ENGLISH 8 LEARNING MODULE
QUARTER III (OVERCOMING CHALLENGES)
LESSON 4: African Literature
Courage in Rising Above Challenges
INTRODUCTION AND FOCUS QUESTIONS
Have you ever felt so discouraged that you almost wanted to give up and quit?
How did you respond to life‘s challenges? Whether you are black, white, or brown,
you have to remember that everybody goes through difficulties in these modern
times. Have you ever wondered how your African brothers overcome adverse
circumstances in life?
In this lesson, African Literature: Courage in Rising Above Challenges, you
will discover that critical understanding and appreciation of Afro-Asian literary pieces
can help you identify the temperaments and psyche of your Afro-Asian brothers in
response to the challenges of modernity.
Remember to search for the answer to the following questions:
1. What does literature reveal about Africans and Asians character?
2. How do Africans and Asians respond to the challenges of modernity as reflected in
their literary pieces?
LESSON AND COVERAGE:
In this lesson, you will answer these questions when you take the following
Lesson Title: The Temperaments and Psyche of the Africans in Response to the
Challenges of Modernity
In this lesson, you will learn the following:
Domains Learning Competencies
Use syntactic, lexical, or context clues to supply
items not listened to
Speaking (Oral Language and
Infer the functions of utterances and respond
accordingly taking into account the context of
the situation and the tone used
Vocabulary Development Identify derivation of words
Express emotional reactions to what was
asserted or expressed in a text
Determine the validity and adequacy of proof
statements to support assertions
Organize an independent and systematic
approach in critiquing various reading or
Express appreciation for worthwhile Asian and
African traditions and the values they represent
Assess the Asian and African identity as
reflected in their literature and oneself in the
light of what makes one an Asian or African
Writing and Composition
Give and respond to feedback on one‘s paper in
the revision process
Use grammatical structures and vocabulary
needed to effectively emphasize particular
Grammar Awareness and
Formulate meaningful expanded
sentences following balance, parallelism, and
Formulate appropriate parenthetical
Get vital information from various texts and
sources using websites in the internet
Attitude Give credence to well thought-out ideas
Here is a simple map of the above lesson you will cover:
UNIT ACTIVITIES MAP
ACTIVITIES FOR ACQUIRING
ACTIVITIES LEADING TO
Picture Hook (G) Worksheet
Box of Essentials (Map of
Conceptual Change) (I)
Compare and Contrast (G)
Frequency Word List (I)
Squeeze it Out (I)/Table
Frequency Word List (I)
Strike a Balance (I)
Punctuate it Right (I)
Frequency Word List (I)
Frequency Word List (I)
Africans on Spotlight
Back it Up (G)/Table
Message in a Drum
Dissecting Pen (In-
Black and White - An
Evaluation Paper (I)
Scoop on Slavery
Africa: Darken No
Capturing the World of
Wrap it Up (I)
Welcome to FB
(Feedback Blog) (G)
To do well in this lesson, you need to remember and do the following:
Listening/Writing: Use syntactic, lexical, and context clues to supply items not
listened to. Write an analysis of how an African character depicted in a literary
selection respond to the challenges of modernity.
Speaking/Writing: Engage in communication situation based from a selection read
and infer the functions of utterances and respond accordingly taking into
consideration the context of the situation and the tone used.
Reading/Literature/Vocabulary/Study Strategies: Produce a frequency word list
and come up with an evaluation paper on selected African literary selection.
Grammar/Reading/Literature: Make an e-journal based on the impressions
reflected in an African literary selection.
Viewing/Writing: Make an interactive feedback blog expressing one‘s insights and
LEARNING GOALS AND TARGETS:
For you to accomplish the activities in this lesson, write your goals and
expectations in the box provided.
Let’s start the module by examining how far you have gone in Afro-Asian
Literature, particularly, African literature.
Activity 1: PICTURE HOOK
In this activity, you will answer questions based on the picture shown. Write your
answers on the template provided; afterwards share your answers with the rest of the
class in a freewheeling group discussion. Try to relate your answers to the essential
1. What does literature reveal about Asian and (African) character?
2. How do Asians and Africans respond to the challenges of modernity as reflected
in their literary selections?
1. What role does Nelson Mandela play in the political landscape of Africa?
2. Aside from being a political figure or leader, Mandela, as a writer in his own
world, has etched an indelible mark in African literature. What do you think are
his contributions in the literary realm of Africa?
3. Based on Mandela‘s words ―As I walked out the door toward the gate that
would lead to my freedom, I knew if I didn’t leave my bitterness and hatred
behind, I’d still be in prison,‖ what does it reflect about the temperaments and
psyche of the Africans?
Activity 2: CHARACTER ANALYSIS
Now, read the informative text below for you to have a clearer mental picture
of Nelson Mandela’s life, works, and contributions in Africa.
Nelson Mandela – Short Biography
Nelson Mandela was born at Qunu, near Umtata on 18 July 1918. His father was
chief councilor to Thembuland‘s acting chief David Dalindyebo. When his father died,
Mandela was groomed for becoming chief of his local tribe. However Mandela would
never be able to make this commitment.
Whilst at the university, Nelson Mandela became increasingly aware of the
unjust nature of South African Society. The majority of Black South Africans had little
opportunities either Economic or Political. Much to the disappointment of his family,
Mandela became involved in politics, and along with his good friend and comrade Oliver
Tambo was expelled from Fort Hare for organizing a student strike. However, Mandela
was able to finish his degree and qualified as a Lawyer. In 1952, Mandela and Tambo
opened the first Black Law firm in South Africa. The Transvaal Law Society tried to have
it closed down, although this was blocked by the South African Supreme Court.
In 1944 Mandela helped found the ANC Youth League, whose Programme of
Action was adopted by the ANC in 1949. Mandela was instrumental in pushing the ANC
into more direct action such as the 1952 Defiance Campaign and later Acts of
By the late 50s the S.A. state had become increasingly repressive making it
more difficult for the ANC to operate. Mandela had to resign from the ANC and work
underground. In the late 50s there was an extremely lengthy Treason Trial in which
Mandela and several others were charged with treason. Conducting their own defence
they eventually proved to be victorious. Mandela noted in his autobiography the
judiciary were one of the least repressive parts of the South African State and in theory
sought to follow the rule of law.
However in 1960 the Sharpeville massacre of 63 black South Africans changed
the whole political climate. South Africa was increasingly isolated on the international
scene and the government banned the ANC. This led Mandela to advocate armed
struggle through the Umkhonto we Sizwe (MK).
However by 1962 Mandela had been arrested and sentenced to life
imprisonment in the notorious Robben Island prison. Life at the prison was tough and
uncompromising. However in his autobiography Mandela reveals how he sought to
make the best use of his time there. He helped to keep other men‘s spirits high and
never compromised his political principles when offered early release. Towards the end
of his prison spell his treatment improved as the South African establishment
increasingly looked to negotiation, in the face of international isolation. Although
negotiations were painfully slow and difficult, they eventually led to Mandela‘s release in
1990. It was an emotional moment watched by millions around the globe.
The next four years were also difficult as South African society suffered inter
cultural violence between ANC and Inkarta supporters, in addition to slow progress on a
However on 10 May 1994 Nelson Mandela was inaugurated as the first
democratically elected State President of South Africa on and was President until June
1999. As president, Mandela presided over the transition from minority rule and
apartheid. His advocacy of reconciliation led to international acclaim and importantly the
trust of the White African population. Despite the initial euphoria of winning the election
the ANC faced a difficult challenge to improve the lives of the black population. This
was made more difficult by the HIV epidemic, which continues to cause grave
problems. (Nelson Mandela recently lost his eldest son to this disease and Mandela has
worked hard to campaign on this issue.)
Since retiring from office Nelson Mandela has continued to be an international
figure of great stature. He is one of the few politicians who have gone beyond a political
role; he is widely admired and has received many prestigious awards. Nelson Mandela
is also associated with many educational programs and initiatives such as Make
Poverty History Campaign.
In 1993 Nelson Mandela was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize jointly with F.W. De
This time, work in groups and fill out the template below with the necessary
background information about Mandela. Then, be ready to share your answers with the
Statements that Reveal Such
1. What does the article reveal about the African character?
2. What does this informative text reveal about the temperaments and psyche
of the Africans in response to the challenges of modernity?
Activity 3: BOX OF ESSENTIALS
Use the map of conceptual change hereunder in answering the essential
questions. In this portion, you will write on the “I think” section of IN THE BOX. See to it
that you relate it to the literature of Africa/African people, for instance, Nelson Mandela.
You are free to exchange opinions, information and answers with the rest of the
class and take turns by comparing your thoughts using this graphic organizer.
Graphic Organizers Comparison & Contrast
1. Account for the similarities and differences in your answers.
You are done giving your initial ideas on the essential questions regarding
African literature. What you learn in the next sections will enable you to
accomplish the culminating task or project which entails creating an
interactive feedback blog that will highlight insights and comments on the
temperaments and psyche of Africans in response to the challenges of modernity
as revealed in their literary selections.
Let‘s now find out how others would answer the questions and compare their
ideas to our own. We will start by doing the next activity.
Activity 4: AFRICANS ON SPOTLIGHT
Let‘s have an informative text to give you an idea about the temperaments
and psyche of the Africans. Read silently the text below then; use the questions
regarding the text for an intellectual discussion. Then, as a group, complete the table by
determining the validity and adequacy of statements.
The African World-View
(Excerpt from a speech delivered by Dr. Kofi A. Busia at a conference on
Faith and African Culture in 1955 in Ghana.)
My subject is the African worldview, but I should say at once that though
there are religious ideas and social values that are widespread in Africa, there are
also diversities. For there are many and not one African community. There are
numerous communities on the vast continent of Africa which have lived in self-
contained isolation, under the varying conditions of life and experience.
Certain beliefs, nevertheless, such as animism, the concept of ghosts and
spirits, polytheism and magic, are common patterns which afford valuable guides
for understanding particular communities in Africa.
When we think of people‘s world view, we consider their concept of the
supernatural, of nature, of man, of society, and of the way in which these concepts
form a system that gives meaning to men‘s lives and actions.
Africans believe in a Supreme Being, the Creator of the world and all the
things in it. The ideas as to the attributes of the Creator vary, but all believe that He
is charged with power, both beneficent and dangerous. This belief in a Supreme
Being who is omnipotent is held along with belief in lesser deities who are also
charged with power, both beneficent and dangerous. These supernatural entities or
gods are not always held to have bodies like men, but their values, attitudes, and
thoughts, that is, their personalities are like those of men.
I may digress to point out that the problem of evil so often discussed in
Western philosophy and Christian theology does not arise in the African concept of
deity. It is when a God who is not only powerful and omniscient but also perfect and
loving is postulated that the problem of evil becomes an intellectual and
philosophical hurdle. The Supreme Being of the African is the Creator, the source of
life, but between Him and man lie many powers and principalities good and bad,
gods, spirits, magical forces, witches, to account for the strange happenings in the
Nature, too, can have power, and even spirits. It must be noted that in
farming, fishing, livestock raising, and other economic activities the African shows
knowledge of natural causes. The difference with Europe lies in the fact that the
control that Europe has gained over nature is greater and therefore Europeans can
give naturalistic or scientific explanations to a greater range of happenings than
Africans. But there are theories of reality in Africa just as in Europe. When the
African offers an egg to a tree, or food to a dead ancestor, he is not expressing
ignorance of material substance, or natural causes, but he is expressing in conduct
a theory of reality, namely that behind the visible substance of things lies essences,
or powers which constitute their true nature. Those who have read Western
philosophy are familiar with such formulations, but because the African does not
formulate his problems in terms familiar to the Europeans, or may not even be able
to express his awareness in words, its conduct is often grossly misinterpreted.
With regard to man himself, there is a widespread belief in Africa that he is
compound of material and immaterial substances; man is a biological and spiritual
being. Physical death is not the end of men. The soul concepts of African peoples
are many and elaborate. Among the Ashanti, for example, as I have shown
elsewhere, ―Man as a biological being inherits his blood from his mother, this gives
him his status and membership within the lineage, clan, and the tribe, and his
obligations as citizens… As a spiritual being, a man receives a two-fold gift of the
spirit: that which determines his character and individuality he receives through his
father; but his soul, the undying part of him, he receives direct from the Supreme
Among the Dahomey, as Herskovits tells us, ―all persons have three souls
and adult males have four. One is inherited from the ancestor, and is the ‗guardian
spirit‘ of the individual. The second is the personal soul, while the third is the small
bit of the Creator that lives in every person‘s body. The first in Euro-American
thought is to be conceived as the biological aspect of man; the second, his
personality, and the third his intellect and intuition. The fourth soul of adult males is
associated with little concept of destiny. This soul occupies itself not only with the
affairs of this world, but also with the collective destiny of his household, since the
Daho mean reasons that when a man reaches maturity, his own life cannot know
fulfillment apart from the lives of those who share that life with him.
Questions Adopted from Crisscrossing Through Afro-Asian Literature, Rustica C. Carpio, pp. 446-449
Group yourselves into four. Try answering the comprehension questions below then;
report your outputs creatively before the class.
1. What could be the purpose of Dr. Busia in this selection?
2. What do you understand by a people‘s world-view?
3. How do the Africans regard their Supreme Being?
4. What are the Africans views on nature and man? Explain. Give the major
reasons why the problem of evil does not arise in the African concept of the
5. What does the excerpt reveal about the temperaments and psyche of the
Activity 5: SQUEEZE IT OUT
Below are some words taken from the selection you have read. Identify the
root/base words through structural analysis.
Prefix Suffix Base/Root
Activity 6: PUNCTUATE IT RIGHT!
Identifying Parenthetical Expressions
Go over the selection you have read then; identify the expressions used in
paragraphs 2, 4, and 7, that are set off by commas. What do you call these expressions?
Yes, these are parenthetical expressions. What should you remember about parenthetical
A parenthetical expression is simply a word or string of words which contains
relevant yet non-essential information. In order to let the reader know that this
information is not essential to the sentence (it is non-restrictive), it is important that the
parenthetical expression be punctuated properly. Let‘s look at an example of how
parenthetical expressions work in a sentence:
The tortoise, as far as we know, has been on earth for thousands of years.
The parenthetical expression as far as we know conveys to the reader that this
statement is not a concrete fact. However, the grammatical meaning of the sentence
would not be affected by the parenthetical expression‘s removal.
Other phrases commonly used as parenthetical expressions include the
following: however, nevertheless, in fact, therefore, for instance, consequently, for
example, accordingly, moreover, hence.
Since all parenthetical expressions are non-restrictive, they should be set off
with punctuation. One of the best ways to set them off is with commas. This
punctuation shows that the information contained within the set of commas is non-
essential, yet still related in context.
Example 1: Use commas to separate parenthetical expressions which
occur at the beginning or in the middle of a sentence.
For example, the fruit fly can breed up to ten times in one hour.
The fruit fly, for example, can breed up to ten times in one hour.
Note how the addition of punctuation causes the reader to mentally pause and
add emphasis to the phrase as they read.
Example 2: Commas may be used to punctuate mild parenthetical expressions.
I was fired from my last job and consequently must look for a new one.
I was fired from my last job and, consequently, must look for a new one.
In this example the punctuation affects the meaning of the sentence by changing
the connotations of the word ―consequently.‖ In the first sentence, the lack of
punctuation sets up a distinct cause/effect relationship (because I lost my job I have to
look for a new one), while in the second sentence, the cause/effect relationship is only
peripheral, mentioned in passing. From this we can conclude that the use of
punctuation with mild parenthetical expressions depends on the meaning that the
writer wishes the sentence to convey.
Go over the list of words in Activity 6. Use these words to construct meaningful
sentences with appropriate parenthetical expressions.
Activity 7: BACK IT UP
Go over the selection The African World-View. Accomplish the table below by
putting a check mark in the second column if the statements below are valid based on
the selection that you have read. If not, correct the statement by providing proofs
explicitly stated by the author. Have a class discussion on this.
Activity 8: MESSAGE IN A DRUM
To strengthen your knowledge regarding the African people including their
temperaments and psyche, consider the essay below. Answer the questions that follow
then; post your answers on the board and have a freewheeling discussion.
For frequency word list, unlock the meanings of the key words used in the
selection then; construct meaningful sentences using any of these words.
1. Africans do not believe in a
2. An African is showing his utter
ignorance when he offers food to a
3. The African exhibits knowledge of
4. Religious ideas and social values
are widespread in Africa.
5. Herskovits says that all persons
have one soul.
abide bilingual immemorial
echo tonal imitate
strengthen injunction realistic
How the Drums Talk
If you like talking to the telephone, you might like African drums talk even
better. Drum sheds are still used in the Congo and gong messages echo through the
jungle just as they did when Henry Morton Stanley searched for Dr. Livingstone.
African languages are tonal. Within each word are syllables of high and low
pitch. An incorrect pitch alters the meaning of the words. One missionary was
horrified to discover that he was teaching the children to say ―May thy kingdom not
come, may thy will not be done on earth as it is in heaven.‖
Congo drummers translate high and low sounding syllables into gong
messages. Gong phrases rather than individual words are used to clarify similar
Congo drums are made from logs. A slit is carved and the red heart-wood is
hollowed out. One side of the drum is made thicker than the other side. Women‘s Lib
has not yet come to the Congo. The thin side of the drum is a female gong; it
produces high, gentle tones. The male side is used for bigger and lower syllables.
Sometimes two different drums are used to produce male and female sounds.
Some drums are carved into animal shapes complete with head, tail, and four
legs. The carved-out slot follows the animal‘s backbone. Each gong has its own
name which is beaten out at the beginning and end of every message, much like
radio-broadcasting station identification. ―Birds do not steal from a person without
food‖ is the name of one gong. Another: ―Ears of mine, do not listen to what people
Sometimes a small piece of iron attached to the drum produces a voice-like
quality so realistic that at one time many people thought the drums really spoke
words. All talking drums imitate the rise and fall of vocal tones. In Akan drum
language, ―How are you?‖ is said ―Wo ho ten sen?‖ The first and third syllables are
low and the drummer beats on the male drum.
Drums convey many kinds of messages: warnings, praise, blame, and
greetings. Even poetry and prayers are chanted in Akan drum language:
The heavens are wide, exceedingly wide.
The earth is wide, exceedingly wide.
We have lifted it and taken it away.
We have lifted it and brought it back.
From time immemorial.
The God of olds bid us all
Abide by His injunctions.
Then we shall get whatever we want.
Be it white or red.
It is God the Creator, the Gracious One.
Good morning to you, God. Good morning.
I am learning, let me succeed.
Important messages are often relayed from village to village, and a distance of
100 miles can be covered in a few hours. There is no universal drum language, but
drummers are often bilingual.
Sometimes other African musical instruments use gong language. Antelope
horns can send messages a mile or more. Wind instruments that have only one finger
hole are blown like a flute or clarinet to produce high and low sounds as the player
covers and uncovers the hole. Fishermen boast of their catch by calling vocally in
drum language. Ki represents the high tone and li the low tone.
Each person in drum-signaling communities has a drum name. Wawina, a
medical assistant in Likela, was called, ―The proud man will never listen to advice.‖
Bofoma, a servant, answered to, ―Don‘t laugh at a black skin because everybody has
one.‖ John Carrington, author of Talking Drums of Africa was named. ―The white
man, if he dances up into the sky, men of the village will laugh ha! ha!
Sports are broadcast on drums: ―Let the wrestling begin. Trip one another up.‖
And when the match is over. ―See the hero! Full of pride!‖
War is announced on drums:
War which watches for opportunities
Has come to the town
Belonging to us
Today as it is dawned
Come, come, come, come
The drum encourages the fighter:
Make the drum strong.
Strengthen your legs, spear, shaft, and head.
The noise of running feet; Think not to run away.
The drum calls the Lokele folk to the universal African pastime, the
Let us dance
In the evening
When the sky has gone down the river
Down to the ground.
Talking drums telegraph their messages by pitch and not by anything
resembling Morse code. Drumming requires skill achieved only by a few. A drummer
in the act of drumming is considered a sacred person.
Drums are much used by popular bands, by associations such as hunters,
military, and religious groups, and by the state. Drummers perform on command or by
custom and tradition.
The drummer of the talking drums enjoys an honored position. He can mildly
insult the chief and remain free. He is thought to be closest to the spirit of the ancestor
Questions Adopted from English Expressways Textbook for
1. What can you say about the ingenuity of the Africans in sending messages?
2. What kinds of messages are conveyed by drums?
3. What is meant by the statement ―African languages are tonal.‖
4. How do Africans send their messages? How does their technique differ from
our means of communicating messages? Account for the differences.
5. How is the tonal quality reflected in the drum messages?
6. Read the examples of the uses of drums in Africa. How do they differ from the
uses of our drums?
7. With the advent of technology in our midst, if you were an African, would you
use the same mode of transmitting messages or opt to use phone, fax, on
internet instead? Support your answer.
8. What does the selection reveal about the African character?
9. What does it reveal about the temperaments and psyche of the Africans in
response to the challenges of modernity?
Activity 9: AFRICA’S FREE
Now, let‘s have a poem written by Roland Tombekai Dempster. Read it carefully
and accomplish the Character Analysis Model by group based on the questions
provided. Afterwards, post your output on the board for critiquing and feedback giving
and go over the work of other groups.
Before you read the poem and do the activity, try unlocking the meaning of the
following Key Words for better understanding of the literary piece.
Frequency Word List
I am not you ---
But you will not
Give me a chance,
Will not let me be.
―If I were you‖---
But you know,
I am not you,
Yet you will not
Let me be me.
You meddle, interfere in my affairs
As if they were yours and you were me.
You are unfair, unwise,
Foolish to think
That I can be you, talk, act,
And think like you.
God made me
He made you, you
For God‘s sake
Let me be.
1. What African qualities do the lines express?
2. What do you think they are all craving for?
3. Do you think there is a way of liberating themselves from slavery?
4. Does discrimination exist in African society? Single out lines from the
poem that prove this claim.
5. What does the poem reveal about the African character?
6. What does it reveal about the temperaments and psyche of the Africans
in response to the challenges of modernity?
Questions Adopted from Worktext for Second Year
Activity 10: DISSECTING PEN
In Lesson 1, you were made to come up with a character sketch based on an
interview. This time, applying the same skill, you will write an analysis of a literary
selection. Before that read the selection below and answer the questions that follow.
Find out what conflicts are undergone by the young African and what causes these
conflicts, in the selection, Open House.
Kabana saw his father and other elders from his village get off the red bus, take
down their suitcases from the top of the carriage, and look up at the gate. After looking
at the poster with approval, they noticed the boys standing in white shirts, ties and khaki
shorts and hurried through the gate in the compound.
When the parents were seated on chairs under the trees, and the boys on the
ground, the headmaster made a short speech welcoming the parents to open day at the
school. He invited the elders to have tea with him and the staff in the common room after
they examined the exhibits.
Kabana and Yagunga ran to their fathers and elders as soon as the headmaster
dismissed the meeting. They dropped to one knee before the elders, whereas the elders
placed hands on their shoulders and greeted them. Kabana remembered the courtesy of
greeting the elders first, so he came to greet his father last of all.
―Kaije – It has been long,‖ his father said.
―Ego – Yes,‖ Kabana answered.
―Buhoero – It has been very long.‖
―Agandi? – What is the news?‖
―Nimarungi‖ – It is good, Agandi?‖
―Nimarungi‖ – His father said.
―Oraiegyo sebo‖ – How did you spend the night?
―Kurungi – Well.‖
Mulangu smiled upon his son, but Kabana knew his father well and he looked
hurriedly away, for he did not see the one thing in his father‘s eye that he looked for. He
wanted his father to be proud of him, but that was the one thing missing. His father
always seemed to be saying ―Prove yourself first.‖
―The people at home greet you,― Mulangu said.
The people at home greet you – Olewa, Rugaya, Totesie. He could see the
smiling faces of his mother, sister, and little brother as they moved about the compound
in Ruti Village. His mother was such a wonderful mother and a good cook, and Rugaya
such a beautiful and thoughtful sister that it almost broke his heart not to tell them so.
But it was not the habit to show much emotion, for life was a hard challenge every day
and the thing you love so dearly today might disappoint you tomorrow. And it seemed to
him he was failing them all – especially Rugaya. Lately his father had chided him on his
softness of manner, and one day during the last holiday, Kabana forgot one basket of
coffee and it remained in the coffee field all night.
―Why don‘t you use your head for something more than stuffing it with all that
book knowledge?‖ Mulangu had asked.
But today was Open House of Kisumbu Secondary School. Perhaps his father
had changed in his opinion of his son.
The leaders from the different villages had lingered behind him when the other
parents and visitors left the school and went back to their villages. After the conference
with the headmaster, they went outside and sat in a circle near the compound under the
jacaranda tree. They smoked their pipes, talked and nodded their heads for a while
before they sent for Kabana, Yagunga, and Biraro.
When the boys had taken the place offered them in the circle, the oldest elder
slowly refilled his pipe and lit it. The ebony walking stick, his rod of authority, lay across
his lap. When he‘d taken several puffs on his pipe, he began to speak. He did not hurry
but looked straight at the boys with deep lines of seriousness in his kind face.
―Mwebare munenga emirime – thank you very much for the work you‘re doing
here,‖ he said. ―You have made the hearts of your forefathers happy. They and we
rejoice in your success.‖
Then slowly, and with pride, he sketched a history of their tribe, telling about the
hardships and demands of life in their village, how through hard work, daring, and
attention to the ways of their fathers and Ruhanga, their God, who lighted and guarded
the fires of the Omugabo and protected the drum of Banyankero, they had always
triumphed. The faces of the other elders beamed with pleasure as his words, in the
Bantu language, rolled out of him in a tone and rhythm not unlike the emotional beat of
Yagunga, Kabana, and Biraro sat in the circle of men underneath the jacaranda
tree and felt the stares of boys of other tribes like hot sun on their necks. Kabana was
ashamed. This talk was for the village and had no place here at school. He wished the
elder would hurry so they could catch the bus. If they stayed longer, they would hear
some of the things Kabana had said to the other boys, and the other boys would get a
chance to see that his father couldn‘t eat with a fork and that he ate too fast.
Still the musical voice of the elder went on, and Kabana felt compelled to listen to
it although his legs cramped, for it was a long time since he had sat on the ground.
―Now,‖ the elder went on, ―you have gained a book education. We will also see
that you have your tribal education. You, three boys, Yagunga, Biraro, and Kabana,‖ he
nodded at them as he spoke, ―will soon be made men. You are of age, now.‖
―They are of age,‖ said another elder with enormous ears and a black beard.
―Soon you must come home for studies and trials and you will learn everything
about the joy and the dangers of living. We shall spread your story in the village of our
clansmen, and sing of it in our kraals. We greet you, we salute you, and now as our
journey is long, we take leave of you.‖ After a moment, all men rose together and started
toward the bus, leaving the boys sitting in the broken circle.
When they had gone a short distance, Mulangu turned and called Kabana to him.
As always, now, when in his father‘s company, Kabana felt a tightening in his throat. He
had mixed feelings about his father. He was ashamed of his crudeness, his inability to
speak good English, his long hair, but at the same time he felt pride in his strength and
his ability to take care of his family and play a leading role in village affairs. His chest
rose high. He felt proud to have a father so strong, so brave, and so successful. He was
respected by both villagers and Europeans for his bravery and his ability as a farmer and
trader, and Kabana always felt that he‘d never be able to live up to his father‘s
expectations. Mulangu touched Kabana‘s shoulder and nodded to where Yagunga and
Biraro sat in a broken circle.
―You have done well here in your studies and in your special callings as drummer
but your life is incomplete. It is like that circle, broken because things valuable are left
from it. Do you like this school?‖
Kabana nodded. ―Yes, Sir.‖ But it was the question that he knew to be coming
next that he dreaded.
―And the village, what can you say about it?‖
―It is my home, father. My mother, my brother, my sister, and my friends are
there,‖ he tried to be tactful.
―You love them but no longer love their ways?‖ His father looked straight at him.
All right he would tell the truth. ―I used to love the village, but now things are
different, I don‘t know where I belong. Do I belong to where I fail or where I succeed?‖
Mulangu‘s face clouded. ―So, this is what I sent you to school for. To forget your
own people – to despise our ways. Your failure is your own doing. With effort you could
do what is expected of you.‖ Kabana didn‘t want his father to be angry, but now he
thought of old men who sat around doing nothing but drinking beer, of with doctors with
rattling gourds, and poison taken from snake heads and the dried entrails of goats. The
very worst of the village flashed into his mind. His father was talking to him. ―You hate
the village, don‘t you?‖
―You sent me to school, father.‖ Before the words came from him Kabana
regretted them, but still he spoke them.
Mulangu stiffened. He almost struck Kabana, but he looked around hurriedly and
saw the other elders watching them.
―You‘ll never be a man. At the initiation you will surely disgrace me. You are
always acting like a baby. Night and day your head is in your mother‘s kitchen or bowed
to your sister. Do you know these are not the ways of men?‖
―I shall improve,‖ Kabana repented.
―You say so, but you won‘t. I noticed you in our village. You no longer joke, tell
stories with the other boys, or dance. Are you a European?‖ Kabana bowed his head,
and Mulangu felt the guilty sting of his last remark.
―Very well, the elders think the boys here will vote to come for the initiation but
having a son like you, I doubt it. So as soon as school is out, you come home and I shall
try to do a father‘s duty by you.‖ He looked closer at Kabana and tried to be pleasant.
―We have been both made unhappy, father and son, but this time we shall talk to each
other and in our village, we‘ll laugh and be happy.‖
―Oh, that will be wonderful, father,‖ Kabana said, hopefully.
‗Don‘t be late. The coffee is ripe and there are many goats to herd. Osibegye
omwana wangye – Goodbye, my son.‖
―Osibegye omukawa wanye – Goodbye, my father. Obandamukize – Greet those
at home for me.‖
Questions Adopted from English Arts II, Textbook for Second Yea
1. Why did Kabana feel that he had failed his family?
2. What was Kabana‘s attitude towards tribal customs and ways? Why?
3. Compare the attitudes and ways of Kabana with those of the elders and
his own father. Is this contrast natural or not? Explain.
4. Read the lines below. What deeper meaning can you infer? If you were
Kabana, how would you respond to each statement?
a. ―It has been very long.‖
b. ―You hate the village, don‘t you‖
c. ―Don‘t be late… Goodbye, my son.‖
5. Why did Kabana have mixed feelings? Do you sometimes feel the same?
6. What kind of relationship did Kabana have with this father? Prove your
7. What values do you gain from the story? Are these universal? Explain.
8. What conflicts are experienced by the young African
and what causes these conflicts?
Group Work: Visualization Wheel: Write the title of the story in the middle square
below. Label each quadrant of the circle with the answers to each question. Next,
draw a picture for each answer. Present your output to the class.
Your next task now is to analyze the literary selection that you have read. As
you analyze, ask the following questions:
1. What does the selection say about the people in the place?
2. What parts of the selection reveal what the characters think and feel?
3. What do the characters say about the kind of people they are?
4. Does the selection relate to real life situation?
5. How does the literary selection help you understand the people from this
Write your analysis on the worksheet below.
Activity 12: STRIKE A BALANCE
Listen to the statement (to be read by your teacher) of the President of the
African National Congress, Nelson Mandela, during his inauguration as President of the
Democratic Republic of South Africa, Union Buildings, Pretoria, May 10, 1994. Take note
of the parallel words, phrases, and clauses used and identify their functions.
Study the following sentences taken from the speech you listened to.
1. ―We thank all our distinguished international guests for having come to take
possession with the people of our country of what is, after all, a common
victory for justice, for peace, for human dignity.”
2. ―We trust that you will continue to stand by us as we tackle the challenges
of building peace, prosperity, non-sexism, non-racialism and
3. ―We commit ourselves to the construction of a complete, just and
4. ―We must therefore act together as a united people, for national
reconciliation, for nation building, for the birth of a new world.‖
How were the underlined words and phrases used? Yes, they were used to
expand sentences. In expanding sentences, we should observe parallelism.
Let us consider the sentences above. Notice that sentence 1 uses parallel
phrases (prepositional phrases); sentence 2 uses parallel words (all nouns); sentence 3
uses parallel words (all adjectives); and sentence 4 uses parallel phrases (prepositional
Recognizing Parallel Constructions
When a writer is presenting a series of equally important details in a sentence, he
or she should try to make the items balanced, or parallel. When the sentences are
presented in different forms, they are nonparallel, and the resulting sentence is not
One of the fundamental rules of our language is that similar ideas should be
expressed in similar grammatical structures. When we want to talk about a series of
things, qualities, ideas, problems, processes, or feelings, we combine a word with a
word, a phrase with a phrase, or a clause with a clause.
Parallel words. When a writer lists a series of words, the words in the series should be
all nouns, all adjectives, or all adverbs, but not mixed.
Mixed: The celebrity was charming, witty, and a beauty.
Charming and witty are adjectives; however, beauty is a noun. For the sentence to be
parallel, beauty must be in adjective form.
Parallel: The celebrity was charming, witty, and beautiful.
Parallel phrases. When a writer lists a series of phrases, all the phrases should be the
same – all gerund phrases, all infinitive phrases, all participial phrases, or all
Mixed: Her aims were to study, to travel, and someday having a family.
The sentence is nonparallel because two infinitive phrases, to study and to travel, are
mixed with a gerund phrase, having a family. For the sentence to be parallel, having a
family could be changed to an infinitive.
Parallel: Her aims were to study, to travel, and to have a family.
Parallel clauses. When a writer lists a series of clauses, all the clauses in the series
should be the same. They should all be noun clauses, all adjective clauses, or all adverb
Mixed: What we say and the things that we do are never quite the same.
What we say is a noun clause; the things that we do is a noun followed by an adjective
clause. In order to make the elements of the sentence parallel, the things that we do
could be changed into a noun clause.
Parallel: What we say and what we do are never quite the same.
Exercise 1. Some of the following sentences contain nonparallel constructions. Revise
these sentences by putting parallel ideas into equal grammatical form. Underline the
parallel structures in your revised sentences. If a sentence is acceptable in Standard
English, write ―Correct.‖
1. The beach resort has good food, live entertainment, and a heated pool.
2. Teachers must teach values to their students consciously, openly, and
3. The employer who praises employees, giving recognition, and allows vacations
should have a good staff.
4. We should save our money carefully, regularly, and with knowledge.
5. Next year, my friends will decide to buy a car, to save their money, or to go on a
6. Felix dressed up because he wanted to charm his girlfriend, to impress his friends,
and please his parents.
7. Mary argued that reading books is better than watching TV.
8. She worked quickly and with accuracy.
9. Composing music and to write poetry have some similarities.
10.Brisk walking daily and eating well are important for me.
Activity 13: BLACK AND WHITE – AN EVALUATION PAPER
In lesson 2, you were asked to write an evaluation paper on a program viewed. In
this activity, your task is to make an evaluation paper of the literary selection Open
House. Extract what the selection shows about the diversity of temperaments and
psyche of the Africans. Use the worksheet below. Work in pairs then take turns in giving
and responding to feedback on each other‘s paper in the revision process. Remember to
use meaningful expanded sentences following balance, parallelism, and modification.
Activity No. 14: IMPRESSIVELY EXPRESSIVE
Based from the different informative and literary text types that you have read and
listened to, express your impressions in writing about the literature of Africa and the
African people which includes the temperaments and psyche of the African people in
response to the challenges of modernity.
Relate your answers to the essential questions. Refer to the template provided
below. Remember to use grammatical structures and vocabulary to effectively
emphasize particular points.
My Newfound Impressions
In this section, the discussion was centered on the temperaments and psyche of
the African people in their response to the challenges of modernity.
Go back to the previous section and compare your initial ideas with the discussion.
How much of your initial ideas are found in the discussion? Which ideas are different and
Now that you know the important ideas about this topic, let‘s go deeper by moving
on to the next section.
REFLECT AND UNDERSTAND:
Your goal in this section is to take a closer look at some aspects of
the topic on the temperaments and psyche of the African people in their
response to the challenges of modernity.
Activity 15: SCOOP ON SLAVERY
Here‘s a true-to-life story for you to read. Then, do the following activities.
Escape from Slavery
by Francis Bok with Edward Tivman
My father‘s farm was full of family, friends and love. We had chickens and goats,
sheep and cows; we had beautiful green trees with yellow mangoes and coconuts as big
as your head. My father, it seemed to me, owned the best farm in our village of the Dinka
people in Sudan, about 100 kilometers south of what the maps call the Bahr al-Arab
River, the border between the north and south of the country.
We lived in two houses – one for men, the other for women – made from mud and
topped by straw roofs shaped like upside-down cones. I did not go to school. No one in
my family had any formal education. Like most boys, I spent my days playing games and
running in the fields. But what I liked to do most was follow my father around as he
worked on the farm. I felt my father‘s love every day. One day he called me muycharko,
which means ―twelve men.‖ I asked him, ―Why do you call me muycharko?‖
He laughed and explained that out of all his children, I was the one who worked
the hardest, the one who would never give up. I felt my father‘s words flow into my body
and fill me with happiness. I dreamed of being a great man with a great farm and many
When my mother told me she had instructed some village kids to take me along
on their trip to the nearby market town, I saw it as the first step to becoming the
important man my father thought I could be. This would be my trip to town on my own,
although I had been there with my father when he went to trade animals and with my
mother on market days. Our family also went to the Catholic Church there.
On market day the other kids turned up, and my mother warned me, ―When you
sell something, give the money to the older children so you do not lose it.‖
I grabbed the carrying pole with my goods: two tins of hard-boiled eggs and
peanuts. We walked along a dusty road and soon approached the market-place. People
were already set up in the shade, and the market smelled of fish, fruit and vegetables.
The big kids picked a spot under the tree. I made some sales and handed over the
money, just as my mother had said.
Then something changed. People began walking faster, talking to each other.
They seemed excited; some were pointing towards the river. ―Smoke,‖ I heard. ―In the
villages.‖ More people ran into town with news. ―Maybe the murahaliin came,‖ one said.
―They came and burned the houses.‖
I had heard people in my village talk of these dangerous men from the north who
killed people and stole their cattle. But I had never seen these murahaliin.
The customers began to rush from the marketplace. The sellers gathered their
things. Then we heard bursts of loud noises. Everyone was running. ―The murahaliin are
coming!‖ Wherever people scattered they ran into men with guns entering the town. First
men on horses, shooting people with bursts from their rifles. Then men on foot, shooting
and slashing at people with their long knives.
They were not Dinka, but people with lighter skin than ours, in headdresses and
robes. They were shooting the Dinka men, slashing with their swords, chopping off
heads with a single swipe. I had never seen such violence and never heard so many
―Run!‖ I heard. ―Leave your things and run!‖ I raced from the marketplace, right
into the huge horse with a militiaman pointing a gun at me. I stopped; I could not move.
Someone grabbed me from behind – another murahaliin, yelling and waving his gun.
I was sure he was going to kill me. All around I saw people screaming and falling
to the ground and not getting up. He pushed me back into the marketplace with other
boys and girls. Everyone was crying and screaming for their parents.
I looked around for help, but all I could see were the bodies of Dinka men, the
blood running from them like water in little rivers. I had never seen a dead body before,
and now I saw more than I could count. I wanted my mother; I wanted my father to pick
me up onto his shoulders and carry me away from this. My entire body and mind turned
numb as I waited to be killed.
With no Dinka men standing, the killing seemed to be finished. While a few
murahaliin guarded us, others began collecting food and loading it into baskets. A man
picked me up and set me on a donkey. Some of the women ran to their children, but the
militiamen beat them and pushed them away.
When the loading was completed, we headed out of town. Behind the horsemen,
the soldiers and our donkeys walked the older kids and the women, forced to carry the
very things that we had all been selling not long before.
We rode into darkness, my heart beating wildly, my head filled with questions.
Why did these men do this? Where are they taking me? Were my parents safe?
In the night we passed through a forest, then stopped in an open area. They sat
us kids down and yelled at us in their language. We were full of fear, and everyone kept
quiet, except for two sisters who through their tears said they had seen their father and
mother shot and killed.
A militiaman grabbed the older girl, yelling at her, trying to shake her into silence.
She could not stop crying. He pulled her to the side, put his rifle to her head and shot her
– one shot that rang through the forest. And when that noise stopped so had the girl‘s
Her little sister began crying even harder, but her body twisted and pulsing with
sobs. She was crazy with crying, and our silence made her crying seem louder. One of
the murahaliin struck her leg hard with his sword, cutting it off at the thigh. Blood squirted
all over her. I remember this, but I cannot remember if she stopped crying.
The murahaliin began dividing us between them. One man grabbed me and
pushed me towards his horse. He sat me behind his saddle and wrapped a leather belt
around my waist. I begged him to let me down, let me go home to my parents. But we
just rode away, the silence of the night broken by my sobs.
As the sun came up I noticed the countryside was different. The trees were small,
and the people had lighter skin. I was sure we were now across the border into northern
Sudan, where my father said the Dinka did not live, only the Arabs.
We kept riding until we came to a farm. The murahaliin got off the horse, then set
me on the ground. Three children ran out of the horse, then the mother, all coming up to
hug him. The kids approached me, laughing and talking, and I noticed the younger boy
was about my age. Maybe he would be my friend.
They seemed happy and began singing, chanting the same word over and over:
abeed, abeed, abeed. I didn‘t notice they were carrying sticks until they started beating
me, including the boy I wanted to be my friend. I tried to block the blows, but the sticks
stung my arms as if they had fire on them. ―Stop,‖ I yelled. ―Help me!‖ The parents did
nothing but watch. My body buzzed from the blows.
The militiaman finally led me to a small mud shelter and pointed to a blanket on
the ground. I was exhausted and lay down, but I could not fall asleep. I told myself that
my father would want me to stay strong. I kept thinking how my family would be worried
about me, and my father and big brother Buk would come and save me from these
I finally fell asleep.
The sun woke me, and soon the militiaman and his wife arrived, followed by the
children. The kids started singing the abeed song again, pointing at me and laughing.
The man handed me a bowl of food. Even though it was bad, I ate because I was
For days I kept expecting someone would arrive and tell me it was all a mistake.
But no one came except the militiaman and his sons. I soon figured out the man‘s name
was Giemma Abdullah, and his oldest son was Hamid. I could see the family had goats
and sheep, horses and camels and cattle. One morning, when Giemma and Hamid let
the animals out, Giemma handed me a small whip. They herded the animals towards the
forest, and I knew I had to follow. What was not clear to me was that this was my first
day of slavery – forced to work for no pay but the garbage from the family‘s dinner and
an occasional beating from Giemma‘s cattle whip.
We drove the goats towards the forest. Whenever one strayed from the herd,
Giemma made me chase after it. This, I quickly learned, was my job – to keep the goats
from running away. It was not easy running this way and that in the hot sun.
As we walked into the bush, I saw another black boy herding cows among the
trees, and then another. Hamid saw them too and knew what I was thinking. He yelled at
me and shook his head. I could not go near the other boys. Still, I realized I was not
alone. I was sure they were Dinkas.
After a few hours we rounded up the animals and drove them to a nearby river.
There were hundreds of animals drinking, and hundreds more waiting their turn. There
were also more black boys. Hamid signalled I was to stay with the goats and away from
the Dinka boys. But when I did get close to the others, I was shocked to hear them
I answered at least one question: what did abeed mean? Hamid referred to the
other boys as abeed, and I soon learned it meant both ―black people‖ and ―slaves.‖
Every day I went with Hamid to continue my training as a goatherd. One day
Hamid showed up on his horse. He rode into the bush, and I followed on foot. Later, he
rode away. I worried how I would get the animals back to their pens by myself, but then
he returned. This became part of our routine. Hamid‘s job was to spend the day with me
and the animals, but occasionally he would ride away, probably to visit friends. I never
knew when he would leave or return. His freedom taught me that I had none.
I was given a wooden-framed bed covered by palm leaves and a single thin
blanket. It was an improvement over sleeping on the ground, but I hated my life and
hated taking care of Giemma‘s animals. Some mornings I didn‘t want to go. Giemma
would pull my legs from the blanket. ―You don‘t want to get up on your own two legs,‖
he‘d say, using gestures to make it clear. ―Then maybe you don‘t need two legs. I‘ll chop
one off for you. Then you can stay here and lie on the ground all you want.‖
He said this so often I took his words only as a way to scare little boys – until one
day when Giemma and I were returning from the grasslands, I spotted a Dinka. Then I
saw one of his legs was missing. ―What happened to him?‖ I asked.
Giemma smiled at me and said: ―I told you that‘s what happens to bad boys. He
tried to escape. They caught him and warned him. Then he tried again and…‖ Giemma
shrugged as if to say there was no alternative. I stared at the boy with one leg as
Giemma kept talking: ―That‘s what happens when you disobey.‖
The routine was the same for several weeks: Hamid and I taking the goats to
pasture, going to the areas where the good grass was, heading to the river for water, and
Hamid watching me run after strays. The days were long, and I dreaded the hot sun and
the chaos at the watering hole. When the sun went down, we would head back, and I
would eat my dinner alone and sleep in the hut next to the goats.
I hated not being able to understand what these people were saying. I had to
learn this language, which seemed a wall of strange sounds that made no sense. I
listened carefully to everything Giemma and his sons said to each other, and as the days
and weeks went by, I began to distinguish certain sounds as words.
I found out that hanim was the word for ―goats‖ and ―sahl‖ meant ―grass.‖ I soon
learned an important word that everyone kept repeating – it sounded like hop. Did the
goats hop the grass? Hamid would say he didn‘t hop working with camels. So hop meant
―like‖ or ―love,‖ and with that knowledge I could tell what Giemma liked and didn‘t like.
Learning the language became one of my pleasures.
I settled into my job as Hamid‘s assistant. But one day Giemma showed up alone.
Today I would take the goats to pasture without Hamid. I herded the goats out towards
the grasslands. A few wandered out of line, but I shooed them back in. If I lost any goats
I knew Giemma would be furious.
I got the goats to pasture without any problems. I began thinking, maybe it will be
good not to have Hamid always bossing me around. But before I could get used to that
idea, I saw Hamid on his horse at the end of the bush. He had come to check on me.
At the river I worked hard to make sure none of my goats wandered away, and as
the sun went down I rounded up the animals and headed back. Giemma was not happy,
―Some are missing,‖ he said.
I couldn‘t believe it. I had tried so hard. Giemma counted the goats, then yelled at
me and hit me with his whip. Soon a neighbour arrived leading the two missing goats.
Giemma‘s anger had the desired effect. I was scared about losing another goat
that I watched them constantly, never permitting one to stray too far. I got very good at
the job, but the fear that something would go wrong and would earn me a beating never
I had so many questions in my head that one evening I asked Giemma a question
in his language. ―Why does no one hop me?‖
He stared at me as if one of his goats had suddenly spoken. ―And why do you
make sleep with the animals?‖ I asked.
―Where did you learn that?‖ Giemma yelled, his face puffed up with anger. He hit
me, then walked away. Two days later he appeared and said, ―You want to know why no
one loves you and why you must sleep with the animals? Because you are an animal.‖
That left me dazed. Bit it explained why he let his kids hit me, why he fed me
garbage, why he left me to sleep in a hut no better than an animal pen. I now knew that
life would never get better for me with these people. That was the moment I began
planning my escape.
Later in the day, with the goats fed and watered, I could rest in the shade and
make my plans. I was learning the language. That would help me find help among these
Arab people. But I also had to learn the area. I decided that each day when I went out
with the animals I would look around, investigate the roads, and remember where the
men rode on horseback checking on their slaves.
For the first few weeks I had cried every day. But I realised my crying did not bring
anyone to help me, so I decided to replace my crying with praying. I didn‘t know much
about religion, but my parents had told me, ―God is always with you.‖
Alone at night sitting in my hut, I remembered my father once said to me, ―Even
when you are one, you are two.‖
I prayed to God almost every day: ―Please help me. I love my parents, and I want
to have a future. I don‘t want to die.‖
In Sudan there are two seasons, the rainy one and the dry one. I arrived at
Giemma‘s in the dry time, in April or May. Then the rains came, occasionally leaking
through the roof of my hut. By February it was dry again, and the grass began to get
―We are going,‖ Giemma announced one day, explaining that the animals needed
to eat, and the grasslands in our area had been picked clean. Several times a year I
helped the family pack up all their things to take the animals to a ―cattle camp‖ where the
grass was more plentiful.
As we waited our turn at the watering place in the cattle camp, an Arab boy
greeted Hamid. Next to Hamid‘s friend was a Dinka boy. He smiled at me and said in
Arabic, ―Peace be with you.‖
A few days later I saw him again, and this time he was on his own, and so was I.
―Are things OK for you?‖ he asked me in Arabic.
My real answer would have taken a day to say. Instead I said in Dinka, ―I‘m OK.‖
He looked around to make sure no one was listening. Then, in Dinka, he asked
me where I was from. I was happy to hear my own language, and it turned out we were
from the same area.
―This is a very dangerous place,‖ he said. He told me to do my job, that when kids
complained they ―got hurt.‖
I told him my master and his kids had already beaten me. He shook his head.
―They will really hurt you.‖ He told me a lot of kids had been hurt and even shot trying to
escape. He returned to speaking Arabic. ―Don‘t talk to me in Dinka,‖ he warned. ―It will
get me in trouble. They‘ll think we‘re planning to do something wrong.‖
I assured him I would talk only in their language. ―I must go and do my work,‖ he
said. ―Be careful,‖ he repeated and left me alone with my thoughts, which included the
image of the boy I had already seen with the missing leg.
I was well aware of how much worse things could be for me, and I believed that
God was looking after me, just as my parents had promised. They probably would not
have recognised me now, for when I looked into the water where I took the sheep and
goats, an older boy looked back. I was now almost as big as Giemma and taller than
Hamid. I told myself that my parents would be proud of me. I was a good worker and
smart enough to stay out of trouble.
Then Giemma complicated my life again. ―Tomorrow, you will work with the cows,‖
I protested that they were too big for me to handle. But Giemma had made his
decision, and the next morning we were driving cattle to pasture. The job was not much
different from handling the goats and sheep, except when goats got in a fight you could
tear them apart. But the cattle could tear a grown man apart.
Later, Giemma added the camels to my duties as well. When I complained,
Giemma told me to shut up. ―You do not want to work, I can shoot you. Or maybe I just
cut off your legs, and you can stay at home.‖
The days were always the same: in the morning take the cows to eat, stand in the
blazing sun to get water, go back to the grasslands, and then head home as the sun
went down. By my seventh summer, I had learned a lot. I knew there were roads not far
from the grasslands where I had been going for years, and I was now fluent in my
I understood that even if I stayed seven more years, my life would not get better.
My body hated the work and the beatings; my mind hated the isolation. Finally I decided
it was time to act. ―Tomorrow,‖ I announced to myself, ―I will head out with the cows as
usual, but I will not return.‖
Before the sun came up I took the cows into the forest. The cattle began grazing,
and I left them there. I ran to nearby road and kept running. After seven years I had
finally done what I had dreamed of doing.
Suddenly, up ahead, I saw some cows – and a man on a horse. My stomach
swirled: If he saw me, it was over. I turned around and began moving in the opposite
direction, hoping to make it into the forest. Within seconds, I heard the horse at my back.
―Where are you going?‖ the man asked.
My escape had failed.
The man took me to Giemma‘s house, and when he saw me a look of surprise
crossed his face. The man on the horse explained what had happened.
Giemma grabbed a cattle whip and started beating me. I did not protest. When he
stopped hitting, he warned: ―If you try this again, you‘re going to be like those kids we
saw. I will hurt you.‖
The next morning Giemma took the herd to the grasslands himself. The following
morning I told Giemma I would take them. He stared at me.
―Do not try to escape,‖ he warned.
I assured him I would not do that again. I headed off with the cows and spent the
day in my usual routine. But when the sun began to go down, instead of herding the
cows back to Giemma‘s, I headed to the road again. This time I went in the other
direction, staying in the woods, following the road, which I could see through the trees.
About an hour later, I saw a little river where some people were washing up. There were
also some slaves around. I decided I could risk a short rest. Everyone would assume I
I knelt down, scooping some water to my face. It felt cool. ―I am on my way,‖ I said
But then another feeling took over, one of danger. I turned, and there was
Giemma! He was tying his horse to a cart. Was my mind fooling me? Was it a bad
But it was no dream. The sight of him was like a punch in the stomach. He saw
me and asked, ―What are you doing here?‖
―I was just getting a drink. The cows are here.‖
―Where?‖ Giemma looked around, seeing no evidence of his cows.
―Not far,‖ I said, lying again.
―Let‘s go get the cows,‖ said Giemma. So we went looking for the cattle. I think at
first Giemma actually believed me – he did not think I was crazy enough to try to
escape two days after I had been caught and beaten – but we kept walking and
there were no cows. Giemma became upset. ―You tried to escape again.‖
I said nothing. I waited for him to hit me, but all he said was, ―Let‘s go home.‖
When we arrived at his place, he cursed me and smacked me several times. Then
he led me into a room and pushed me to the floor. ―Tonight will be your last!‖ he shouted,
and tied my hands behind me with a piece of rawhide, then my legs.
I sat there, filled with anger about my own stupidity. Soon my hands and feet
began to hurt. No matter how hard I tried to loosen the rawhide, it seemed only to get
tighter. Giemma returned, carrying his cattle whip, and gun. He pointed the gun at me
and said, ―Tomorrow I will kill you.‖ I wondered if it would hurt as I waited for the bullet.
He lowered the rifle and left the room. I cried with relief, then cried over the fact
that this would be my last night on earth.
I don‘t remember sleeping that night, only the anger and the fear and the prayers.
It was still dark outside when Giemma returned. I noticed he did not have his gun. He
began untying me and said, ―If you do this again, I will kill you. I promise.‖
I said, ―I will not do it again.‖
―I do not want to kill you. You take good care of my cows.‖
I sat in my hut hoping that Giemma would not change his mind. I was no longer
thinking of escaping. So much fear had filled me that night.
Giemma would show up, and my heart would race. You will not try again?‖
―No,‖ I promised. And I was not lying now. I was not thinking about escaping. To
do so was to be reminded how close I had come to dying.
Three days after my escape attempt, Giemma told me to go back to work. I
realised that Giemma might consider me an ―animal,‖ but he liked his animals. I would
make sure I was the hardest working animal on the property. My job became lifeline.
I did not lie to Giemma when I told him I would never escape again. But I
eventually realised that, while the pain and fear came and went, the one thing that never
went away was the ache of wanting to leave this place where I was forced to work and
live like an animal. Wasn‘t living with these people a kind of death?
My new plan was to wait another three years before I tried to escape again. I‘m
not sure why I picked three years. But I would have to regain Giemma‘s trust. And also in
three years I would be 17, and I would be stronger, smarter and better prepared to get
So I tried to do the best job I could, and as the months passed Giemma seemed
happy with me. His wife would ask, ―Why are you keeping him? Why don‘t you kill him?‖
And Giemma would answer, ―He takes care of my cows. He does a good job.‖
I turned 15 and 16 and then 17. I was taller than Giemma. I could walk and run for
hours. My body was strong and so was my mind. I was sure I had finally become the
man my father dreamed I would be: I was muycharko.
My plan was to leave first thing in the morning and stay out of sight in the forest
until I got to the market town of Mutari. I knew which road to follow. I promised myself
that this time I would not give up. If someone caught me, I
would fight. I refused to live as a slave any longer.
That morning I headed out with the cows as usual. As
soon as they started grazing, I ran as fast as I could for as
long as I could through the woods along the road towards
Mutari. No-one stopped me. I was farther away from
Giemma‘s than I had been in ten years. I was hot and tired and dirty, but I felt relief and a
kind of excitement.
Before the sun went down I arrived in Mutari. I walked into town and saw other
Dinka with their masters, but no-one seemed to suspect
that I had escaped from mine. I allowed myself to enjoy
this new feeling of being on my own. I was free!
I decided to go to the police and made my way to a
one-storey mud building. A policeman was sitting at the
desk. ―I need help,‖ I said.
He took me to another man, and I told him I had escaped and wanted to find
some people from the south. He sent me to a waiting area, where I sat for several hours.
Finally another policeman took me to a kitchen area. ―Clean up,‖ he said.
For the next two months, I worked for the Mutari police as a kitchen boy. They fed
me, and I worked, and I slept in the kitchen. When I finally realised they were not going
to help me, I left the police station on market day and disappeared into the crowd.
The trucks loaded their goods on the edge of the market area. I hoped one of
them would be my ride out of Mutari. A man named Abdah allowed me to climb in his
truck and hide me behind his cargo. He would take me to his hometown, but he warned
me that it was dangerous for me there. He invited me to come home with him. ―Don‘t
worry,‖ he said. ―I want you to be safe.‖
For two months I lived with Abdah, his wife and two boys. His wife fed me the
same food she prepared for her husband and children. She treated me as if I were a
visiting friend or relative. Abdah and his wife believed that no Muslim had the right to
enslave other human beings.
Abdah asked some friends whether they could get me a ride to the capital,
Khartoum, but no one was willing to take the chance of driving an escaped slave. Finally
Abdah said I must take the bus. ―I will buy you the ticket.‖
I arrived in Khartoum late in the afternoon. I met a Dinka in the bus station and
told him I hoped to find someone who could take me to where people from the south live.
―I‘m going there now,‖ he said. ―Come with me.‖
My prayers had finally been answered. I was alive, free, and for the first time since
I was a small child, I felt safe.
I went to the refugee camps outside Khartoum, where I looked for my parents. I
had no idea whether they were dead, enslaved, or living in a refugee camp in Kenya or
here in the capital. I told people what had happened to me, how I had been enslaved for
ten years. Before long, two men came to see me. ‖People have told us that you are
saying things against the government,‖ they said and took me to the local police station.
The government denied that there was slavery in Sudan, and they were not about
to let a 17–year-old Dinka boy tell everyone he had been a slave for ten years. I was
arrested and held for seven months. Then I was released. I was never sure why. But I
vowed to do everything I could to escape from the country.
With the help of friends from the south, I got the necessary papers on the black
market. I took a train north, changed to a boat that took me up the Nile across the
Egyptian border, then switched to another train to Cairo.
There I was accepted as a UN-sanctioned refugee, and in August 1999 I was
allowed to go to America. I eventually learned that my parents and two sisters had been
killed, but my older brother Buk survived and, after 13 years, I talked with him by phone.
TODAY I WORK for the American Anti-Slavery Group (AASG), which speaks out
against slavery in Sudan and throughout the world. (Our website is iAbolish.com). My job
is to tell people how I was kidnapped, beaten, treated like an animal and forced to work
for ten years, until I escaped. And I call on the American people to stand up and help my
I‘ve spoken to church and school groups, and even testified before the US
Senate. We finally got the Sudan Peace Act passed in Washington. It recognises the
problem of slavery, provides aid for southern Sudan and imposes sanctions on the
government if it‘s determined that Khartoum does not negotiate for peace in good faith.
Someday I hope to return to Sudan, but in the meantime I continue to work with
the AASG and for my people, as well as continue my education. It‘s hard work, but I am
still in my twenties and have plenty of time and energy. Whenever life gets tough I think
of my father, who told me I would grow up to do important things ―You are my
muycharko,‖ he said. ―Twelve men.‖
Reader’s Digest April 2005
Groups 1 and 2 will come up with an illustrated story depicting the core message
of the selection. Present the outputs before the big group.
Groups 3 and 4 will role play in class the situations which show the main
character‘s attempts/struggles to escape from the shackles of slavery.
Groups 5 and 6 will present a talk show on the topic ―How to Eradicate Modern-
Website Link: Extended Activity
The Web offers a wealth of resources. Visit www.iAbolish.org and make a
research to determine the different ways this organization is seeking to solve the
problem of modern-day slavery. Present the gathered information through a slideshow
which will highlight important facts/issues regarding modern-day slavery and how
Africans deal with it.
Across the Curriculum (Integration of government‘s thrust/program)
Visit these sites http://www.un.org/en/documents/udhr/index.shtml
and http://www.gov.ph/2003/12/19/republic-act-no-9231-s-2003/ then, research on some
provisions regarding slavery as stipulated in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights,
Article 4, and provisions regarding child labor as contained in Republic Act No. 9231,
Sections 1-6. You research further on the actions taken by the Philippine government in
fighting modern-day slavery or human trafficking. As a group, report your findings to the
class through a slideshow/power point presentation
Activity 16: AFRICA: DARKEN NO MORE
Here‘s another poem that will shed light on the temperaments and psyche of
the Africans in response to the challenges of modernity.
Unlock the meanings of the following words used in the poem below.
The Dark Continent http://images.yourdictionary.com/dark-continent
'Africa my beginning, Africa my end.
I was born here and I will die here,
Africa you bear my hopes and fears
Poverty, famine, crime and AIDS are words
which plague Mother Africa's name
These demons bring me shame
While people try to make Africa better,
a few let the hardship overpower them
Shame on them
They give up hope and go
about their knavish ways
Even though there's hope on the horizon,
be that as it may
They continue to destroy what little Mother Africa has
Africa is no longer what she was
'Mother Africa is weeping'
Yet a new dawn may be creeping
Mother Africa and her children are beautiful,
they know their place in nature
Even though hardship may corrupt good nature
In the name of ALL that is good,
I hope Africa will rise one day
And we'll stop the suffering before she frays
The words upon a famous poet, I hear
'Africa my beginning, Africa my end.
I was born here and I will die here.'
1. Why is the poem entitled The Dark Continent?
2. How would you characterize the speaker?
3. Why does the speaker regard poverty, famine, crime, and AIDS as demons
that bring him/her shame? Do you agree with the speaker‘s train of thought?
4. What do the lines ―In the name of ALL, I hope Africa will rise one day‖
5. What does the poem show about the temperaments and psyche of the
Group 1 - Present a dramatic reading of the poem or jazz chants.
Group 2 - Compose and present a jingle emphasizing the core message of
Activity 17: CAPTURINGTHE WORLD OF e-JOURNAL
In Lesson 3, you were asked to make a critical review based on an editorial
article. This time, you will make an e-journal focusing on how Africans respond to the
challenges of modernity as revealed in a literary selection. Prior to that, you will read the
selection The Capture by Alex Haley. Use this as bases in making your e-journal.
Unlock the meaning of the following Key Words.
1. sagging under the pain
2. lunging at him with a big sack
3. ducking to escape more clubbing
4. flailing blindly at the air
Kunta was born free. His parents, Omoro and Binta Kinte, offsprings
of a distinguished family tree, were Allah-fearing, freedom loving, and
respectable tribe members of tradition-steeped Juffure, a small but
prosperous village on the coast of Gambia in West Africa. Like all African
tribespeople, their most prized possession was their freedom – a faithfully
secured and vigilantly guarded legacy from their forefathers. Every man,
woman, and child learned not only to keep out of the way of the white men
who kidnapped African natives for the slave market but also to be prepared
to fight with their lives for their freedom when caught.
According to tradition, a boy who was a first-born foretold of Allah’s
special blessings upon the parents and their kin. With the birth of Kunta,
who was named after a free and noble ancestor, a great hunter and
warrior, was born the pride and the great expectation that the tribe of
Kinte would indeed prosper. Hence, it was expected of Kunta to bring
credit, pride, and many children to his family tree and to his village; to
bring honor to the name of Kinte and to dignify further the nobility of the
tribe. Hovering protectively over Kunta’s crib, his father would talk of the
brave deeds his son would do when he grew up. Thus, Kunta’s boyhood, his
adolescence, all his life with his parents in Juffure, were dedicated to the
fulfillment of the great expectation.
As a boy Kunta roamed freely, happily, and fearlessly through the
virgin forests of his tribal village, inhaling the deep musky fragrance of the
mangroves, romping with baboons, and thrilling to the shrill cries of
kingfishers and pelicans. He hunted wild pigs, pursued the fleet-footed
deer, fished in the rippling waters, set traps for the forest fowls, swam in
the streams, and chased schools and winnows. In these happy, peaceful,
and free surroundings Kunta learned “to treat of Allah’s creatures as he
himself wished to be treated: with respect.”
Kunta’s happiness and freedom were short-lived. Falling a victim of
a white slave trader, he was transported to America, sold in the slave
market, and he remained a slave to his death. It took his progenies,
several generations later, to regain the freedom Kunta lost.
5. the white men‘s club crashed against his
Is an excerpt of the novel “Roots” by
Alex Haley. Here, you can relate how
Africans respond to the challenges of
modernity as revealed by his story.
The excerpt reveals a significant fact in the life of Kunta – his
capture, which marked the beginning of his life as a slave. It shows the
tenacity and the violence with which he fought to keep his freedom.
Kunta finally reached the head-high grass surrounding the grove
where he was going to pick out and chop a section of a tree trunk just the
right size for the body of his drum. As he stepped into the grove, Kunta saw
a hidden movement from the corner of his eyes. It was a hare, and the dog
was after it in a flash as it raced for cover in the tall grass.
He was bending over a likely prospect when he heard the sharp crack
of twig, followed quickly by the squawk of a parrot overheard. It was
probably the dog returning, he thought in the back of his mind. But no
grown dog ever cracked a twig, he flashed, whirling in the same instant.
In a blur, rushing at him, he saw a white face, a club upraised; heard heavy
footfalls behind him. Toubob! His foot lashed up and caught the man in the
belly –it was soft and he heard a grunt – just as something hard and heavy
grazed the back of Kunta’s head and landed like a tree trunk on his shoulder.
Sagging under the pain, Kunta spun – turning his back on the man who lay
doubled over the ground at his feet – and pounded with his fists on the faces
of two black men who were lunging at him with a big sack, and at another
toubob swinging a short, thick club.
His brain screaming for any weapon, Kunta leaped into them clawing,
butting, kneeing, gouging – hardly feeling the club that was pounding
against his back. As three of them went down with him, sinking to the
ground under their combined weight, a knee smashed into Kunta’s lower
back, rocking him with such pain that he gasped. His open mouth meeting
flesh, his teeth clamped, cut, tore. His numb fingers finding a face he clawed
deeply into an eye, hearing its owner howl as again the heavy club met
Dazed, he heard a dog snarling, a toubob screaming, then a sudden
piteous yelp. Scrambling to his feet, wildly twisting, dodging, ducking to
escape more clubbing, with blood streaming from his split head, he saw one
black cupping his eye, a toubob holding a bloody arm, standing over the
body of the dog, and the remaining pair circling him with raised clubs.
Screaming his rage, Kunta went for the second toubob, his fists meeting and
breaking the force of the descending club. Almost choking with the awful
toubob stink, he tried desperately to wrench away the club. Why had he not
heard them, sensed them, smelled them?
Just then the black’s club smashed into Kunta, once again, sending
1. What incident is described in the selection?
2. From what the toubobs and their helpers are trying to do, what can you say about
their regard for their fellowmen?
3. Explain the statement ―He was fighting for more than his life.‖
4. In what way can this incident affect society‘s thinking about human rights? About
men being born free and equal?
For Schools With Internet Connection:
1. Form a ten-member group.
2. Create an e-journal, a simple website, from any free website provider (such as
www.wix.com). Your teacher will guide you through the technical aspects of
3. In your website, each member will post a write-up which will feature Africans‘
response to the challenges of modernity. Your write-up should be inspired by the
selection “The Capture by Alex Haley.”
4. The write-up could either be a news article, a news feature, an editorial or a feature
article. You could also post an editorial cartoon.
5. Support your entries with related media as images, illustrations and video clips.
6. The e-journal could contain one, a combination of, or all of the type of write-ups
indicated in instruction No. 4 and an editorial cartoon.
7. Your journal must be based on facts from current events or from facts that
8. You will then invite students from your school to visit the journal.
9. Your teacher will assess the quality of your e-journal through its content and
through the number of visits it will gain.
For example of an actual e-journal, you may visit:
www.thelandmarkersjournal.wordpress.com for reference.
For Schools without Internet Connection:
1. Form a ten-member group.
2. Each group will create a newsletter which will contain write-ups from each member
which feature Africans‘ response to the challenges of modernity. Your write-up
should be inspired by the selection ―“The Capture by Alex Haley.”
3. The write-up could either be a news article, a news feature, an editorial or a feature
article. You could also post an editorial cartoon. Support your entries with related
media as images or illustrations which will reinforce your points.
4. Your newsletter could contain one, a combination of, or all of the type of write-ups
indicated in instruction no. 3 and an editorial cartoon.
5. Every write-up/entry must be based on facts from current events or from facts that
6. Your teacher will assess the quality of your newsletter through its content and its
Is an excerpt of the novel ―The
Roots‖ by Alex Haley. Here, you
can relate how Africans respond
to the challenges of modernity as
revealed by this story.
Activity 18: EUreka Africans!
To recap, fill in the Three-Minute Pause Chart below with the necessary
information regarding our topic. Be reminded to always relate your answers to the
What does literature reveal about Asian and African character?
How do Asians and Africans respond to the challenges of modernity as
reflected in their literary selections?
1. Summarize Key Points So Far
2. Add Your Own Thoughts
3. Pose Clarifying Questions
In this section, the discussion was about the temperaments and psyche of
the African people in response to the challenges of modernity.
What new realizations do you have about the topic? What new connections
have you made for yourself?
Now that you have a deeper understanding of the topic, you are ready to do
the tasks in the next section.
Your goal in this section is apply your learning to real life situations. You
will be given a practical task which will demonstrate your understanding.
Activity 19: WELCOME TO FB (FEEDBACK BLOG)
Your task is to make an interactive feedback blog. You are a youth
leader invited to a World Youth Camp where teen bloggers are encouraged
to post their insights and comments on how Asians and Africans respond to
the challenges of modernity as revealed in their literary selections. You are
tasked to create an interactive feedback blog to promote and strengthen
cultural heritage and identity as well as to better understand one‘s self and
that of others. Your interactive feedback blog has to be effective, insightful,
and creative. Use the ideas reflected in the video clip or the speech of
Nelson Mandela below as guide in making your interactive feedback blog.
For Schools with Internet Connection
This activity requires:
Blogger account or account from any website that offers free blogging service
1. Form a five-member group.
2. Create a blog from blogger or any other sites offering free blogging services.
3. Design your blog in such a way that visitors to your blog will immediately get the
message of your blog even before they read its content. You can either create
your own design or choose from default design templates and customize it to
your liking by adding images and other media.
4. Create a striking blog name and appealing blog content. Be sure to focus more
on details that support your theme.
5. Invite fellow bloggers, (in this case, other groups), to your blog and have them
react or respond to your blog.
6. For an example of a blog page, refer to the snapshot of the blog page shown
For Schools without Internet Connection:
Whole size illustration board
Permanent marker pens
1. Form a five-member group and choose a leader for the group.
2. Using the illustration board, create a message board. Divide your board into two
parts—the upper half and the lower half. In the upper half of the illustration board,
write the title of your message board and a brief three-paragraph treatment of the
issue of your choice.
3. The issue or topic that is the focus of your message board must be based on the
article provided (the speech of Nelson Mandela).
4. Design your message board using cutouts, pictures, drawings, crayons and any
design materials of your choice to make the board appealing.
5. Leave the lower half portion of the board blank. In this part, reactions of fellow
classmates written on a piece of paper (coupon bond) will be posted. The group
will provide the piece of paper.
6. Post your boards on the area designated by your teacher. All group members
then will visit other groups‘ board and post their reactions.
7. Any student can post comments on either the message indicated on the
message board or on other comments on the message board or both.
This video clip can be viewed at:
Free at Last
Speech of Nelson Mandela, May 2, 1994
My fellow South Africans - the people of South Africa:
This is indeed a joyous night. Although not yet final, we have received the
provisional results of the election, and are delighted by the overwhelming support for the
African National Congress.
To all those in the African National Congress and the democratic movement who
worked so hard these last few days and through these many decades, I thank you and
To the people of South Africa and the world who are watching: this a joyous night
for the human spirit. This is your victory too. You helped end apartheid, you stood with
us through the transition.
I watched, along with all of you, as the tens of thousands of our people stood patiently in
long queues for many hours, some sleeping on the open ground overnight waiting to
cast this momentous vote.
South Africa's heroes are legend across the generations. But it is you, the
people, who are our true heroes. This is one of the most important moments in the life
of our country.
I stand before you filled with deep pride and joy. Pride in the ordinary, humble people of
this country. You have shown such a calm, patient determination to reclaim this country
as your own. And joy that we can loudly proclaim from the rooftops - Free at Last!
I stand before you humbled by your courage, with a heart full of love for all of
you. I regard it as the highest honor to lead the ANC at this moment in our history, and
that we have been chosen to lead our country into the new century.
I pledge to use all my strength and ability to live up to your expectations of me as
well as of the ANC.
I am personally indebted and pay tribute to some of South Africa's greatest
leaders including John Dube, Josiah Gumede, GM Naicker, Dr Abduraman, Chief Lutuli,
Lilian Ngoyi, Helen Joseph, Yusuf Dadoo, Moses Kotane, Chris Hani, and Oliver
Tambo. They should have been here to celebrate with us, for this is their achievement
Tomorrow, the entire ANC leadership and I will be back at our desks. We are
rolling up our sleeves to begin tackling the problems our country faces. We ask you all
to join us. Go back to your jobs in the morning. Let's get South Africa working.
For we must, together and without delay, begin to build a better life for all South
Africans. This means creating jobs, building houses, providing education and bringing
peace and security for all.
The calm and tolerant atmosphere that prevailed during the elections depicts the
type of South Africa we can build. It set the tone for the future. We might have our
differences, but we are one people with a common destiny in our rich variety of culture,
race and tradition.
People have voted for the party of their choice and we respect that. This is
I hold out a hand of friendship to the leaders of all parties and their members,
and ask all of them to join us in working together to tackle the problems we face as a
nation. An ANC government will serve all the people of South Africa, not just ANC
We also commend the security forces for the sterling work done. This has laid a
solid foundation for a truly professional security force, committed to the service of the
people and loyalty to the new constitution.
Now is the time for celebration, for South Africans to join together to celebrate
the birth of democracy. I raise a glass to you all for working so hard to achieve what can
only be called a small miracle. Let our celebrations be in keeping with the mood set in
the elections, peaceful, respectful and disciplined, showing we are a people ready to
assume the responsibilities of government.
I promise that I will do my best to be worthy of the faith and confidence you have
placed in me and my organization, the African National Congress. Let us build the future
together, and toast a better life for all South Africans.
Refer to this rubric for assessment.
INTERACTIVE FEEDBACK BLOG
Content is well-
are present to
Content is not
no details are
Does not follow
analysis of the
to the content
analysis of the
are limited to
of the literary
repetition of the
Analysis is not
The blog has
to the literary
The design is
that it catches
The blog has
related to the
the design is
invite others to
look into the
The blog has
the design is
The blog does
not contain any
the design is
Activity 20: UNPACKING OF ESSENTIALS
Go back to your box and finalize your map of conceptual change by finishing the ―I
think‖ OUT OF THE BOX area. Go over the essential questions and connect your
answers to these questions.
Activity 21: WRAP IT UP
Try to reflect on the lesson under discussion. Complete the template below with
relevant thoughts regarding the entire lesson.
Today’s Lesson __________________________________________________
One key idea was __________________________________________________
This is important because ___________________________________________
Another key idea was _______________________________________________
This matters because _______________________________________________
In sum, today’s lesson ______________________________________________
In this section, your task was to make an interactive feedback blog.
How did you find the performance task? How did the task help you see the
real world use of the topic?
You have completed this lesson. Now, you are ready to answer the
GLOSSARY OF TERMS USED IN THIS LESSON:
Feedback – The transmission of evaluative and corrective information to the original or
controlling source about an action, event, or process; also: the information so
Blog – It is an online diary on website; a frequently updated personal journal chronicling
links at a website, intended for public viewing.
Character Analysis – Is a technique of critically analyzing the personality and attributes
personified by a certain character in a literary selection.
Clause – Is a group of words with subject and verb.
Electronic Journals – Are scholarly journals or intellectual magazines that can be
accessed via electronic transmission.
Evaluation Paper – Is a type of discourse or argument that includes evidences or
proofs to support a writer‘s opinion on a specific subject or topic.
Interactive Feedback Blog – Is an effective, insightful, and creative online diary
intended for transmission of information and public viewing.
Parallel Structure – Is the use of similar grammatical or syntactical forms to express
Phrase – Is a group of words that functions in a sentence as a single part of speech. It
does not contain a subject and verb.
Psyche – It refers to soul, self, mind.
Temperament – Refers to characteristic or habitual inclination or mode of emotional
REFERENCES USED IN THIS LESSON
Alcober, E, Balingit, P, Cabanilla, J, Cortez, C, Reyes, L, Salvosa, A, and Ribo, L.
(2000) English Arts Textbook for Second Year. Quezon City: JTW
Alvaran, V, De Villa, M, and Ularte, M, (2011) Worktext in English for Second
Year. Batangas: United Eferza Academic publications, Co.
Bermudez, V, Cruz, J, Nery, R, and San Juan, M, (2007) English Expressways
for Second Year. Quezon City: SD Publications, Inc.,
Carpio, R, (2006) Crisscrossing Through Afro-Asian Literature. Pasig City: Anvil
Eclipse, E, Bumanglag, T, Cabanilla, J, Canlas, S, Cortez, L, and Ribo, L,
(1982) Communicating in English III. Manila: Textbook Board, Ministry of
Education and Culture, 1982.
Gonzales, R, Herlong, R, Hynes-Berry, M, and Pesce, P, Language: Structure
and Use. Illinois: Scott, Foresman and Company.
Bok, F., Tivman E. (2005). Escape from Slavery. Readers Digest, 114-132.
WEBSITE LINKS USED IN THIS LESSON:
1. Richard. (n. d.). Short biography Nelson Mandela. Retrieved November 19, 2012,
2. Francis Bok. (n. d.). Escape from Slavery: The true story of my ten years in captivity
and my journey to freedom in America (Paperback). Retrieved November 5, 2012,
3. Mthoko Mpofana. (1989, Feb). The Dark Continent. Retrieved November 10, 2012,
from PoemHunter.com website: http://www.poemhunter.com/poem/the-dark-
4. Abi B. Ali-Dinar. (1994, May 11). Inaugural speech, Pretoria (Mandela). Retrieved
November 12, 2012, from webcache.googleusercontent.com website:
5. LeVar Burton. (n. d.) Kunta Kinte. Retrieved November 15, 2012, from Wikipedia
6. Nelson Mandela. (1994, May 2). Free at last, speech. Retrieved November 15,
2012, from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2-_r6B_Z188
7. Emerson Kent. (n. d.). Free at last, transcript. Retrieved November 16, 2012, from
Emerson Kent.com website: www.emersonkent.com/speeches/free_at_last.htm
8. A-Z Strategies. (n. d.). Comparison and contrast graphic organizer. Retrieved
November 16, 2012, from www.slideshare.net/.../graphic-organizers-comparison-
9. Kunta Kinte (n. d). Retrieved November 18, 2012, from
10.S3amazonaws.com/rapgenius (n. d.). Kunta Kinte getting whipped. Retrieved
November 18, 2012, from s3amazonaws.com website:
13.Dinah Crockett. (2006, August 29). Grammatically correct. Retrieved November 19,
2012. from http://www.uhv.edu/ac/newsletters/writing/grammartip2006.08.29.htm
16. Images.yourdictionary.com. (1996-2021) .Dark Continent images. Retrieved
December 3, 2012, from http://americanheritage.yourdictionary.com/dark-continent
17. A Correspondent. (2012, July 18). Nelson Mandela: Interesting facts and trivia.
Retrieved December 4, 2012, from http://www.mid-day.com/lifestyle/2012/jul/180712-
18.Official Gazette. (2003, December 19). Republic Act 9231. Retrieved December 5,
2012, from http://www.gov.ph/2003/12/19/republic-act-no-9231-s-2003
19. Answers. (n. d.). Gale Encyclopedia of Biography: Kofi Abrefa Busia. Retrieved
December 5, 2012, from http://www.answers.com/topic/busia-kofi-abrefa
20.African Treasures. (n. d.). Djun-Djun. Retrieved December 5, 2012, from
22. Digital History. (2012, December 6). Slavery Fact Sheets. Retrieved December 6,
2012, from digitalhistory.uh.edu website:
23.Nathan Soderblom. (2012). Nelson Mandela’s pictures. Retrieved December 6,
It‘s now time to evaluate your learning. Encircle the letter of the answer that you
think best answers the question. Your score will only be checked after you answer
all items. If you do well, you may move on to the next module. If your score is not
at the expected level, you have to go back and take the module again.
1. An idiom is a form of figurative language and a phrase whose meaning cannot be
understood from the ordinary meanings of the separate words in it. Choose the
correct idiomatic expression that will complete the sentence. The children could
not understand such difficult and _____________________.
A. high-flown language
B. bad forms
C. hard lines
D. flowery words
2. Which of the following statements is correct?
A. Jogging as a matter of fact is not good for people of all ages.
B. Jogging, as matter of fact is not good is not good for people of all ages.
C. Jogging, as a matter of fact, is not good for people of all ages.
D. Jogging as a matter of fact is not good for people of all ages.
3. Which of the following statements lacks parallelism?
A. Teaching, facilitating, and mentoring are the major tasks of a teacher.
B. To see is to believe.
C. Mark‘s opinion of his employer is that he is smart, eloquent, and considerate.
D. Every athlete can lead his team to a whooping victory by practicing hard,
studying the plays, and if he focuses on the signals.
4. Terms that indicate opinions are called opinion signal words. The examples of
these are below except for one:
B. I think
D. seems to me
5. What do you mean by psyche and temperament?
A. the heart, the life-force that drives a person to decide on things – bad or
B. the inner self, the essence of the soul plus the strength of body and soul
C. the mind, the deepest thoughts, beliefs plus the nature or character of the
D. the soul, the inner thoughts, outlook and humor plus the attitude of the
6. Burma, also known as Myanmar, has been in one of the longest running and
unresolved civil wars among ethnic groups and still a country under military rule
which retains enormous influence. This prominent individual continues to work for
democracy and freedom in Burma.
A. Nelson Mandela
B. Aung San Suu Kyi
C. Mahatma Gandhi
D. Martin Luther King, Jr.
7. After reading a Korean legend, you notice one striking similarity between Korean
and Filipino legends. What similarity is this?
A. Legends from both countries described the rich natural resources back then.
B. Legends from both countries narrated ethnic rituals practiced by the natives.
C. Legends from both countries were orally transmitted first before they were
D. Legends from both were written by ordinary people.
8. Read the excerpt below then answer the question that follows.
Ki, the Pygmy, has married a Pygmy girl from another village. The girl
was called Luetsi and she became Ki‘s wife. With them lived Ntio, Ki‘s brother.
After a year, Luetsi wished to visit her mother, as was the custom. Ki agreed and
gave Luetsi a big piece of meat to take to her mother. As a big hunt was imminent,
ki could not go with his wife, but he promised to fetch her from her mother‘s house
in four weeks‘ time. Now it happened that Ki was bitten in the foot by a snake and
he could not walk. So he asked his brother to fetch his wife. Ntio did not want to go
and said, ―In a few days‘ time you will be able to walk again. It is better for you to
fetch your wife yourself.‖
―No,‖ said Ki. ―It is better not to leave Luetsi in uncertainty. She would not
wait for me but would start the journey home alone. Fetch her home for me, and I‘ll
give you my best bow.‖
-An excerpt from The Leopard, folklore from Africa
Which of the following does the excerpt imply about Africans?
A. They are wild people.
B. They are not afraid of animals.
C. They are caring people.
D. They are careless.
9. In the literature of Myanmar, prose works during the 15th
century were few
and authors were monks, courtiers and court poetesses. This is one example of
work under prose.
A. historical ballad
B. panegyric ode
C. story in verse
D. scripture or chronicle
10. Why is literature a good source of knowing Koreans?
A. Literature gives all the updates about all the important events in a country.
B. Literature mirrors the psyche, temperament, culture and traditions of the
C. Literature provides a descriptive picture of how the people dress and speak
D. Literature is a work of art that describes citizens with breeding and
11.What is the best observation regarding this paragraph?
Modern Korean literature attained its maturity in the 1930s through the efforts of a
group of talented writers. They drew freely upon European examples to enrich their art.
Translation of Western literature continued, and works by I.A. Richards, T.S. Eliot, and
T.E. Hulme were introduced. This artistic and critical activity was a protest against the
reduction of literature to journalism and its use as propaganda by leftist writers.
A. It has a topic sentence that gives the best practices of the Koreans.
B. It has an impact because it has a well-chosen topic.
C. It has coherence in its sentences and cohesion in its ideas.
D. It has one imperative sentence and three declarative sentences.
12. Read the paragraph and answer the question.
These young men were the country‘s good sons who were protecting their country
from its enemies. Their aims and intentions were as different from those of the addicts as
east from west, north from south. Although these young men had one leg missing, they
still wanted to serve their country. The two young soldiers told Lin Aung that they planned
to work in the disabled soldiers‘ cooperative shop.
Why were the two young men the country‘s good sons?
A. They planned to work in the disabled soldier‘s cooperative shop.
B. They have one leg missing.
C. Their aims and intentions were as different from those of drug addicts.
D. They are protecting their country from its enemies.
13. Your Korean classmate has been a student here in the Philippines for two years.
In studying a formal essay, you are given by your teacher to react on the first
paragraph of Carlos Romulo‘s I Am a Filipino. The first paragraph goes like this:
I am a Filipino, inheritor of a glorious past, hostage to the uncertain future. As such I
must prove equal to a twofold task – the task of meeting my responsibility to the past and
the task of performing my obligation to the future.
You cannot help but discuss pertinent characteristics about you, being a Filipino
and your classmate, being a Korean and the challenges of modernity that somehow
affected you both as Asians. What would be the best lesson of the paragraph that you
can present to your teacher and classmates that somehow will be true to you both as
A. We have to acknowledge that as Asians we exist because of our past and
because society is constantly evolving, we must keep up and see the positive
things brought about by these changes.
B. We have to respond to the challenges of so many tasks so that we will be more
prepared in facing the future.
C. We need to recognize where we really came from and that we should also
prepare ourselves for the uncertainty that the future will bring.
D. We should accept that whatever we will become in the future, it will always be
the product of what we decide for our present.
14. Read the excerpt below then, answer the question that follows.
And so Luetsi had to lie there for hours, beneath the dead leopard. In the
distance, she could hear the roaring of the leopardess, looking for its dead mate.
The jungle was full of threatening voices. At last, she began to imagine that the
leopard on top of her was moving, as if it had come to life again. But still she did not
budge from the spot, so keen was she to find out how her husband would behave.
-An excerpt from The Leopard, folklore from Africa
What characteristic of Africans is revealed in the excerpt?
a. They are courageous.
b. They are deceptive.
c. They love animals.
d. They like to display their strength.
15. Read the following situation then, answer the question that follows.
You recently attended a Youth Summit on Culture and the Arts where
you learned that literary pieces are good sources of information about other
people‘s culture. You wish to share what you have learned from the convention
with the young people of this generation who are literally exposed to social
networking where they communicate with people from other countries.
What would be the best medium to use to send your messages to these
techno teen bloggers?