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Monoids are the certain common pattern followed by the various data types of a programming language. They are the simple algebraic structure governed by certain laws. A  simple monoid consists of a …

Monoids are the certain common pattern followed by the various data types of a programming language. They are the simple algebraic structure governed by certain laws. A  simple monoid consists of a associative operation and an identity element and they can be implemented in the form of trait in scala.

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  • 1. Monoids Piyush Mishra Software Consultant Knoldus Software LLP
  • 2. Topics Covered What is Monoid Formal definition of a Monoid Define a String Monoid Define a Int Monoid Define a List Monoid Fold lists with Monoids
  • 3. What is Monoid Monoids are certain common patterns followed by the algebras of various data types of a programming language . Integers with addition. We know that (a+b)+c == a+(b+c) and 0+n == n+0 == n same with multiplication: (a*b)*c == a*(b*c) and 1*n == n*1 == n Strings with concatenation. a+(b+c)==(a+b)+c; ""+s==s and s+"" == s, etc. Lists with concatenation, like List(1,2)+List(3,4) == List(1,2,3,4) Sets with their union, like Set(1,2,3)+Set(2,4) == Set(1,2,3,4). This + binary operation is the common pattern.
  • 4. Formal definition of a monoid Given a type A, a binary operation Op:(A,A) => A, and an instance Zero: A, with the properties that will be specified below, the triple (A, Op, Zero) is called a monoid. Here are the properties: Neutral or identity element : Zero `Op` a == a `Op` Zero == a Associativity: (a `Op` b) `Op` c == a `Op` (b `Op` c) We can express this with a Scala trait: trait Monoid[A] { def op(a1: A, a2: A): A def zero: A }
  • 5. Define a String monoid trait BaseMonoid[A] { def op(a: A, b: A): A def zero: A } class StringMonoid extends BaseMonoid[String] { def op(a: String, b: String) = (a.trim + " " + b.trim).trim def zero = "" } Here we a operation (op) in which we adding two string with space delimiter.
  • 6. Define a Int monoid trait BaseMonoid[A] { def op(a: A, b: A): A def zero: A } class IntegerMonoid extends BaseMonoid[Int] { def op(a: Int, b: Int) = a + b def zero = 0 } Here we a operation (op) in which we sum two two integer
  • 7. Define a List monoid trait BaseMonoid[A] { def op(a: A, b: A): A def zero: A } class ListMonoid[A] extends BaseMonoid[List[A]] { def op(a: List[A], b: List[A]): List[A] = a ++ b def zero = Nil } Here we a operation (op) in which we adding two two Lists
  • 8. Folding a list with a monoid def foldRight(z: A)(f: (A, A) => A): A def foldLeft(z: A)(f: (A, A) => A): A val words = List("hello", "world", "Whats Up") scala> val s = words.foldRight(stringMonoid.zero) (stringMonoid.op) s: String = "hello world Whats Up" scala> val t = words.foldLeft(stringMonoid.zero) (stringMonoid.op) t: String = "hello world Whats Up"
  • 9. Function which folds a list with a monoid def concatenate[A](as: List[A], m: Monoid[A]): A def concatenate[A](as: List[A], m: BaseMonoid[A]): A = as.foldRight(m.zero)(m.op)
  • 10. Operation using different monoids instance def foldMap[A,B](as: List[A], m: Monoid[B])(f: A => B): B def foldMap[A, B](as: List[A], m: Monoid[B])(f: A => B): B = as.foldLeft(m.zero)((b, a) => m.op(b, f(a)))
  • 11. Manipulate a json using monoid val json = """{ "first": "John", "last": "Doe", "credit_card": 5105105105105100, "ssn": "123-45-6789", "salary": 70000, "registered": true }""" class JsonMonoid extends Monoid[String] { val CREDIT_CARD_REGEX = "bd{13,16}b" val SSN_REGEX = "b[0-9]{3}-[0-9]{2}-[0-9]{4}b" val BLOCK_TEXT = "*********" def identity = "" def op(a1: String, a2: String) = a1 + a2.replaceAll(CREDIT_CARD_REGEX, BLOCK_TEXT).replaceAll(SSN_REGEX, BLOCK_TEXT) + "," } val monoid = new JsonMonoid val result = json.split(',').foldLeft(monoid.identity)(monoid.op)
  • 12. Thanks