Communicates appropriately Appropriate nonverbal communication Visuals: Boardwork, & Handouts Readable to all Sequenced Highlights important points Handouts accessible to all learners
    • Section 3 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 208 Teacher Behavior Observations Observer comment Teacher comment Behavior management Actively engages all learners Interaction with all learners Manages transitions Positively reinforces Wrap up Opportunities for learners to show learning Teacher provides summary Summary: Follow up:
    • No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 209 Acronyms AAMD American Association on Mental Deficiency ABA Applied Behavior Analysis ACA Assessment of Children with Autism AFA Action for Autism AFCIG Assessment of Filipino Children’s Intellectual Giftedness APDDP Asian and Pacific Decade of Disabled Persons ASNE Action on Special Needs Education Au Autism BCFE Basic Classroom Furniture and Equipment BD Behavior Disorder BEE Bureau of Elementary Education BESRA Basic Education and Sector Reform Agenda BSE Bureau of Secondary Education CBDS Community-Based Delivery System CCP Cooperative Class Plan CD Communication Disorders CP Cerebral Palsy CPAP Cerebral Palsy and Protection CRM Criterion-reference measures CSIE Center for Studies on Inclusive Education CSN Children with Special Needs CWA Children with Autism DB Deaf-blind DECS Department of Education Culture and Sports (former DepEd) DICAG Disabled Children’s Action Group DMI Deaf Ministries International DSA Down Syndrome Association DSWD Department of Social Welfare and Development EADSNE European Agency for Development in Special Needs Education EARS Educational Assessment and Resource Services EEC Elementary Education Curriculum EED Elementary Education Division EENET Enabling Education Network EFA Education For All EPP Edukasyong Pantahanan at Pangkabuhayan FE Formal Education FL Fast Learner G Giftedness GO’s Government Organizations HI Hearing Impairment
    • No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 210 HKS Heograpiya, Kasaysayan at Sibika IADL Instrumental Activities for Daily Living IDEA Individuals with Disabilities Education Act IE Inclusive Education IEP Individualized Educational Plan ILO International Labor Organization ITP Itinerant Teacher Plan LD Learning Disability LGU Local Government Unit LV Low Vision MD Multiple Disabilities MH Multiple Handicap MR Mental Retardation MSEP Musika, Sining at Edukasyon sa Pagpapalakas ng Katawan NCDP National Commission for Disabled Persons NFE Non-Formal Education NGOs Non-Government Organizations NOH-SCC National Orthopedic Hospital School for Crippled Children OECD Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development OH Orthopaedically Handicapped OI Orthopedic Impairments PACMR Psycho-educational Assessment of Children with Mental Retardation PAP Philippine Action Plan PASE Psycho-educational Assessment in Special Education PELC Philippine Elementary Learning Competencies PEPT Philippine educational Placement Test PMAG Parents’ Mobilization Action Group PSF President’s Social Funds PTC Prescriptive Teaching Circuit PTM Prescriptive Teaching Module RA Republic Act RAMSE Region-wide Assessment in Mathematics, Science and English RS Residential School SBLG School-Based Learning Group SD Speech Disorder SDS Special Day School SEC Special Education Center SEC Secondary Education Curriculum SED Special Education Division SED Secondary Education Division SHP Special Health Problems SK Sibika at Kultura
    • No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 211 SLD Specific Learning Disabilities SPED Special Education TB Totally Blind TBI Traumatic Brain Injury TEACH Teaching Exceptional and Advanced Children TPDF Teacher Performance and Development Framework UNESCO United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization UNICEF United Nations International Children’s Emergency Fund VAKT Visual, Auditory, Kinesthetic Tactile VI Visual Impairment WHO World Health Organization
    • No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 212 Glossary Adjustments Structures, strategies and resources in place to support a learner: accommodations Backwards chaining Task analysis of an action or skill and scaffolding given up to the point of independence. Gradually less and less support is given as a learner acquires the skill Behavior management Planned strategies to support appropriate behavior Chunking Grouping information in a variety of meaningful ways to support recall Cloze Planned omission of words in text Conflict prevention Processes in place to avert escalation of differences and concerns Cueing Prompts. Providing physical, material and or verbal aids Curriculum The planned program of teaching and learning constructed by teachers to achieve educational competencies Equity The concept of equal access to education and fair and just benefit to all learners Expressive language communication in oral and written forms Goal Broad aim or target Graphic organizers Visual ways of organising information Guided movement Using physical prompts or guidance to support a learner HOTS Higher order thinking skills Inclusion Providing an environment that is flexible and able to adapt to cater for the diversity of learners Instructional strategies Strategies for providing instruction to learners Jargon Words only known and used by a particular group Kinesthetic Describing movement KWL A cognitive learning strategy. K= know, W=want to learn, L= learnt Learners Pupils and students Learning difficulty Description on page 134 Learning disability Description on page 134
    • No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 213 Learning environment A physical location or area where teaching and learning occurs Learning styles Literacy The ability to understand, analyse, critically respond to and produce appropriate spoken, written, visual and multimedia communication in different contexts Mnemonics A strategy using meaningful associations to assist memory Multigrade class More than one grade in one class room with one teacher Multi-sensory approach Engaging 2 or more senses simultaneously in a learning activity Numeracy The ability to understand, analyse, critically respond to and use mathematics in different social contexts Objective Specific target to be achieved in a time frame Pedagogy The science of teaching- repertoires of practice Perseveration A tendency to focus on something or repeat actions obsessively or inappropriately Phonemic awareness Matching sounds to letters Phonological awareness Ability to discriminate and manipulate the sounds in language Prompting Cueing. Providing physical, material and or verbal aids Receptive language Receiving and understanding language Scaffold Support, assistance and temporary guidance provided by experienced others to assist learners to acquire mastery of skills Sensory impairments Impairments that impact on the effective use of one or more of the senses Special provisions Measures in place, tailored for a particular learner Task analysis Analysis and listing of the components a skill, capability, action, knowledge Tactile Related to touch
    • No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 214 References Australian Association of Special Education, 2004, Standards for highly accomplished special education teachers Bureau of Elementary Education Department of Education, Culture & Sports 1994, The multigrade teacher’s handbook, reprinted by BEAM 2007 Department of Education and Children’s Services, 2004, Early intervention learning difficulties: Working collaboratively: improving outcomes for learners Department of Education Tasmania, 2006, Getting started: A guide for teachers of students with disabilities in regular schools Department of Education, Philippines-Australia Basic Education Assistance for Mindanao, Multigrade teaching and learning Dizon E, Sacris C, 2002, Individualization of educational contents and strategies: Trends & application in varied placement programs for children with special needs, University of the Philippines Erickson R, Ysseldyke J, Thurlow M, Elliot J, 1998, Inclusive assessments and accountability systems: Tools of the trade in educational reform Giangreco M, 1997, Quick guides to inclusion: Ideas for education students with disabilities, Maryland, USA, Paul H Brookes Inclusion International Asia Pacific Region, 2004, Supporting children with a disability & Including children with special needs in village schools, Adapted Samoa Department of Education Mastropieri M, Scruggs T, The inclusive classroom: Strategies for instruction 2nd edition, Pearson, Ohio Mindanao E Learning Space, 2004-5, Constructivism in teaching and learning Mindanao E Learning Space, 2005-6, Higher order thinking skills Mindanao E Learning Space, 2005-6, Multiple intelligences National Council for the Welfare of Disabled Persons, 1999, Philippine dictionary of signs Republic of the Philippines, Department of Education, 1997, Handbook on inclusive education
    • No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 215 Republic of the Philippines, Department of Education, 1997, Handbook on special education Special Education Division, Bureau of Elementary Education, Department of Education, 2004, Learning package for children with autism Special Education Division, Bureau of Elementary Education, Department of Education Culture and Sports, 2001, Basic learning competencies and teachers guide for children with intellectual disability Volume 2 Special Education Division, Bureau of Elementary Education, Ministry of Education Culture and Sports, 1997, Policies and guidelines for special education Staff Development Division, Bureau of Elementary Education, Department of Education, Philippines Community of Learners Foundation, United Nations Children’s Fund, 2002, Effective teaching and learning in child-friendly schools: A training manual Staff Development Division, Bureau of Elementary Education, Department of Education, Philippines Community of Learners Foundation, United Nations Children’s Fund, 2002, Protective and inclusive child-friendly schools: A training manual Taylor C, 2005, Walking the talk-building a culture of success, Random House UK Titong, C, 2004,The classroom organisation and management program: A workshop manual for teachers of children with learning disabilities Victorian Institute of Teaching, 2004, Supporting provisionally registered teachers: a guide for planning induction and mentoring in Victorian schools Westwood P, 2003, Commonsense methods for children with special needs, 4th edition, London, MacMillan
    • No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 216 References: Websites Resources for the Blind Incorporated www.blind.org.ph Learning difficulties on line www.ldonline.org/ld_indepth Chan Robles virtual law library www.chanrobles.com Department of Education of the Philippines www.DepEd.gov.ph Department of Education and Children’s Services, South Australia www.decs.sa.gov.au Deaf Ministries International www.deafmin.org Teachernet: the education site for teachers www.teachernet.gov.uk L D Pride www.ldpride.net The World Café www.theworldcafe.com Autism Association of South Australia www.autismsa.org Kurwongbah state school, Queensland http://www.kurwongbss.eq.edu.au/thinking Education Tasmania, Inclusive education http://ltag.education.tas.gov.au/focus/inclusiveprac
    • No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 217 Appendix 1 A list of Legislation Orders and Republic Acts Pertaining to Special Education DECS Order #26 s. 1997 – March 7, 1997 Institutionalization of SPED Programs in all Schools Executive Order #417 Directing the Implementation of he Economic Independence Program for Persons with Disabilities DECS Order #5, s. 1998 – January 21, 1998 Teachers and Principal Items to Special Education SPED Teachers and Special School Principal Items Batas Pambansang Bilang 344 – Accessibility Law An act to enhance the mobility of disabled persons by requiring certain buildings institution, establishments and public utilities to install facilities and other devices DepEd Memo #278 s. 2005 – September 23, 2005 2nd BIENNIAL CONGRESS in Gifted Education Presidential Proclamation No. 189 – Oct. 19, 1999 The 2004 National Week for the Gifted and Talented will be observed on Nov 22-26. DECS Order #91 s. 1999 – Oct. 30, 1999 Guidelines on the Establishments and Operation of Integrated Schools DECS Order #108 s. 1999 – Oct. 5, 1999 Strengthening of Special Education Programs for the Gifted In the Public School System DECS Order #26 s. 1997 – May 7, 1997 Institutionalization of SPED programs in all schools RA No. 6759 – September 18, 1989 White Cane Safety Day Every August 1 RA No. 7277 Magna Carta for Disabled Persons RA No. 7277 – March 24, 1992 Enhancement of Magna Carta for Disabled Persons
    • No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 218 Presidential Proclamation No. 588 – March 25, 2004 Cerebral Palsy Awareness and Protection Week Every Sept. 16-22 Presidential Proclamation #711 – January 4, 1996 Declaring the 3rd Week of January as Autism Consciousness Week Presidential Proclamation #157 – February 18, 2002 Declaring the month of February as “National Down Syndrome Consciousness Month” Presidential Proclamation #1385 – February 12, 1975 Designating the period from February 14-20, 1975 and every year thereafter as “Retarded Children’s Week” Presidential Proclamation #744 – December 6, 2004 Declaring Last Monday of Marh every year as Women with Disability Day Administrative Order No. 35, - August 3, 2002 Presidential Proclamation 361 – August 19, 2000 Presidential Proclamation 1870 – June 22, 1979 Declaring the 3rd Week of July as the National Disability Prevention and Rehabilitation Week Presidential Proclamation #658 – July 5, 2004 Declaring the 3rd Week of October of every year as “Bone and Joint (Musculo-Skeleteal) Awareness Week” Presidential Proclamation #657 – July 5, 2004 Declaring the year 2000-2010 as the “Bone and Joint Decade” Presidential Proclamation # 452 – August 25, 1994 Declaring the 2nd Week of October of every year as Natina Mental Health Week Presidential Proclamation # 472 – September 18, 2003 Declaring the 3rd week of October of every year as “National Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (AD/HD) Awareness Week” Presidential Proclamation # 889 – November 8, 1991 Declaring the period from November 10-16 of every year as “Deaf Awareness Week” Presidential Proclamation # 240 Declaring the period from the year 2003 to the year 2012 as the Philippine Decade of Persons with Disabilities Executive Order No. 437 – June 21, 2005 Encouraging the implementation of community-based rehabilitation (CBR) for persons with disabilities in the Philippines
    • No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 219 COPYRIGHT NOTICE Section 9 of the Presidential Decree No. 49 provides: “No copyright shall subsist in any work of the Government of the Philippines. However, prior approval of the government agency or office within the work is created shall be necessary for exploitation of such work for profit.” This material has been developed within the Basic Education Assistance for Mindanao (BEAM) project. Prior approval must be given by the author(s) or the BEAM Project Management Unit and the source must be clearly acknowledged. Produced by the Materials Development Center, Region XI, 2007