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Module 2.4 no limits

  1. 1. No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms i Foreword The Department of Education in the Philippines is committed to providing a quality system of education that prepares young people for participation in Filipino society. This involves providing school experiences that enable learners to reach their potential, and develop the skills, attitudes and abilities they need to respond to the demands of a rapidly changing world. In pursuit of this commitment, a range of initiatives have been undertaken, to ensure equal access to quality education for all learners in Filipino schools. No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms, is a Region XI initiative supported by Basic Education Assistance for Mindanao. It recognizes the crucial role teachers play in maximizing positive learning outcomes for learners. The resource reflects best practice models and focuses on regular teachers as planners and implementers of inclusive learning experiences for learners with a range of abilities. Led and shaped by Technical Working Groups in Region XI, Region XII and the Autonomous Region of Muslim Mindanao, the resource represents the voice of the profession. Leaders from each Region and Division, principals and teachers from regular schools and special education centers, and parents, contributed technical expertise, wrote, edited and critiqued materials. My gratitude to all of them. The culmination of this work is a practical tool encouraging collaboration at all levels towards improvement of educational outcomes for learners with disabilities. The resource supports educators to understand the legislative and ethical frameworks related to inclusive education, and apply it in their everyday work integrate mainstream models of teaching and learning, with special provisions for learners with disabilities access professional learning to increase the effectiveness of teaching and learning for learners with disabilities seek, utilize and maintain collaborative partnerships with stakeholders in the education community I recommend this document to all educators, as a comprehensive guide to quality service provision for learners with disabilities. I encourage its wide use by the whole school community, to enhance their knowledge, skills and capabilities as they work together for better learning opportunities for learners most at risk in our schools. Susana Teresa B. Estigoy BEAM Philippines Project Director June 2007
  2. 2. No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms ii Acknowledgments No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms was developed and written as a result of work undertaken by Regions XI, XII and the Autonomous Region of Muslim Mindanao in partnership with BEAM The project was managed by Dr Minerva Fabros – Assistant Chief Elementary Education Department Deborah Moulton – BEAM In-Service Adviser The primary writer of the material was Genevieve Reynolds, Consultant support and disability, Southern Sea & Vines, Department of Education and Children’s Services, South Australia The writer wishes to acknowledge the contributions of Carmen Diamante Carina Frasco Cristeleen Luceros Rosalinda Adlaon Arlyn Lim Djhoane Aguilar Reynante Solitario Design: Genevieve Reynolds Layout: Flordelyn Alagao Artwork: McRobert Nacario Project Support: Cherry May Edison, Dovie June Montañer, Sammy Muda
  3. 3. No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms iii Technical working groups Working groups comprising leaders from Regions, Divisions, Districts, Special education centers and schools guided development at each stage with provision of materials, information and editing. DepEd Central Office Mirla Olores – Chief of Special Education Division Region XI Region XII ARMM Minerva Fabros Carmencita Diamante Sara Marie Exala Lorelie Limoran Rosalinda Adlaon Mary Metche Fiel Carina Frasco Mary Glor Tabanao Lucita Payot Richlie Solis Rolando Orbita Cristileen Lucero Vicente Apolinares Amy Malbun Corona Dilangalen Riza Guiana Teofilo Morala Pacita Balabbo Elsa Duran Bai Tusla Cabilo Jelen Maripor Francisca Sabenicio Virginia Amanon Juanita Lee Joseph Pilotos Juliet Sison Teresita Gardonia Pepito Porquez Emerenciana Robin Garilene Agnes Dona-al Estrella Kamed Rahima Salik Armela Bansil Heraton Alang Nora Watamama Patalinang Pangcatan Teachers Over seventy teachers presented classroom perspectives and provided valuable enhancements. Parents The input of Mr & Mrs Cesar Cuyugan is greatly appreciated.
  4. 4. No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms iv Context Dr Minerva T Fabros Why has this resource been developed? The increasing enrolment of learners with disabilities in special education (SPED) centers, special classes and regular class settings has signalled a real need to assist regular classroom teachers identify and support these learners. The Department of Education mandates that all learners, including those with disabilities are accorded equal access to quality education. Article 11, Section 1 of the Policies and Guidelines for Special Education Handbook defines special education as ‘the education of persons who are gifted or talented and those who have physical, mental, social and sensory impairment and cultural differences so as to require modifications of the school curricula, programs and special services and physical facilities to develop them to their maximum capacity.’ This resource has a particular focus on inclusive education and learners with disabilities. The project recognizes the importance of the collaborative work of the special education teacher, the regular teacher, school administrator, parents and other stakeholders in improving outcomes for learners with disabilities and specifically focuses on regular teachers in the inclusive setting. It summarizes the responsibilities of leaders and teachers as outlined in Philippine legislative frameworks and examines how leaders and teachers can plan, adapt instruction and work collaboratively to implement the DepEd inclusive education policy. Teachers must be cognizant of learners’ strengths and needs and develop the skills to plan programs accordingly. This resource provides information to assist teachers with the design of inclusive curriculum and use of a range of models supporting learners with disabilities.. It is important to emphasize that some learners benefit from individualized approaches that address their current and future needs. The Individualized Education Plan is the DepEd framework for this purpose, and is provided in this resource. Who is this resource for? The intended audiences for the resource are: Receiving teachers of learners with disabilities or grade level teachers needing additional information to identify the learning needs of others in their classes Leaders who are new to the area of special education or require additional information to support teachers Special education teachers who are specialists in particular areas and need general information about other disabilities, curriculum and ideas Region and Division personnel with responsibility for special education Other stakeholders, volunteers and parents. Leaders and teachers may find some resources and information in the kit useful for sharing with these groups.
  5. 5. No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms v What is in this resource? Four sections provide practical information, suggested activities for professional development and an extensive glossary and list of acronyms. An E learning resource is available to support the resouce. Section one, Our work in the Department of Education Legal and ethical aspects of working in DepEd related to special education Roles and responsibilities of DepEd employees Section two, Our work in schools and communities Adult learning, communication and problem solving and their contribution to collaborative relationships Considerations and ideas for positive relationships with families and stakeholders Section three: Our work with learners Inclusive curriculum including teaching methodologies and strategies for working with a range of learners Information and strategies supporting learners with disabilities Section Four- Monitoring and Review Professional learning options Region, Division and school level monitoring processes and templates How can this resource be used? The resource is designed as a ‘front line’ general resource for educators. It allows discreet sections to be provided to schools as required. For example: A teacher may receive a learner with hearing impairment and need some information to assist them to make adjustments until an Individualized Education Plan can be organized. The relevant section can be copied and forwarded. It can also be used as a comprehensive professional learning program in sections or as a whole teacher intervention planning to inform Region, Division, School based action planning a basis for professional discussion and learning with School Based Learning Groups information sharing with families and stakeholders a reference self directed learning with the resource or using the E-Learning CD
  6. 6. No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms vi Table of contents Foreword i Acknowledgements ii Context iv Table of contents vi How to use this resource viii Section 1 Our work in the Department of Education 1 About our work in the Department of Education 2 1. Legislation, policies and guidelines 3 About legislation, policies & guidelines 4 The legislation 8 The policies and guidelines 11 2. Roles & Responsibilities of DepEd personnel 15 About roles & responsibilities of DepEd personnel 16 Roles & responsibilities of leaders 19 Roles & responsibilities of teachers 20 Professional ethics and conduct 22 Section 2 Our work in schools & communities 26 About our work in schools and communities 27 1. Working in schools 28 Adult learning 29 Communication 32 Problem solving 36 2. Working with families 38 3. Working with the community 44 Section 3 Our work with learners 48 About our work with learners 49 1. Holistic approaches and learners with disabilities 50 Different ways of learning 51 Learning preferences & learning styles 52 Multiple intelligences 55 Learners with disabilities 58
  7. 7. No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms vii 2. Inclusive Curriculum 60 Individualized Education Plans 61 Inclusive teaching 71 Effective teaching 72 Explicit teaching 79 Inclusive planning: Higher order thinking skills (HOTS ) 80 Inclusive planning: All, Most, Some & Bloom’s Taxonomy 89 Modifications and adjustments 97 3. Including learners with disabilities 102 About including learners with disabilities 103 Attention deficit disorder 105 Autism spectrum disorder 112 Intellectual disability 122 Learning disability 134 Physical and multiple disabilities 146 Sensory impairment: Hearing 159 Sensory impairment: Vision 172 Social and emotional problems 180 Speech and language impairment 191 Section 4 Monitoring and review 199 About monitoring and review 200 1. Professional development 202 2. Templates 203 Acronyms 208 Glossary 211 References 213 References: Websites 215 Appendix 216
  8. 8. No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms viii Using this resource The resource has been designed to facilitate easy access to information for busy teachers with a range of preferred ways of receiving and perceiving and understanding. The design attempts to model supportive ways to present information Information has been presented in note form wherever possible Important points are in bold and italics rather than underlined A san serif font has been used for clarity and is larger than many publications A mixture of diagrams, tables, graphic organizers, pictures and symbols have been used to add meaning to print. Icons have been used throughout the resource to enable teachers to quickly scan sections and locate the information required. Question Key questions Answer Response to question Methodology A teaching practice Information General information about a topic Characteristics Clues to recognizing learners with disabilities Adjustments Accommodations to support learners Teaching strategies Methodologies to support learners Ideas Activities to use with learners Resources Sources of extra information
  9. 9. No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 1 Section 1 Our work in the Department of Education
  10. 10. Section 1 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 2 About our work in the Department of Education This section of the induction kit examines the frameworks under which we work as employees of the Department of Education (DepEd) in the Republic of the Philippines. Learning outcomes You will gain an overview of national legislation, policies, guidelines and systems related to special education the values underpinning the policies of DepEd the roles and responsibilities of leaders in supporting special education in DepEd schools and the community the roles and responsibilities of teachers working with learners with special education needs
  11. 11. No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 3 1. Legislation, policies and guidelines
  12. 12. Section 1 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 4 About legislation, policies and guidelines All citizens of the Philippines are accountable under national laws. Key national legislation impacts on the work of DepEd employees. Some legislation refers particularly to people with disabilities and highlights the education of learners with disabilities. DepEd has an inclusive education policy which is underpinned by international agreements about human rights and education. Additional frameworks expand on this legislation and make more explicit what provisions are to be made for learners with disabilities. DepEd, as a government department, institutes policies that delineate how it plans to comply with legislation. DepEd Orders announce specific application of policy elements. Policies and Orders are updated regularly on the DepEd website: DepEd also develops and publishes guidelines and handbooks to assist schools with how they will put policies into operation. At the Region, Division and school levels, policies and guidelines are translated into action plans that detail the strategies that will be implemented. At school level, the learner is at the center of plans.
  13. 13. Section 1 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 5 Region/Division Local publications Action Plans The cycle of legislation, policies, guidelines Schools Action Plans National Legislation 1982 Education Act 1987 Constitution of the Republic of the Philippines 1987 Child and Youth Welfare Code PD 603 1992 Magna Carta for Disabled Persons 2001 Governance of Basic Education Act DepEd 1997 Policy & Guidelines for Special Education 1997 Handbook on Special Education revised 1999 Handbook on Inclusive Education 1997 Code of Ethics for Professional Teachers
  14. 14. Section 1 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 6 What impact does legislation and policy have on my work? National legislation impacts on educators’ work The Education Act 1982 Constitution of the Republic of the Philippines 1987 Child and Youth Welfare Code PD 603 1987 Magna Carta for Disabled Persons 1992 Code of Ethics for Professional Teachers 1997 (within Republic Act 4760) Governance of Basic Education Act 2001 All of these Acts have articles and sections that relate to working with learners with disabilities National Policies and Guidelines make more explicit, what schools will do to comply with legislation Department of Education ‘Policies and Guidelines for Special Education(Revised Edition)’ 1997 DECS Order no. 26 Institutionalization of SPED programs in all schools Handbook on Special Education’ 1997 ‘Handbook on Inclusive Education’ 1999 These policies and guidelines outline the objectives of DepEd for the education of learners with disabilities and provide a framework from which regions, divisions and schools develop their education plans.
  15. 15. Section 1 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 7 Does DepEd legislation link to international developments? Yes. DepEd lists the legal mandates underpinning inclusive education in the Philippines Universal Declaration of the Rights of the Child 1959 The World Declaration on Education for All 1990 The Salamanca Statement 1994 The Agenda for Action of Asian & Pacific Decade of Disabled Persons 1993-2002 The Dakar Framework 2000 Philippine participation in these significant events has culminated in the Philippine Education for All 2015 Plan (2005) accessible on the UNESCO website Each of these international developments seeks to redress the disadvantage experienced by various groups and asserts the right of every child to an education. DepEd’s vision for Filipino children with special needs encompasses the vision of the family and community for a discrimination free quality education that supports development of potential productivity self expression of rights national pride love of God
  16. 16. Section 1 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 8 The Legistation Constitution of the Republic of the Philippines 1987 & Magna Carta for Disabled Persons 1992 The mandate for provision of education to all people including those with a disabilities is couched within the Constitution of the Republic of the Philippines. ARTICLE XIV: Education, science and technology, arts, culture and sports EDUCATION ‘Section 1: The State shall protect and promote the right of all citizens to quality education at all levels, and shall take appropriate steps to make such education accessible to all.’ The subsequent Act – ‘The Magna Carta for Disabled Persons’ – makes more explicit what provision is required specifically in the area of education for learners with disabilities The Act covers: increased opportunities through development of skills and potentials the rights and respect of persons with disabilities service provision collaborative support Section 12 describes requirements: access to quality education opportunities to develop skills it being unlawful for any learning institution to deny admission to courses on the grounds of handicap or disability. formulation of educational policies and programs taking special needs into account
  17. 17. Section 1 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 9 Section 14 addresses special education, requiring the State to establish, maintain and support in all regions ‘complete, adequate and integrated system of special education’ for those with vision impairment hearing impairment intellectual disabilities other types of exceptional children The Education Act 1982 The Education Act recognizes the right of all people to quality education ‘regardless of sex, age, breed, socio-economic status, physical and mental condition, social and ethnic origin, political and other affiliations.’ The primary objective of the Act is the provision of ‘…A broad general education that will assist each individual …to attain his (sic) potentials as a human being enhance the range and quality of individual and group participation in the basic functions of society acquire the essential educational foundation of his (sic) development into a productive and versatile citizen.’ The Act outlines the rights of learners ‘…to receive, primarily through competent instruction, relevant quality education in line with national goals and conducive to their full development as person with human dignity.’ It further outlines the duties, obligations and functions of The Region/Division Office ‘Implement education laws, policies, plans, programs, rules and regulations…’ Administrators ‘…the promotion and preservation of academic freedom and effective teaching and learning…’ Teachers Accountability for ‘..the efficient and effective attainment of specified learning objectives’
  18. 18. Section 1 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 10 The Governance of Basic Education Act 2001 The Governance of Basic Education Act otherwise known as Republic Act 9155, affirms that all citizens have the right to access quality basic education attendance at elementary school is compulsory for Filipino children the goal of basic education is the provision of skills, knowledge and values enabling learners to become caring, seIf-reliant, productive and patriotic citizens schools have the single aim of providing the best possible basic education for all learners Within the Act there are details of the roles and responsibilities of DepEd personnel in ensuring that these outcomes are met. This will be addressed in the next subsection. What does this legislation mean for me? Compliance with national legislation is mandatory. All employees of DepEd must comply with this legislation It is compulsory for all learners to attend school including learners with disabilities Access to schooling must be provided to all learners Appropriate teaching and learning experiences must be provided to all learners
  19. 19. Section 1 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 11 The policies and guidelines Policies and Guidelines for Special Education (revised edition) 1997 The ultimate policy goal of DepEd for special education is ‘…the integration or mainstreaming of learners with special needs into the regular school system and eventually in the community.’ The policy reiterates the messages found in all of the legislation mentioned so far with a particular focus on learners with: gifts and talents physical impairment intellectual impairment social impairment sensory impairment cultural differences Learners with special needs have the right to: relevant quality education an educational program suited to the particular needs of the learner that maximizes o potentials for learning o values development o equal opportunities for authentic inclusion in society This induction kit focuses on learners with disabilities The policy recognizes a variety of program and service options for learners with disabilities couched in a philosophy of providing the least restrictive environment for the learner.
  20. 20. Section 1 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 12
  21. 21. Section 1 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 13 Mainstreaming/Integration: regular school, regular classroom with negotiated levels of special education support Itinerant teacher: visiting specialist or trained teacher providing direct or consultative support in regular schools Resource room: regular classroom with targeted individual or small group support from trained teacher Community-based delivery system: Instruction provided by a range of people to learners with special needs in remote communities Special class: part time or full time inclusion in specialized program usually with specialist teachers Special education center: a school within a school; centers of expertise in regular schools providing a range of special class options and a base for services ( resource room, itinerant teacher) Special day school: specialized programs for learners with significant needs. Access to other services – medical, psychological, social Residential school: a highly specialized school for identified learners who require comprehensive service provision Hospital & homebound instruction: Programs provided by teachers for learners under clinical care DECS (DepEd) Order No 26 (1997) called for the institutionalization of Special Education (SPED) programs in all schools. The Order directed all Divisions to organize at least one SPED center all districts to form SPED programs in schools where there are enrolments of these learners training in special education to be implemented at all levels The Policy also provides an overview of roles and responsibilities of DepEd personnel and stakeholders curriculum for special education – based on the prescribed curriculum parent and wider community involvement program samples
  22. 22. Section 1 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 14 Handbook on Special Education 1997 & Handbook on Inclusive Education 1999 These handbooks provide comprehensive information to support school heads and teachers with Legislation and policy Assessment and screening of learners with disabilities Modification of curriculum and instruction for learners with special needs Program samples and activities for teachers Individual education planning Parent involvement Where can I find out more about the Policies and Guidelines for Special Education? Regional offices have copies of these documents Regional Education Supervisors with responsibility for Special Education can assist Divisions and schools with accessing this information and supporting education access for learners with special needs and those with disabilities DepEd has published a range of other resources to support leaders and teachers These are also available through Regional Office Education Supervisors with responsibility for special education.
  23. 23. No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 15 2. Roles & responsibilities of DepEd personnel
  24. 24. Sections 1 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 16 About ‘Roles and responsibilities of DepEd personnel’ Every employee needs to be clear about the roles and responsibilities connected to their position. The Department of Education has a range of publications available that spell out the general roles and responsibilities of administrators and teachers. Other frameworks make more explicit their roles in relation to learners with disabilities. Legislation: The Education Act The Governance of Basic Education Act The Code of Ethics for Professional Teachers Policies and guidelines Policies and Guidelines for Special Education Handbook on special education Handbook on inclusion This subsection provides an overview of the roles and responsibilities of Region, Division and District personnel as well as principals and teachers. Roles were synthesized from the Governance of Basic Education Act for the purpose of understanding the connection points at various levels in the DepEd structure.
  25. 25. Sections 1 Region Division Districts Principals Teachers Values & Mission Define regional educational policy framework that reflects values, needs and expectations of communities served Mission Values School direction Discharge responsibilities in accordance with the philosophy, goals, and objectives of the school. Standards Developing regional educational standards towards Promoting awareness of and adherence to accreditation standards Creating an environment within the school that is conducive to teaching & learning Accountability for the efficient and effective attainment of specified learning objectives Education Plans Regional basic education plan Division education development plan School education and improvement plan Participate as an agent of constructive social, economic, moral, intellectual, cultural & political change in school & community within the context of national policies Research Research and region wide projects Establishing school and community networks, encourage active participation of teachers and wider community, families and organisations HR compliance Comply with national criteria for recruitment, selection & training of all staff in region and divisions Recommending the staffing complement of the school based on its needs; Maintain, sustain professional growth and advancement & professionalism in behaviour at all times. HR recruitment Hiring, placing and evaluating all employees in the regional office; Hiring, placing and evaluating division employees, & school heads Responsibilities of DepEd personnel Nolimits:Teachersincludinglearnerswithdisabilitiesinregularclassrooms 17
  26. 26. Sections 1 Nolimits:Teachersincludinglearnerswithdisabilitiesinregularclassrooms 18 Region Division Districts Principals Teachers HR planning Planning, managing personnel, physical & fiscal resources of the regional office, including staff professional development Planning, managing personnel, physical & fiscal resources of the division office, including staff professional development Administering and managing all personnel, physical and fiscal resources of the school Budgeting Formulating budget to support the regional educational plan Monitor utilization of funds from national and local government to schools & learning centers Accepting and reporting donations, gifts, bequests and grants for school improvement Evaluation Evaluation of division personnel Supervise operations of all schools, and learning centers Encouraging staff development Accountability for higher learning outcomes Regularly report on performance of students to students, parents and guardians with specific suggestions for improvement. Curriculum Monitoring, evaluating and assessing regional learning outcomes Compliance of quality standards in basic education programs Strengthening role of division subject area specialists Providing professional and curriculum advice and supervision Implementing the school curriculum innovative modes of instruction to achieve higher learning outcomes Offering programs, projects & services accessible for all learners in the community. Data Collection Information management Resources Approving establishment of schools & learning centers Other Other functions Other functions Other functions Responsibilities of DepEd personnel
  27. 27. Sections 1 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 19 Roles and responsibilities of leaders "Principals must live with paradox: They must have a sense of urgency about improving their schools, balanced by the patience to sustain them for the long haul. They must focus on the future, but remain grounded in today. They must see the big picture, while maintaining a close focus on details. They must be strong leaders who give away power to others." Richard DuFour ("Help Wanted: Principals who can Lead Professional Learning Communities." NASSP Bulletin (1999).) In brief, leaders of schools have responsibility for curriculum leadership welfare of staff and learners encouraging staff professional development day to day operation of the school building and maintaining positive school and community networks quality environment for teaching and learning
  28. 28. Sections 1 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 20 For teachers and other staff, this means leaders will be ensuring roles and responsibilities are clear providing leadership to teaching staff supporting them to successfully meet the needs of learners making time for school based learning groups to meet, plan and solve problems planning professional learning needs with teachers assisting teachers to access expertise about learners with disabilities and their leaning Responsibilities of teachers ‘Who dares to teach must never cease to learn.’ John Cotton Dana ‘I touch the future. I teach.’ Christa McAuliffe Teacher’s roles and responsibilities include management of the learning environment in which they teach development of teaching and learning opportunities for learners o planning and programming o instruction o specific modifications and interventions o assessment of and for learning behaviour management reporting to families and the system community linkages – eg identifying children with disabilities who are not attending school and encouraging families to take them to school
  29. 29. Sections 1 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 21 For teachers this means keeping professionally up to date undertaking the communication necessary to provide for all learners including those with disabilities designing curriculum responsive to learners’ needs and implementing intervention and support programs active positive involvement and advocacy in the community
  30. 30. Sections 1 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 22 Professional ethics and conduct The Code of Ethics for Professional Teachers1997 charges licensed teachers with clearly stated obligations. The obligations cover all educators in all educational institutions and list 10 areas of conduct expectations Article Refers to 2. Teachers and the state Supporting the laws of the state and contributing to the positive cultural future of the nation. Not engaging in political and religious promotion. 3. Teachers and the community Teachers as leaders and advocates in the community, active in the promotion of education for all. 4. Teachers and the profession Upholding the standards of the profession. Maintaining a commitment to continuous learning. 5. Teachers and the teaching community Professional loyalty, cooperation, recognition, support, confidentiality and standards. 6. Teachers and high authorities in the Philippines Supporting departmental policies The right to access grievance procedures 7. School officials, teachers and other professionals Professional standards of supervision Commitment to policy implementation Encouragement of professional learning and recognition 8. Teachers and learners Recognizing as a priority, the interests and welfare of learners. Treating all learners and their families equitably 9. Teachers and parents Establishing and maintaining respectful relationships and communication with parents 10. Teachers and business The right to engage in business activity as long as it is not a conflict of interests – ie selling text books 11. Teachers as people Modelling exemplary behavior and dispositions. Recognizing destiny as the province of God
  31. 31. Sections 1 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 23 The Code of Ethics for Professional Teachers provides the values framework for all educators. Twenty two values are mentioned in the code.
  32. 32. Sections 1 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 24 How do ethics and values impact on my work? Our values shape our beliefs and are sometimes tested. Each employee has a values and belief system. Although we may have the same values, our interpretations of what they mean can differ. This becomes an issue if the values mandated in our workplace are different to ours or those of the community. It can also be a factor affecting how school teams function. Some areas for professional discussion and the development of agreed norms/understandings could be: Beliefs and values about learners with disabilities Interaction with families & organizations Language, sharing, storage of documentation Behavior management Student voice Teaching methods & assessment
  33. 33. Sections 1 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 25 How can I resolve it if my values and beliefs seem different to those of my workplace? Developing workable beliefs and values can help to acknowledge the range of realities that exist. When educators hold strong opinions about the way things should be in a perfect world, it means the working day begins from a deficit and not the way we believe it should be. The word should is often a feature of these beliefs. An example of this type of belief could be Families should provide enhancement activities for their children every day It would be wonderful if families could provide learning enhancements everyday but the reality is very different. Holding on to a belief like this may create frustration for teachers and leaders make the holder of the belief feel powerless and a victim of circumstance prevent action and taking responsibility Formulating a working set of beliefs can allow the spectrum of reality to co-exist. An example of the above statement as a working belief could be Families are important in providing learning enhancement for their children. The working statement acknowledges the ideal does not apportion blame enables a variety of starting points to be recognized
  34. 34. No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 26 Section 2 Our work in schools & communities
  35. 35. Section 2 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 27 About our work in schools and communities This section recognizes the collaborative nature of teachers’ work in the school and the community. Ideally teachers will not only establish and maintain quality relationships with learners but will also form supportive partnerships with families and make strong links with community groups and organisations that form part of school life. Within the school, teachers, leaders and stakeholders will work together to meet the goals of the school. The ability to work collaboratively is especially crucial in supporting learners with disabilities many of whom may have a range of people contributing to their education. Learning outcomes Teachers can expect to: gain an overview of the principles of adult learning and how they contribute to collaborative partnerships and teams increase understandings about effective communication recognize positive approaches to problem solving explore examples of strategies and approaches that promote positive and productive partnerships with stakeholders
  36. 36. No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 28 1. Working in schools
  37. 37. Section 2 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 29 Adult learning Schools in the Philippines are mandated to build strong linkages with the community and stakeholders. As schools and communities are complex social environments, skills in working together are crucial to maximizing positive learning. Dealing with adults takes on special significance when we consider their particular characteristics. Because of their life and work experiences over time, adults have valuable knowledge and experience to share respond to respectful approaches respond to acknowledgement of their capacities and experiences can experience a loss of confidence in new learning situations How are adults best supported? As well as acknowledgement of the skills they bring to a situation, in general adults prefer when things are planned and the outcomes are explicit to be actively involvement with things that have a real purpose interaction in groups problem solving opportunities multi-modal methods – doing, seeing, hearing choice that their physical needs are catered for room temperature lighting furniture – comfortable chairs, tables refreshments appropriate facilities
  38. 38. Section 2 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 30 What are the implications for working together? What does this look like in practice? Positive and productive interactions can be a feature of working relationships. Respect for the skills of each team member, sets the scene for successful collaboration. This provides a foundation for shared learning and problem solving rather than conflict. A diversity of ideas can result in creative solutions owned by everyone. Rather than…. Try…. Informing of meeting times Negotiating mutually convenient meeting times Presenting the agenda Asking if there are additional items for an agenda Controlling the team Establishing agreed norms for how the team will work Waiting for a crisis before raising problems Setting up communication processes for continuous feedback Reacting negatively to feedback Using questioning to understand Interrupting or forming responses while others are speaking Actively listen and build in time for responding Assuming understanding Checking perceptions, asking others for their understandings Imposing the solution to a problem or issue Investing in openness, sharing ideas, skills and resources Raising issues in front of others Negotiating a time and place to discuss privately
  39. 39. Section 2 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 31 School-Based Learning Groups (SBLG) are an example of a collaborative team among colleagues Small groups of teachers and administrators form School-Based Learning Groups to discuss explore reflect share understandings plan, implement and review educational ideas and practices establish monitoring & evaluation When leaders model understandings about adult learning, and they are incorporated into SBLGs, team members can gain confidence in expressing and trialling new ideas benefit from the collective wisdom of the group give and receive feedback in a supportive environment support their own learning by developing self reflection and self assessment skills Including the special education teacher in the SBLG can provide particular expertise in helping teachers build practice inclusive of learners with disabilities. Idea SBLG Input
  40. 40. Section 2 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 32 Communication “True communication is the response you get.” (Robert Kryosaki in Taylor 2005, p266) If meetings with stakeholders and school based learning teams are to be successful, then leaders and teachers will need to communicate effectively interacting in ways that project to stakeholders that they are in a respectful and supportive environment. What is effective communication? Communication is effective when there is congruence between the message the speaker expressed and what the listener understands. Members of school communities participate in a range of meetings: School-based learning groups Staff meetings Planning meetings with specialist teachers Parent ,Teachers and Community Association School Governing Council Parent-Teacher meetings Individual Education Plans There are often additional meetings with a range of stakeholders in order to provide ongoing support to learners with disabilities But no matter what the context, an organized approach helps maximize participation and productivity. It is important to establish agreement on the goals and purpose of the team/meeting the roles of participants norms and expectations meeting timelines and planning
  41. 41. Section 2 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 33 Active listening is crucial to effective communication. It can build team cohesion and support positive relationships with stakeholders by ensuring information sharing is a two way process. Active listening means focusing on the speaker using a range of senses to try and fully understand what the speaker is saying adopting body language that indicates interest and listening allowing people to speak without interruptions Interruptions can be Verbal- saying ‘Yes’ ‘I agree’ ‘That’s interesting’ ‘Really?’ Nonverbal- nodding, facial expressions, hand movements Verbal communication Non verbal communication Sometimes people interrupt, make a point and even elaborate. This could mean that during the talking, the ‘listener’ has been forming a response. They may cause the speaker’s full message to be unrealized.
  42. 42. Section 2 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 34 Verbal and nonverbal interruptions can give a message to others that their input does not warrant dedicated listening allow dominant personalities to takeover proceedings take the conversation in directions governed by the interruption cause the potential of the information to be lost stop the conversation or stop some people from contributing Responding in appropriate ways contributes to effective communication and can prevent conflict. This is very important when providing feedback or checking understanding. Responding serves a number of purposes checking understanding continuing conversation clarifying perceptions making a point Responding is a positive experience when it focuses on strengths it has been organized for a dedicated time – a separate event or section in a meeting process confidentiality is observed and privacy respected
  43. 43. Section 2 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 35 Tips for positive responding and giving feedback Build in time for thinking before responding Checking understanding Express appreciation for sharing Restate key points Summarize key points Ask questions that will give you additional facts Making a point Express appreciation for sharing Briefly summarize the idea heard Tell your idea in a reflective way Invite a response Asking questions Express appreciation for sharing Briefly summarize the point in question Ask a clarifying question or Continuing conversation Express appreciation for sharing Relate your own experience Link your experience to the information Generalize it to another possible example
  44. 44. Section 2 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 36 Problem solving Effective communication will go a long way towards creating a CONFLICT PREVENTION environment where problems are opportunities for learning rather than threatening. From time to time however, even the best collaborative groups may experience challenges. Occasionally challenges escalate into conflict situations. Conflict can occur as a result of strongly held beliefs, misunderstandings and incomplete or absent communication. Some common problems schools face could be related to: family concerns or involvement behavior management teachers’ work student learning staff relationships A problem-solving strategy can help to work through issues in an organized and depersonalized way Focus on issues not people Use depersonalized statements Personalized Depersonalized Nante is a problem student. His behavior is dangerous. There have been some recent behavior issues involving Nante. It would help to look at this together? It is your duty to make sure Cherry does her homework Homework seems to be difficult. How could we do things differently? Your learning program modifications are not up to standard. Assessment results are indicating a need to look at learning program modifications.
  45. 45. Section 2 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 37 If the problem involves a conflict event, it is crucial to put ‘space’ between the event and reacting to it Stop, breathe Wait! Think! How did that happen? What part did I play? What are the real issues?
  46. 46. No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 38 2. Working with families
  47. 47. Section 2 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 39 Working with families The families of learners with disabilities are valuable partners for educators. Family members are the first teachers of their children and so at the time their child commences school, parents and the child themselves are the holders of the most information about what the child knows and can do. This is the right time to organize an Individual Education Plan (IEP) meeting. Parents are often anxious at points of transition in their children’s lives and this can be especially so when their child has a disability. A respectful and welcoming school environment can alleviate the anxiousness of parents and their children. Everyone benefits when parents and teachers work together. Strong partnerships and regular communication can support the learner build appreciation and support for each other’s roles help to develop consistency between home and school help keep everyone informed and up to date
  48. 48. Section 2 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 40 What needs to happen when parents come to school to enrol a child with a disability? Education for All is mandated by DepEd. There is a ‘no rejection’ policy for learners with disabilities. Schools need to enrol the learners. Teachers are required to be alert for children with disabilities in the community, who are not attending school and encourage families to enrol them. Conducting an IEP meeting will: demonstrate to families that they are valued contributors give the school head and teacher information about the learners needs at school provide a foundation on which to prepare for how the needs of the learner will be met Encourage involvement of the learner in IEP Armed with this information, they might approach the Local Government Unit for support. (see flowchart on page 106 ) What communication should I undertake with families of learners with disabilities? Regular contact keeps communication lines open and provides opportunities to give positive feedback about the learner. Teachers can negotiate regular ‘catch up’ meetings arrange home visits use a diary between home and school design a specialized daily or weekly communication
  49. 49. Section 2 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 41 An example for a specialized daily communication Date Teacher Student The best thing today. Parent comment Mon Achievements today Information Tues Achievements today Information Wed Achievements today Information Thurs Achievements today Information Fri Achievements today Information
  50. 50. Section 2 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 42 What about homework for learners with disabilities? There are many questions about homework that need consideration. Is the homework necessary? o Is all of it essential? o What are the essential parts? Will the learner be able to do the tasks in the same time as expected for others or is it likely to take much longer? o Are there modifications that can be made to ensure the time is equitable? o Are there tasks in the family context that are achievable and will support similar learning? Can the learner do what is being asked? o independently? o with support? o how much support? o is support available? o How fatigued is the learner at the end of each day? **Learners with disabilities often have to work harder to concentrate and achieve leaving them more tired at the end of school What is the capacity of the family to support the task? o What chores take priority in the home in the evening? o What time do they leave in the morning/get home? o What other commitments do they have?
  51. 51. Section 2 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 43 Some alternative ideas for homework for learners with disabilities Subjects Alternatives English Traditional homework activities: Writing a journal Writing a procedure Writing a story Putting spelling words into sentences Fill out the daily communication sheet Draw pictures of what you did after school or will do next week List the TV programs you watched List what you will watch next week Help to cook the meal Make the shopping list Plan a morning news talk Tell a story Invent a story and retell Family share favourite stories Make flash cards of spelling words and play games with them or tell a sentence for each Write the words in a fancy way once each Maths Traditional homework activities: Complete exercises Write out tables Get the table ready for meals Help to cook the meal – measuring out items Follow and check the daily schedule Keep the family informed about when their TV programs are on Tend the animals o Measure out food o Monitor eggs and graph how many over time o Keep track of births Graph the growth of corn or other plants Shopping o Estimate the costs o Find the cheapest Play card games and keep scores
  52. 52. No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 44 3. Working with the community
  53. 53. Section 2 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 45 Working with the community The Code of Ethics recognizes the teaching profession in the community, especially the barangay, as leaders and advocates active in the promotion of education for all. The local community comprises organizations, networks and people that are a valuable resource for schools: Local Government Unit Parent Teacher Community Association School Governing Council Government and Non Government Organisations (GOs and NGOs) Community members Families Other specialist organizations may be involved with learners with disabilities. Special Education Centers Resources for the Blind Incorporated Deaf Ministries International Down Syndrome Association of the Philippines Incorporated Autism Society Philippines Strong relationships facilitated by schools supports them to tap into the expertise, materials and resources both physical and in kind, that exists in the community at large.
  54. 54. Section 2 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 46 How can schools work with communities to support learners with disabilities? Communication and information sharing within the school and community can create advocacy for learners with disabilities and their families. The DepEd inclusive education mandate and no rejection policy is creating growing awareness about disability in the community. Schools, as the centers of expertise in this area have a role to play in supporting community members to embrace the diversity within them. Schools could work with their division personnel, special education center or special education teachers to develop a range of activities.
  55. 55. Section 2 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 47 canvas for volunteers to support in the school train volunteers to work with learners with a disability invite disability organizations to work with the school develop, circulate community awareness brochures, fact sheets involve the community in a disability awareness event/week start a community disability action group Ways schools can work with communities
  56. 56. No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 48 Section 3 Our work with learners
  57. 57. Section 3 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 49 About our work with learners “What is taught isn’t the same as how it is taught.” Howell, Fox, Moorehead When teachers adopt multigrade teaching and learning, incorporate multiple intelligences and cater for preferred learning styles with multi sensory approaches, they will meet the needs of most learners in their classes. In this section, these practices and approaches which are increasingly used in Philippine schools, are overviewed. You will find additional strategies and information to help understand the particular needs of some learners with disabilities and how to design interventions that support their inclusion. Learning outcomes You will gain an overview of the nature and characteristics of learners with some types of disability early indicators that a learner is at risk of being identified with a disability holistic approaches to working with learners with disabilities different ways of learning and the implications for inclusive teaching the importance of multi-sensory teaching and learning adjustments and strategies that support learners with disabilities the individualized education plan and planning process some resources available to support the teaching of learners with disabilities
  58. 58. No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 50 1. Holistic approaches & learners with disabilities
  59. 59. Section 3 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 51 Different ways of learning ‘If a child can’t learn the way we teach, maybe we should teach the way they learn.’ Ignacio Estrada DepEd mandates Education for All. Republic Act 9155 (2001) states Schools shall have a single aim of providing the best possible basic education for all learners…..translated into programs, projects and services developed, adapted and offered to fit local needs. This subsection looks at current ideas about different ways in which learners make sense of learning. Two principles underpin the models presented. All children can learn Regardless of circumstance all children are capable of learning. Circumstance may, however, contribute to the rate at which children learn. All learners are unique When they enter school, learners’ predispositions and distinctive range of experiences have framed their perceptions, knowledges and strengths. How do different ways of learning impact on teachers work with learners? Different ways of learning need different teaching approaches. Teachers also have preferred ways of learning. Teachers need to be aware of their own preferences as well as those of learners, in order to provide a variety of approaches and learning opportunities rather than preferred approaches.
  60. 60. Section 3 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 52 Learning preferences and learning styles Research suggests that regardless of culture, age, gender and ability, all learners have preferred ways of learning. Learners with disabilities also show learning preferences. What are some preferred ways of learning? We all have different ways of thinking, acting, processing and approaching learning. Some key ways include Visual – seeing Auditory – hearing Kinesthetic – doing Tactile – touching
  61. 61. Section 3 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 53 The direction of eye gaze or head tilt can give clues about learning preferences. As well as having preferences for which senses are engaged in approaches to learning, research by McCarthy 1987 identified 4 learning styles. Dynamic – active Innovative – creative Analytic – theorist Procedural - practical
  62. 62. Section 3 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 54 How are learning styles important to teaching and learning? Using a variety of approaches supports learners to access and participate in activities. If teachers understand their own learning style/s they can get insights into the style they are teaching in the style of the activities and assessment they are planning for learners For example: A lecture style lesson, followed by research on the issues will be accessible to analytical, auditory learners. But dynamic learners with visual strengths might prefer a group discussion followed by presenting a poster. They are less likely to be engaged in the the other style and may not process the information to the same level. Teachers need to teach beyond their preferred styles and develop skills using a variety of pedagogies and activities. This is particularly important for learners with disabilities. A learner who is not engaged may not be lazy but rather, having trouble accessing the learning. Understanding the preferred learning styles of the class cohort, supports teachers to make informed decisions about curriculum design and delivery to improve engagement and learning. Multi sensory teaching and learning, (pg 75) incorporates different ways of learning. This section provides additional information about activities that support different ways of learning.
  63. 63. Section 3 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 55 Multiple intelligences Howard Gardner’s theory of Multiple Intelligences (MIs) names 8 human intelligences accounting for the range of strengths and potentials in adults and children. Verbal/linguistic intelligence ("word smart"): Logical/mathematical intelligence ("number/reasoning smart") Visual/ spatial intelligence ("picture smart") Body/ kinesthetic intelligence ("body smart") Musical/rhythmic intelligence ("music smart") Interpersonal intelligence ("people smart") Intrapersonal intelligence ("self smart") Naturalist intelligence ("nature smart")
  64. 64. Section 3 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 56 Are there benefits in using multiple intelligences approaches? Multiple intelligences provide an extra dimension to help understand learner diversity and different ways of learning. Like learning preferences and learning styles, considering the MIs when designing curriculum can broaden learning opportunities for learners. Some possible benefits: All learners can be included. A broader understanding and appreciation of intelligence may develop. Multiple ways of learning are valued. Learner motivation and engagement increase Learners experience the strengths of others and improve their ability to work in diverse groups As learners build their own strengths mutual recognition from others can build self esteem and self realization. As learners understand their own multiple intelligences they may become more self directed learners A variety of opportunities to enter the learning experience supports learning How do all of the different ways of learning fit together? Designing learning opportunities inclusive of a range of intelligences, is likely to also be inclusive of different modes of learning and learning styles as well as support a range of ability levels.
  65. 65. Section 3 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 57 Integrating MIs, learning preferences and styles Strategy MIs Learning preference Learning style Story maps Verbal/linguistic Logical/mathematical Visual/spatial Visual Auditory Procedural Analytic Dance/performance Body/kinesthetic Musical/rhythmic Kinesthetic Auditory Dynamic Innovative Graphing plant growth Naturalist Logical/mathematical Interpersonal Kinesthetic Tactile Procedural Dynamic Experiments Intrapersonal Body/kinesthetic Logical/mathematical Kinesthetic Tactile Visual Innovative Procedural Dynamic Journal sharing Intrapersonal Interpersonal Verbal/linguistic Auditory Kinesthetic Analytic Innovative
  66. 66. Section 3 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 58 Learners with disabilities The inclusive education policy of DepEd aims for shared meaningful learning for all learners including those with disabilities. As far as possible, learning experiences should occur within the same classroom for all learners and meet their individual learning needs. Research affirms that good teaching for learners with disabilities is good teaching for all learners and what constitutes quality teaching and learning is the same for all. ‘Good teachers build on the individual strengths of each student and recognize that all students have something valuable to contribute to the classroom community’ Giangreco & Doyle, 2000. As for other learners, those with disabilities are unique. Disability manifests differently for every individual. It is important to gather information about the learner with disabilities in order to know if personalized approaches are actually required. The Individualized Education Plan can be used to document these. An holistic approach involves looking at the learner as a whole, planning with all of their contexts and school contexts in mind. Friends Strengths Disability information Intelligences Family Services Health Interests Equipment Learning preferences
  67. 67. Section 3 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 59 What types of disabilities are supported in Philippine schools? Not all disabilities have a name and the name of a disability does not determine what support is needed at school. Support for a learner with a disability is determined by what they need in order to access, participate and attain in the curriculum. DepEd recognizes the following groups in the Special Education Policy and Guidelines. The disability areas covered in Section 3 Including learners with disabilities (pg 102) use internationally recognized terminologies used to describe some areas of disability. The table below shows how the current disabilities supported by DepEd are grouped in this section. Section 3 terminology DepEd policy terminology Attention Deficit Disorder Attention Deficit Disorder Autism Spectrum Disorder Children with autism Intellectual disability Mentally retarded Mentally handicapped Learning disability Learning disabled Physical and multiple disabilities Orthopedically handicapped Cerebral palsy Sensory impairment: Hearing Sensory impairment: Vision Hard of hearing, Deaf Low vision, Totally blind Social and emotional Behavior problems Speech and language Speech defective
  68. 68. Section 3 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 60 2. Inclusive Curriculum
  69. 69. Section 3 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 61 Individualized Education Plans The Individualized Education Plan (IEP) meets legal and ethical mandates associated with the education of learners with disabilities outlined in Section 1. What is the purpose of the IEP? An IEP documents curriculum and service provisions for learners with disabilities in regular classes and special education settings. It ensures that learners with disabilities have appropriate and supportive placement systematic, focused and developmentally appropriate programming meaningful curriculum outcomes linked to the BEC access to the services they require records of achievements a coordinated approach to learning and service provision congruence between the home and school How is the IEP developed? The school initiates a meeting with stakeholders to document agreements in the IEP IEP meetings are usually held once each year. A suitable time is negotiated with the family. Parents and class teachers are essential participants. A range of other professionals may be valuable contributors. It is suggested that their attendance be negotiated with families.
  70. 70. Section 3 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 62 Other participants may include: the special education or SPED center teacher the principal or administrator service providers or specialists other relevant personnel as negotiated e.g Guidance counsellor Prior to the IEP, teachers need to prepare assessment results and developmental evaluations a plan of learning priorities, building on the learner’s strengths map the priorities into the targets for the quarter In the IEP meeting this preparation will be used to develop an agreed action plan of goals and objectives, the expected time frame and the services, resources and people contributing to outcomes. What needs to be considered when participating in an IEP meeting? An IEP meeting can be a sensitive occasion so a number of considerations are important. Ask parents who they would like to attend the meeting Show sensitivity to the parents. What is the parent/ professional ratio? Keep numbers to a minimum. To support privacy, find a suitable location free of interruptions Maintain confidentiality Institute quality meeting procedures Make sure language is depersonalized (if the learner is present be more sensitive) Keep the meeting a jargon free zone Prepare other professionals in relation to sensitivity Read back documentation/agreements to check accuracy In Section 2 ‘Working with families’ additional information is provided
  71. 71. Section 3 Nolimits:Teachersincludinglearnerswithdisabilitiesinregularclassrooms 63
  72. 72. Section 3 Nolimits:Teachersincludinglearnerswithdisabilitiesinregularclassrooms 64
  73. 73. Section 3 Nolimits:Teachersincludinglearnerswithdisabilitiesinregularclassrooms 65
  74. 74. Section 3 Nolimits:Teachersincludinglearnerswithdisabilitiesinregularclassrooms 66
  75. 75. Section 3 A sample of an Individualized Education Plan Nolimits:Teachersincludinglearnerswithdisabilitiesinregularclassrooms 67
  76. 76. Section 3 DepEd logo Region XI Davao City School Name Davao City Elementary IEP for Felipa Mangos 2007 Area Goal Objective Time frame Persons involved Remarks Walks independently from gate to class In 10 months Felipa will be walk from the gate to class using cane with less assistance 10 months Teacher Parent Guard Fading of prompts and cues as independence increases Eats snacks independently In 10 months Felipa will be able to open foil snack packs 10 months Teacher Buddies Uses the comfort room independently In 10 months Felipa will use her cane to go to the CR and will manage hygiene with prompts 10 months Teacher Parent Volunteer CR Program to be shared with family SELFHELP Independently clears up after classes In 3 months Felipa will independently pack up work books and put them in her bag 3 months Teacher Buddies Parents Family focus will be clearing own plate after meals Uses courteous expressions when talking with others In 10 months Felipa will greet others the first time she meets them each day ask for help appropriately express thanks at appropriate times 10 months Teacher Volunteer Parents Family and school to work on same words LITERACY Names objects in class and surroundings In 10 months Felipa will identify common class objects and landmarks on the way to class and CR 10 months Teacher Parents Volunteer Family to work on names of common household objects Nolimits:Teachersincludinglearnerswithdisabilitiesinregularclassrooms 68
  77. 77. Section 3 Area Goal Objective Time frame Persons involved Remarks Master concept of numbers 1-10 In 10 months Felipa will count to 10 with 1:1 correspondence provide correct number of objects up to 10 10 months Teacher Volunteer Parents Buddies Practice opportunities at home with real objects – counting and handing 10 pegs to mother at clothes line MATH Identify spatial terms and use in mobility In 10 months Felipa will describe her journey from the gate to the class, to the CR 10 months Teacher Volunteer Buddies Parents Parent signature Class teacher signature School administrator signature Special education teacher signature Nolimits:Teachersincludinglearnerswithdisabilitiesinregularclassrooms 69
  78. 78. Section 3 INFORMATION TO ASSIST CLASSROOM PROGRAMMING NAME: GRADE DATE Area Information Teaching: What works Fine & Gross Motor skills Tires easily in motor tasks Fearful of new places Vary tactile activities Rehearsal for new place before going. Tell stories of Felipa’s new place/activity Joining in with class mates Language & Communication Talks to herself about friends and new places Write/tape her stories and retell them. Get other students to read them Braille key words – her name, friends Socialization Behaviour: Aversion to strangers & rushing Prone to outbursts if food or dress is not to her liking Reacts to the word ‘jeep’ If upset doesn’t talk Over-excited when happy & shouts Music to calm Candy, icecream Rewards Warning of what is coming up Taking time to do things Solitary time with favorite things Self Help Toileting: daily toilet schedule Dressing: some assistance with shoes Eating: uses spoon, assistance with opening packets and containers Guided assistance Verbal prompts and cues Time to practice Praise Functional academic Needs prior motivation to engage in activities Reacts to changing tasks Learning styles: Auditory, Tactile Music, singing Rewards, favorite objects Short structured tasks (10 mins) Warning to change tasks Concrete materials, limited materials In seat activities Physical & verbal prompts Nolimits:Teachersincludinglearnerswithdisabilitiesinregularclassrooms 70
  79. 79. Section 3 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 71 Inclusive Teaching ‘Inclusion is not a strategy to help people fit into the systems and structures which exist in our societies; it is about transforming those systems and structures to make it better for everyone. Inclusion is about creating a better world for everyone.’ Diane Richler, President, Inclusion International Inclusive teaching approaches enable all learners in the class to take part in learning opportunities To have a successful plan for all learners in the class, teachers need to: Know about the learners in the group Much can be learned from the learner themselves, their parents, their former teachers and from a teacher’s own observations. strengths and interests skills and knowledge what is being learned concerns and areas for focus Know about the curriculum Teachers need a comprehensive understanding of the BEC curriculum and a range of pedagogies (methods of teaching) appropriate for learning. Skills are needed in developing a variety of ways to engage learners ways to presentation options for participation means of expression assessment methods ‘A competent, caring general education teacher who is effective with students without disabilities, already possesses most of the critical skills necessary to successfully educate students with all kinds of learning challenges, including various disabilities’ Giangreco, 1997
  80. 80. Section 3 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 72 Effective Teaching Multigrade teaching and learning What is multigrade teaching and learning? A multigrade class has two or more grades in one class with one teacher. These methods are also successful in regular classes. In the Philippines, many schools in remote and isolated areas have more than one grade per classroom. Rather than treat each grade as a separate entity, learners are grouped in a variety of ways and taught using a variety of methods inclusive of all learners in the class. This has application in regular classes where there are learners with disabilities. Why is multigrade teaching and learning effective? Multigrade teaching and learning incorporates quality teaching and learning principles. The features of inclusive teaching are the same as those for teaching diverse groups knowledge of students knowledge of the curriculum having a good repertoire of teaching strategies and a variety of activities utilizing their own and the collective creativity of colleagues to plan and share teaching flexibility, openness, organization
  81. 81. Section 3 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 73 Quality learning principles Supportive learning environment Valued, safe, collaborative, positive challenge Opportunity to learn Engagement through observation, practice, development & application of knowledge Connection & challenge Building on existing knowledge to construct new knowledge Action & reflection Active learning and reflection on and incorporate new understandings Motivation & purpose Clear relevant outcomes Inclusivity and difference Experiences that respect and reflect differences between other learners Independence & collaboration Working both together, and individually to gain collective and personal perspectives
  82. 82. Section 3 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 74 Multigrade teaching and learning have positive outcomes for both learners and teachers. Multigrade classrooms cater for learners of different ability, personality and learning style, intelligences, culture, gender, age and years at school. Positive outcomes for learners Acceptance of diversity Learners are prepared for the diversity of society Social skills development through working with a variety of others in a variety of roles Increased independence as learners Increased options for learning – a range of groups to work with Positive outcomes for teachers Greater curriculum knowledge from working across levels Increased repertoire of methodologies and teaching flexibility Opportunities to use and develop the skills of learners How is multigrade teaching & learning useful in a regular class with learners with disabilities? Multigrade methodology allows teachers to work with many different learners together. Every class has learners with a variety of abilities, personalities, intelligences and learning styles, cultures, ages and years at school. As no class is homogenous, teachers need to be using an assortment of methodologies and strategies to engage and progress all of the learners across the levels in their class. How can I find out more about multigrade methodology? Your Region and Division Education Supervisors can provide information and training. The DepEd Multigrade Teacher’s Handbook 1994 and BEAM Multigrade Teaching & Learning 2007 are available resources.
  83. 83. Section 3 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 75 Multi-sensory teaching What is multi-sensory teaching? Multi-sensory teaching involves designing learning experiences so learners can engage more than one of the senses as they explore and learn. Visual learners may benefit from colour cues designing books, posters, charts, signs exciting stationery, pens graphic organizers flashcards, board work writing, and highlighting tables and graphs films, video, DVDs, art, pictures, images Auditory learners may benefit from listening to stories debates and discussion talking and explaining, repeating back self talk recording, cooperative activities, team situations music
  84. 84. Section 3 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 76 Kinesthetic, tactile learners may benefit from cooperative activities, interactive lessons writing, signing feelings, emotions making models, construction dressing up plays and performances painting and clay playing music, rhythms games, outdoor activities different writing mediums Are there other considerations for multi-sensory teaching? Classroom organization plays a role in planning for multi-sensory teaching. Furniture arrangement can be altered to enable different types of engagement. Learners can be taught different arrangements for different activities and become very quick at changing the room and suggesting plans Learning Centers Groups Individual areas Check that the environment is supportive for viewing and listening. Check for visibility from various seats. Are displays in the way? Improve auditory quality with wall-hangings of decorated cardboard Scaffolding for writing and math can be made into posters/cards and displayed
  85. 85. Section 3 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 77 Furniture arrangement ideas for different purposes Group work with quiet tables Activity Learning Centers Individual work
  86. 86. Section 3 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 78 Circle time/class meetings Floor time in elementary grades- group listening(big book) or activity time
  87. 87. Section 3 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 79 Explicit teaching The explicit teaching cycle provides a framework to help introduce new concepts. Learning success is more likely to be recorded when the cycle is used alongside other effective strategies like multi-sensory teaching making appropriate adjustments (pg 100 - 101) The cycle, below, is a relevant strategy for all learners and allows teachers to monitor learner progress at each stage. Some learners with disabilities may need to repeat stages 3, 4 and 5 Cited in Department of Education & Children’s Services. 1994-5, Cornerstone, Modules 6 & 7
  88. 88. Section 3 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 80 Inclusive planning: Higher Order Thinking Skills (HOTS) BEC wants: Learners in the Philippines to be active learners using information in meaningful ways rather than only listening to lectures and recalling the information Teachers in the Philippines to use constructivist methods for teaching and learning Assessment that encourages learners to apply Higher Order Thinking Skills (HOTS) The role of teachers in constructivist methodology is to structure the learning environment for all learners to learn Guide the learners as they construct their own understandings building on what they have already learned What are HOTS and why are they important to teaching and learning? HOTS are thinking strategies that help learners understand a concept or topic at a deeper level than when they began. The intellectual challenge possible through use of HOTS: promotes learner engagement in tasks helping maintain attention & interest encourages links between what is already known and new information creates opportunities to use the old and the new to create new tasks/products/answers The methodology benefits learners by supporting them to: develop thinking skills grow understandings while learning increase enjoyment of learning & the subject for both the learner and teacher
  89. 89. Section 3 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 81 Build and develop skills for life self-direction and responsibility creativity and originality intrinsic motivation through success a sense of increased competency confidence and independence This happens because Connections are made between what is known & new learning Existing skills are built upon Problem solving, critical thinking and a sharing of knowledge are integral to the process These characteristics create scaffolds that support all learners to be successful Tasks are multi-modal and so cater for learning preferences How do I use the HOTS to plan activities for learners? HOTS incorporates a 3-layered learning process Identifying and planning Processing Applying
  90. 90. Section 3 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 82 Adapted from BEAM Learning Guide Help Tasks: • Identify what the task is • Identify what needs to be done • Identify who/ how it will be done • Develop a plan & timeline 1. Identify & Plan (Comprehension) - What am I asked to do? Tasks: • Gather information • Sort it for usefulness • Classify • Analyze • Make decisions on what to use and why 2. Processing (Analysis) What information do I need to find? What information will I use? Tasks: • Decide on layout • Decide on order of information • Select the information & use it • Check that it answers the task given 3. Applying (Synthesis) How will I put this information together? What order and why? What will I leave out and why? How do I check I have finished the task?
  91. 91. Section 3 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 83 The teacher plans the learning sequence around a rich question for learners to explore. The teacher has mapped out the evidence that will show if a learner has achieved the BEC competency. A rich question is one that stimulates thinking and initiates a variety of learning directions. The example on the next five pages illustrates how to integrate HOTS in a lesson sequence with adjustments to include learners with disabilities. The levels of questioning on activity sheet 1 can be viewed in Section 3 Speech and language impairment (pg 191).
  92. 92. Section 3 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 84 Everyone needs a pet?
  93. 93. Section 3 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 85 ACTIVITY SHEET 1 Draw or write the answers in the boxes What is Sammy’s gift? What colour is the puppy? Where will the puppy stay or sleep? Who gave the puppy to Sammy? Why is the gift special? What is the best place for a puppy to sleep? Why? How do you think Sammy feels about the puppy? Your question Level 1 questions Level 2 questions Level 3 questions Level 4 questions
  94. 94. Section 3 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 86 ACTIVITY SHEET 2 Record what others say NAME Do you have pets? What type? What other animals do you have?
  95. 95. Section 3 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 87 ACTIVITY SHEET 2 Record what others say Which ones are our pets? (Mark beside the picture.) Which other animals do you have? (Mark beside the picture) Other pets… Other animals…
  96. 96. Section 3 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 88 What does this look like when the teacher does it with the class? ALL: Whole class Sharing & Reflection SOME: Possible investigations:- Difference between pets and other animals Animals and survival Animals and business Regional agriculture Self assessment Teacher assessment ALL: Whole class introduction to poem ALL: Whole class works on Activity 1 Learners work through questions at their ability level. then.. MOST: Most learners work on Activity2 Choose appropriate recording format to maximize inclusion of learners BEC Competency Self assessment Teacher assessment Self assessment Teacher assessment Self assessment Teacher assessment Adjustments: Enlarge sheet to A3 and give Level 1 questions only Adjustments: Seat learner in front of teacher Adjustments: Learner makes bar graph of pets. Large paper, cut and paste 1:1 match of tally Adjustments: Learner talks about their graph with teacher prompting Adapted from a model by the BEAM In-service Team Adjustments: Learner uses picture sheet & puts tally marks
  97. 97. Section 3 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 89 Inclusive planning: All, Most, Some & Bloom’s Taxonomy "Think left and think right and think low and think high. Oh, the thinks you can think up if only you try!" (Theodor Seuss Geisel) All, Most, Some is a curriculum planning model conceived by Schumm, Vaughn, and Leavell (1994) It is an inclusive model because it is designed to cater for all learners in a class. What some will learn What most will learn What all will learn Bloom’s Taxonomy is a framework for thinking at different levels. The six levels are thought to be useful for development of higher order thinking skills or HOTS. The levels are sometimes described as hierarchical. Bloom’s taxonomy is a useful framework for planning using the All Most Some pyramid and also a useful tool for curriculum modifications and adjustments. (pg 98) This enables learners with disabilities to be included in a classroom program.
  98. 98. Section 3 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 90 Foundational thinking Higher order thinking Remembering (factual recall) Analyzing (examination of data) Understanding (comprehension) Creating (new products) Applying (using information) Evaluating (justification, decisions) Bloom’s Taxonomy
  99. 99. Section 3 Designing inclusive curriculum using All, Most, Some Nolimits:Teachersincludinglearnerswithdisabilitiesinregularclassrooms 91
  100. 100. Section 3 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 92 How do I use this model to plan inclusively? The process Choose the BEC curriculum competency or competencies you will be addressing Select a topic List what learners need to know and demonstrate in order to achieve the result List the prerequisite skills and capacities learners will need in order to be successful Rationalize the list to reflect what All, Most & Some learners will do and learn Identify the adjustments, strategies and resources needed Select assessment methods There are some things to consider when using these 2 models. The pyramid does not mean that learners with disabilities can only be taught at the All level. Learners interests, knowledge and capacities will vary depending on the topic, previous experience and strengths. Learners need opportunities to learn in all domains Learning at the All level should include hands-on active learning discussion group work interesting recording and reporting Learning at the All level should NOT rely on worksheets repetitive exercises fact finding Direct instruction may be needed at various points at all levels The verbs the teacher uses when designing lessons help to tell the thinking level of each task Use the chart to design activities at each level.
  101. 101. Section 3 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 93 Bloom’s Taxonomy Verbs Possible activities Some Evaluate Judge, Select, Decide, Justify, Debate, Recommend Determine, Critique, Evaluate, Prepare a list of criteria to judge something, Write a report Debate an issue Make a brochure to sell an idea Make a presentation Create Create, Invent, Compose, Plan, Construct Design, Imagine, Devise, Formulate, Hypothesize Invent a product for.. Plan how to sell something Design a record, book or magazine cover. Devise a way to … Compose music or a song Most Analyze Analyze, Distinguish, Examine, Compare Contrast, Investigate, Separate Advertise, Take apart, Differentiate Design a questionnaire Write an advert or report Construct a graph Make a diagram to show relationships, Put on a play Write a song, poem Apply Solve, Show, Use, Complete, Examine, Classify, Choose Make, Put together, Change, Apply, Calculate, Modify Construct a model, mural Make a scrapbook or map Make a puzzle or game showing the ideas Design a plan Write an outline. Understand Explain, Outline, Discuss, Restate, Translate, Compare, Describe, Put into your own words, Find out more about Cut out or draw pictures Illustrate the main idea Make a cartoon strip Retell in your own words, Write a summary Prepare a flow chart All Remember Tell, List, Describe, Locate, Write, Find, State, Name, Identify, Label, Recall, Recite Make or draw a list of.. Make a timeline, Make a poster Make a chart showing.. Tell a story or poem
  102. 102. Section 3 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 94 YEAR 3 Math Lesson- Points, Lines, Planes Reynante Solitario The lesson aims to consolidate basic terms in geometry and show the relationships among these terms. Aside from learning and seeing the importance of the study, the lesson is inclusive and fun. The use of HOTS is evident because at every stage, as learners engineer their product, they are analyzing and refining creating and recreating evaluating and re-evaluating The lesson is designed with a class of 60 students in mind. In the class there is a learner with physical disability, a learner with intellectual disability, a learner with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Materials for the whole group sticks (could be locally collected) plastic twine (50 cm. length cut-outs) newspaper (half-page cut-outs) masking tape (3 inches length cut-outs) class money The teacher will act as a store owner who buys and sells products. They will sell personal belongings and buy the materials needed to complete the task. The only available products will be the materials used for building a tower. Introduce learners to the process. ALL LEARNERS CAN BE INVOLVED AT EVERY STAGE IN THIS LESSON Adjustments for optimum inclusion of some learners are suggested. The design of the lesson is very supportive for learners who have visual, kinaesthetic, auditory learning styles logical/mathematical, interpersonal, verbal/linguistic, visual/spatial, body kinaesthetic, naturalist intelligences
  103. 103. Section 3 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 95 Task: POINTLINE TOWER Adjustments 1. Form groups of 6-10. Assign roles. a team leader that will lead you in planning and building a tower a timer who will keep time and record data 2 builders who will stay with the tower plan and talk with others about it 6 travellers who will consult with other groups builders about their towers Provide written instructions (board or paper) Cross out as completed Draw symbol pictures next to instructions to enhance understanding Rehearse process with class Learners are likely to self select a job that suits them. eg Active learners will enjoy travelling, learner with physical disability can be a builder, the learner with intellectual disability can be a builder’s labourer 2. Your group has no money to buy the materials you need to build the tower, so you have to sell your personal belongings to the store. The store owner buys the following belongings Polo (worn,removed) - Php 1,000/pc Shoes - Php 1,000/pair Socks - Php 100/pair Pack Bags - Php 100/pc Hat - Php 50/pc. The teacher chooses one or two learners needing extra practice with money to assist in the store job. Provide a buddy to help with transactions. Teacher asks key questions of some learners One learner can make calculations and keep a record of the money and materials Learner can record in pictures/symbols if literacy is low 3. Sellers/buyers will line up to sell their belongings and later purchase the materials. All groups will plan to build a tower based on the materials they have. They will have 15 minutes. Learner with intellectual disability arranges materials in groups as purchased & counts, records in pictures Learner acts as timing assistant & warns when 5 mins to go.
  104. 104. Section 3 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 96 4. The groups will now consult for 10 minutes. Builders stay with the timer & leader and talk to visiting travellers Travelers visit other groups and return to their group. They share what they have seen. Plans may be refined. Learner with intellectual disability cuts tape lengths and arranges on table edge Builder with physical disability responds to travellers questions Provide structure for gathering ideas – key questions, comparing amount of materials 5. When all groups are ready, give them a GO signal. Allow only 15 minutes to build a tower. When the time is up, students gather data on their outputs. Using a ruler to measure the height of group's tower. Record points, lines, planes Learner with intellectual disability hands materials on request to builders Learner with physical disability checks plans against design Learners with ADD are actively building and scanning other groups 6. Winning group/s will be determined by tower strength tower height most points most lines most planes least materials used creative design Learner with intellectual disability records points, planes on tally sheet Learner with physical disability may orally report / check figures, have buddy scribe 7. Leaders report to group on How they made the tower How their consultation affected their plan The data about their construction Team may select the most appropriate members to report. Roles may include: Holding report leading the speaking telling your piece of information with prompts showing a drawing 8. Display towers with data and reports around classroom
  105. 105. Section 3 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 97 Modifications and adjustments Teachers will plan for learners with disabilities in ways that support the learner to achieve require the least modification for success adjust the learning contexts to ensure access and participation Modifications What modifications can be made to a class program to ensure participation of the learner? Four levels of intervention can be considered. 1. Same as for other learners with adjustments 2. Same activity/different level 3. Same activity/embedded skill 4. Different activity/different skill At every stage the learner could have some adjustments (pg 100-101) in place. Learners might need less modification or fewer adjustments for some lessons because of their skills, knowledge and strengths.
  106. 106. Section 3 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 98 Some examples of modifications at each stage. Participation level Lesson/activity Modification Adjustments English writing none Dark lined paper Writing framework 1. Same with adjustments Maths exercises none Paper in columns Answers given for checking Maths addition Class- tens, units Learner with disability 1:1 correspondence Concrete aids, prepared sheet, peer or volunteer if needed 2. Same activity Different level Learner is working as others but on a task at own level Geography maps Class – map scaling Student learning Map labelling Finished model shown One instruction at a time given Science report Simplified format – First, then, what happened? Student learning sequences Format provided Verbal prompts & cues, rehearsal Verbal presentation 3. Same activity Embedded skill Goals may be different to the rest of the group Sport games Learner time keeps - focus is 5 minute clock intervals Adult or buddy Time sheet to mark Clock, prompts English reading Class –reading activities Learner in small group – letter recognition Concrete letters or cards or game ie fish game, prepared sheet 4. Different activity Different skill Parallel activities or alternatives Maths calculating area Learner cutting and pasting to fill a shape- focus gross motor & shapes Prepared work area Modelling Adult monitoring
  107. 107. Section 3 No limits: Teachers including learners with disabilities in regular classrooms 99 Adjustments What are adjustments? Adjustments are special measures put in place to ensure learners can access and participate in learning activities. Particular adjustments may need to be available to the learner every time they undertake some tasks. For example Dark lined paper for a learner with vision impairment each time they write A learner with hearing impairment in the left ear, seated at the front with the right ear closest to the teacher Others adjustments may be contextual. For example A learner may benefit from additional time in writing tasks but not need it when doing maths. A small group might be needed for developing reading skills but is not required in Makabayan How do I find out what adjustments are needed for learners with disabilities in my class? Ideally, information about adjustments will be documented in the learner’s IEP. Other sources of information could be Itinerant teachers Special Education or Resource Room teacher the learner or their parents reports from specialists, support services colleagues, previous teachers When adjustments are specified in the IEP, teachers are required to implement them. ** Some learners without disabilities may also need adjustments