Module 2.3 grading for performance

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Module 2.3 grading for performance

  1. 1. MMOODDUULLEE 22..33 GRADING FOR PERFORMANCE Teacher Induction Program Teacher Education Council, Department of Education
  2. 2. Lolita M. Andrada, Ph. D. Writer Bernadette S. Pablo, M. Ed. In-house Editor All rights reserved. This module may not be reproduced in any form without the permission of the Teacher Education Council, Department of Education.
  3. 3. TEACHER INDUCTION PROGRAM GRADING FOR PERPORMANCE MODULE 2.3 GRADING FOR PERFORMANCE (Grading need not be sheer guess work!) INTRODUCTION Beginning teachers need to be clear about the factors that should be considered when grading students. This is to avoid arbitrariness and bias in the grading process. This module is designed to explain the rationale behind the performance- based grading system, define its principles, clarify the implementing guidelines, and address the issues that even experienced teachers face when grading students. The lesson contains illustrative examples to facilitate understanding of the guidelines, and activities to provide concrete application of the principles. You, the teacher, are encouraged to reflect on the significance of this module in your role as monitor of learning progress and evaluator of student performance. OBJECTIVES At the end of this Module, you should be able to: • Explain the need for a performance-based grading system; • Apply the principles of the performance-based grading system; • Implement the guidelines of the grading system; • Reflect on your own assessment practices; and • Draw insights to improve your monitoring and evaluation practices. MODULE 2.3 1
  4. 4. TEACHER INDUCTION PROGRAM GRADING FOR PERPORMANCE THE PLACE OF ASSESSMENT IN THE CURRICULUM READ Teachers assess students for a variety of reasons, many of which are known only to the teacher. For instance, how many of your teachers in high school told you, that the test you would be taking was designed to assess your ability to demonstrate a process, or evaluate a person’s intention? Teachers often define the scope of the assessment, say a chapter of a book, but very seldom, if ever, do they explain why students are to be assessed or on what skills they are to be measured. Assessment, therefore, becomes one great guessing game for the students, like a puzzle they need to unravel or a mystery they need to solve. The performance-based grading system takes the mystery out of assessment. It makes clear to the students why they will be assessed, how their performance will be measured, and how the results will be used. It also defines the role of the students in the assessment process, a practice that is not normally done with students. The performance-based grading system considers assessment as integral to the teaching-learning process. This may be best explained by the following diagram: MODULE 2.3 2
  5. 5. TEACHER INDUCTION PROGRAM GRADING FOR PERPORMANCE Figure 1. The Place of Assessment in the Curriculum It may be noted that as an element of the curriculum, assessment measures whether the objectives of instruction have been achieved and the extent to which the content, the materials and strategies employed in the lesson have been effective in contributing to the attainment of the objectives. The results of the assessment are then used by the teacher to make decisions about his/her teaching. Assessment, therefore, is used to inform instruction. In this sense, assessment becomes a tool for improving teaching and learning. This is the basic principle that underpins the performance-based grading system. As a tool for improving teaching and learning, assessment should take place throughout the teaching-learning process. Before the lesson begins, the teacher should find out whether the students have the prerequisite knowledge and skills that will enable them to deal easily with the new content. The purpose of the assessment, in this regard, is diagnostic. It seeks to find out the background knowledge and experiences that students are bringing to the learning situation. Learning is facilitated MODULE 2.3 3
  6. 6. TEACHER INDUCTION PROGRAM GRADING FOR PERPORMANCE when the teacher knows where to start, what prior learning he/she can build on, or what previous knowledge needs to be unlearned or clarified before new knowledge can be introduced. In the course of instruction, the teacher needs to keep track of the students’ learning or progress. How many students are successfully attaining the objectives of instruction? Who are falling behind? Why? Assessment at this point becomes instructive for the teacher as he/she analyzes which teaching strategies are producing the desired results and where adjustments in the activities may be needed. Assessment at this stage takes on a formative function as the teacher utilizes the results to make adjustments in his/her teaching. Thus, when the majority of the students failed to acquire the desired knowledge or develop the skills, this is a clear indication of a teaching problem. The teacher should analyze what went wrong and address it accordingly. Ignoring the results of assessment will lead to learning gaps, and it will be futile for the teacher to continue teaching unless the learning deficiencies are remedied. When the teacher decides to take action on the results of the assessment by modifying or changing his/her strategies, the teacher shall continue to track the students’ progress until he/she is satisfied with the results. The outcome of instruction is then evaluated and judgment is made on the performance of students. This judgment is often expressed in the form of grades. MODULE 2.3 4
  7. 7. TEACHER INDUCTION PROGRAM GRADING FOR PERPORMANCE RATIONALE AND PRINCIPLES OF PERFORMANCE- BASED ASSESSMENT READ The performance-based grading system looks at assessment as an instructional tool that promotes learning; hence, the emphasis is on the formative value of assessment (i.e., assessment for learning) rather than its summative function (i.e., assessment of learning). Assessment for learning tracks rather than measures student progress. Thus, the purpose of assessment is to gather information about the student during the learning process with the view to assisting him by providing the intervention, where needed so that learning gaps can be bridged. In contrast, assessment of learning measures student achievement at the end of instruction solely for the purpose of evaluating and assigning grades. While the intention of assessment under the performance-based grading system is to track student progress more than evaluate or pass judgment on student performance, this is not to say , though, that summative assessment has no place in the grading system. The difference is in the emphasis being placed on the value or function of the assessment. In line with the principle of assessment for learning, teachers are advised to administer a diagnostic test prior to instruction as basis for identifying learning needs so that they can correspondingly adjust or modify their teaching to respond to such needs. Thus, there may be students who, based on the teacher’s diagnosis, will require additional practice, or there may be those who can learn better through direct teaching. The teacher can then plan with the students the appropriate strategies or interventions either for remediation (for those with learning deficiencies) or for enrichment or enhancement of learning. Aside from assessment for learning, the performance-based grading system is also founded on the principle of learner accountability. This means giving the students responsibility for their learning, which implies, allowing them to direct their MODULE 2.3 5
  8. 8. TEACHER INDUCTION PROGRAM GRADING FOR PERPORMANCE own learning. This happens when the results of tests are fed back immediately to the students and, on the basis of the information, they plan and manage their learning. They set their own goals, map out their learning strategies, seek the help they need, and track and chart their own progress. The students are even encouraged to assess themselves. Assessment, therefore, becomes a shared responsibility, a process that is not done to the students, but with the students. The last principle, but which is also the essence of the performance-based grading system, is the tight alignment between assessment and standards. Assessment must measure those competencies reflected in the instructional objectives. This is a development area among many of our teachers. In many teacher-made tests, a common problem is the lack of fit between the instructional objective and the assessment tool. For example, a lesson may have for its objective the development of the student’s ability to sequence events, but if the test is on identification of events, then the measure becomes incongruent to the skill being assessed. The performance-based grading system uses assessment that measures what students know, can do, demonstrate, or perform as indicated in the instructional objectives. The emphasis is on the assessment of process more than content, which is what makes the performance-based grading system different. MODULE 2.3 6
  9. 9. TEACHER INDUCTION PROGRAM GRADING FOR PERPORMANCE SCQ 1.1 1. What principles underpin the performance-based grading system? Explain your own understanding of each principle. ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ 2. Do you agree with the rationale behind each principle? Why? Why not? ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ 3. Which principle can you easily apply? Why? Is there any principle that you find problematic? Why? ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ MODULE 2.3 7
  10. 10. TEACHER INDUCTION PROGRAM GRADING FOR PERPORMANCE IMPLEMENTING GUIDELINES READ DepED Order No.33, s. 2004 defines the implementing guidelines of the performance-based grading system. First, it maintains that the lowest passing grade is 75%, and the lowest grade that may appear in the report card is 65%. If the student’s actual grade is lower than 65%, it shall be reflected in the teacher’s record book, but what shall appear in the report card is the ceiling grade of 65%. Any grade below 75% is considered a failure. Second, it prescribes the test design as consisting of 60% basic items, 30% more advanced, and 10% items for distinguishing honor students. In terms of difficulty, the basic items are generally the easy ones. Easy questions, however, do not imply that they must be at the level of knowledge or recall. There are questions that demand critical thinking, yet are easy. Consider this question as an example: The skull sign on a bottle indicates that its content is a) for external use only. c) highly flammable. b) highly poisonous d) for adults. How does one determine if a question is easy or difficult? Teachers usually are guided by their experience with their students. Thus, a question may be easy or difficult based on the students’ capability to answer the question. This practice, however, is rather arbitrary. A more scientific approach is to do an item analysis that test developers follow in determining item difficulty. Questions in each category should have different weights. This implies that the weights shall be based on the level of difficulty of the questions. The questions should cover only those content and skills actually taken up in class. This is to ensure the instructional or curriculum validity of the items. Third, the grading system indicates the test and non-test factors that are considered in the computation of the student’s grade. A heavier weight is given to MODULE 2.3 8
  11. 11. TEACHER INDUCTION PROGRAM GRADING FOR PERPORMANCE non-test factors to effect the move from a test-driven to a performance-based grading system. The components of the student’s grade are explained as follows: Periodic test summative assessment of student’s learning at the end of the quarter Quiz summative assessment of student’s learning at the end of the lesson; Quizzes given for formative purposes are not considered in the computation of the student’s grade but as basis for making a decision whether to proceed to the next lesson or to reteach. Unit test summative assessment of student’s learning at the end of the unit Participation/ Performance student’s involvement in the learning process individually and/or in group; student’s demonstration of a skill or process (e.g., role play, theatrical performance, music, dance, choral reading, speech delivery, experiment, etc.). For Edukasyon sa Pagpapahalaga, 5% of the total weight shall be given to attendance. Project/Output product of a skill or process (e.g., book report, book/movie review, journal, research, etc.) Assignment work usually done outside the classroom in preparation for the next lesson and may involve an application or extension of student learning MODULE 2.3 9
  12. 12. TEACHER INDUCTION PROGRAM GRADING FOR PERPORMANCE Behavior observable manifestation of student’s feelings, thoughts, or attitude; the grade is reflected in Edukasyon sa Pagpapahalaga although every subject teacher is expected to contribute to the assessment of the student’s behavior. The weights for each of these components may vary from subject to subject as may be noted in the following distribution per DepED Order No. 33, s. 2004: 100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%TotalTotal --------BehaviorBehavior --10%10%----AssignmentAssignment 25%25%20%20%25%25%25%25%Output/projectOutput/project 30%30%35%35%50%50%50%50% Participation/Participation/ performanceperformance 15%15%------Unit testUnit test 15%15%10%10%----QuizzesQuizzes 15%15%25%25%25%25%25%25%Periodic testPeriodic test MathMathScienceScienceEnglishEnglishFilipinoFilipinoComponentComponent Percentage Distribution of the Components of the Student’s Grade MODULE 2.3 10
  13. 13. TEACHER INDUCTION PROGRAM GRADING FOR PERPORMANCE 100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%TotalTotal 10%10%------BehaviorBehavior ------10%10%AssignmentAssignment 15%15%25%25%20%20%20%20%Output/projectOutput/project 40%40%40%40%45%45%30%30% Participation/Participation/ performanceperformance --------Unit testUnit test 10%10%10%10%10%10%20%20%QuizzesQuizzes 25%25%25%25%25%25%20%20%Periodic testPeriodic test EPEPMAPEHMAPEHTLETLEAPAPComponentComponent Percentage Distribution of the Components of the Student’s Grade MODULE 2.3 11
  14. 14. TEACHER INDUCTION PROGRAM GRADING FOR PERPORMANCE MODULE 2.3 12 Components of the Grade inComponents of the Grade in CATCAT 2525Output/ProjectOutput/Project 4040ParticipationParticipation 1010QuizzesQuizzes 2525Periodical testPeriodical test % weight% weightComponentComponent Total 100% Final grades are computed using the averaging method (i.e., the final grade is determined by averaging the marks for each subject for the four quarters). There is no cap on the maximum or highest grade that can be given for any grading period. For MAPEH, the composite grade is computed by getting the average of all the components (Music, Arts, P.E. and Health). The grade in MAPEH becomes incomplete if the student incurs a failure or deficiency in any component. For CAT, student rating is on a “Pass-Fail” basis. Transmutation tables shall not be used in the computation of grades. This is to avoid grade inflation that occurs when scores are transmuted. Test scores shall be recorded as raw scores, totaled at the end of each grading period and then computed as percentage (i.e., [student’s score ÷ highest possible score] x 100).
  15. 15. TEACHER INDUCTION PROGRAM GRADING FOR PERPORMANCE THE USE OF RUBRICS READ For the assessment of the non-test factors, the use of rubrics is recommended. Rubrics are scoring guides and may be best used for rating performance, participation, products or outputs, assignments, and student responses to open-ended questions. The student’s score or rating may be expressed in points based on the different descriptions of his/her actual performance or characteristics of his/her outputs. Thus, a good rubric describes the desired qualities or characteristics of student performance or product. It also distinguishes in explicit terms one performance level from another. Here are some sample rubrics: MODULE 2.3 13
  16. 16. TEACHER INDUCTION PROGRAM GRADING FOR PERPORMANCE Sample rubric for assessing a presentation: Assessment of organizationAssessment of organization 44-- Ideas are internally consistent; presentationIdeas are internally consistent; presentation is very clearis very clear 33-- One or two ideas appear inconsistent/One or two ideas appear inconsistent/ irrelevant to the discussion; presentation hasirrelevant to the discussion; presentation has a few gapsa few gaps 22-- Major ideas do not hang together; manyMajor ideas do not hang together; many gaps in the presentationgaps in the presentation 11-- Ideas are totally inconsistent; no clearIdeas are totally inconsistent; no clear linkagelinkage You will note that in the first example, two criteria are used: aesthetic appeal and creativity. These criteria are best applied to the rating of student products such as those in Technology and Livelihood Education. In the second example, the criterion of organization is adopted as a factor for assessing a presentation such as a report. Other factors or criteria may be adopted depending on what the teacher considers as important. It would be good to assess the MODULE 2.3 14
  17. 17. TEACHER INDUCTION PROGRAM GRADING FOR PERPORMANCE student’s output or performance based on a number of factors in order to get a holistic view of what the student knows and can do. Aside from specifying the evaluative criteria, a good rubric contains quality definitions which indicate the standard or level of performance. In the first example, there are three levels of performance: expert, accomplished, and novice. Each level is defined so the rater will know the appropriate score to give. The advantage of specifying the levels of performance is that it becomes easier for the teacher to develop, based on the quality definitions, a learning profile of the students. The rubric thus becomes a meaningful guide as it describes in specific terms the student’s performance or output which is not what other measures, such as a rating scale, do. A rating scale, for example, will only describe in general terms (e.g., very good, good, or needs improvement) a student’s performance or output, but what exactly do such terms mean? Not only will they be interpreted differently by different people, but they are not, due to lack of specificity, of much use to the teacher. There are two types of rubric: generic and specific. A generic rubric may be based on information or based on process or skill. Below is a portion of a generic rubric. Can you provide the quality definitions for the other levels to complete the rubric? Example of a Generic RubricExample of a Generic Rubric Knowledge of procedureKnowledge of procedure 44-- The student has complete knowledge ofThe student has complete knowledge of the procedure.the procedure. 33-- The student has complete knowledge ofThe student has complete knowledge of the procedure, but lacks details.the procedure, but lacks details. At level 2, which may also be equivalent to two points, the quality definition may be as follows: “the student has incomplete knowledge of the procedure and is unable to provide the major details”; and at level 1, which may be equivalent to MODULE 2.3 15
  18. 18. TEACHER INDUCTION PROGRAM GRADING FOR PERPORMANCE one point, the quality definition may be this: “the student has no knowledge of the procedure and is thus unable to provide the major details.” A specific rubric, on the other hand, is based on a particular topic. A portion of a sample specific rubric is provided below. Can you apply the same quality definitions given above for levels 2 and 1 of the generic rubric to complete the specific rubric? What will you include in the quality definitions? The scores are also provided in the rubric. In the first example given, the output is rated based on a range of scores, i.e., 8-10 points for work that is above standard, 5-7 points for work that is on standard, and 1-4 points for work in which meeting the standard is still a goal. The scoring strategy may either be holistic or analytic. In holistic scoring, the rater gives an overall evaluation of the student’s work based on all the evaluative criteria. In the first example above, where two evaluative criteria are used, the rater considers both criteria in scoring the student’s work. In contrast, analytical scoring is a criterion-by-criterion judgment of the student’s work. Thus, a score is given for every criterion, and then the scores are averaged (or weighted, as the case may be) in order to come up with a final score. Whatever scoring strategy is adopted, it is recommended that interim values (e.g., 1.5, 2.5, 3.5 . . .) be used instead of just 1, 2, 3, 4 . . .in order to increase the accuracy of scoring. MODULE 2.3 16
  19. 19. TEACHER INDUCTION PROGRAM GRADING FOR PERPORMANCE Example of a Specific RubricExample of a Specific Rubric Knowledge of procedure in writing a reportKnowledge of procedure in writing a report 44-- The student has complete knowledge ofThe student has complete knowledge of the procedurethe procedure in writing a reportin writing a report 33-- The student has complete knowledge ofThe student has complete knowledge of the procedurethe procedure in writing a reportin writing a report, but lacks, but lacks details.details. The generic rubric, by definition, may be applied to any topic. Thus, in the above example, knowledge of procedure, may be applied to any topic. What distinguishes a specific rubric from a generic rubric is that the former indicates the particular topic that is the focus of the assessment. In the above example, writing a report is the specific topic to which the criterion “knowledge of procedure” shall be applied. MODULE 2.3 17
  20. 20. TEACHER INDUCTION PROGRAM GRADING FOR PERPORMANCE MODULE 2.3 18 ACTIVITY 1.1 Analyze if the following are rubrics or not. Explain your answer to each question. A. B. Is this a rubric? Assessment of workmanship 4- No visible defects in the quality of the product; product is totally acceptable 3- One or two defects in the quality of the product; minor touch-up is recommended 2- Major defects in the overall quality of the product; major rework is necessary 1- Product is totally defective; product is rejected Is this a rubric? Assessment of a project: Clothes Hamper Workmanship 50% Cost of raw materials 25 Packaging 25 Total 100%
  21. 21. TEACHER INDUCTION PROGRAM GRADING FOR PERPORMANCE C. ACTIVITY 1.2 Is this a rubric? Assessment of workmanship 10 9 Superior 8 7 Expert 6 5 Satisfactory 4 3 2 1 Poor Complete the following rubric: Assessment of the ability to explain a procedure clearly 4- The student can explain the procedure in own words and can illustrate and demonstrate each step. 3- 2- The student needs prompting in order to explain the procedure; cannot illustrate nor demonstrate the steps. 1- The student can explain one or two steps in the procedure; cannot illustrate nor demonstrate the steps. MODULE 2.3 19
  22. 22. TEACHER INDUCTION PROGRAM GRADING FOR PERPORMANCE ACTIVITY 1.3 Prepare a rubric on any of the following: a. Assessment of participation b. Assessment of student’s essay c. Assessment of oral report MODULE 2.3 20
  23. 23. TEACHER INDUCTION PROGRAM ANSWER KEY ANSWERKEY 1. A is not a rubric because it does not define the evaluative criteria nor does it indicate how the output shall be scored. Thus, the assessment of the output will depend on how the rater of scorer interprets the criteria. B is a rubric as it satisfies the requirements of a good scoring guide. C is a rating scale, not a rubric. It indicates the levels or standards of performance, but does not define or describe them. 2. Level 3 in the rubric may be defined as: 3 – The student can explain in his/her own words some of the steps in the procedure and can demonstrate the same but understanding is limited. 3. Models of rubrics are in DepED order No. 33, s. 2004. Compare your work with any of the samples given. You may also use the following elements of a good rubric as your guide: a. It should describe the desired qualities or standards of performance; b. It should distinguish clearly the differences in the levels of performance; and c. It should indicate the scoring strategy. MODULE 2.3 21

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