Characteristics of Living Things Notes

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Characteristics of Living Things Notes

  1. 1. Characteristics of Living Things & Necessities of Life
  2. 2. There are 6 characteristics of living things What makes something living or nonliving?
  3. 3. All living things are composed of one or more cells What is a cell? A cell is a membrane –covered structure that contains all the material necessary for life Unicellular= one cell; multicellular = more than one cell #1: Living Things Have Cells
  4. 4. A stimulus is a change that affects the activity of an organism. Examples: chemicals, gravity, light, sound, hunger, or anything else that activates a response Homeostasis is the maintenance of a stable internal environment. Allows us to keep our internal environment in check when external environment is changing #2: Living Things Sense and Respond to Change
  5. 5. Sexual reproduction: two parents produce offspring that is similar to both parents Asexual reproduction: single parent produces offspring that is identical to the parent #3: Living Things Reproduce
  6. 6. The cells of ALL living things contain the molecule “deoxyribonucleic acid” or DNA DNA controls structure and function of the cell Heredity: passing copies of DNA from parent to offspring #4: Living Things Have DNA
  7. 7. Organisms need and use energy to carry out activities in life. Metabolism: the total of all the chemical activities that the organism performs #5: Living Things Use Energy
  8. 8. We all GROW! It doesn’t matter if you are a multicellular or unicellular organism We all develop! As we grow, we go through different stages in our lives #6: Living Things Grow and Develop Example: Baby > Child > Teen > Adult
  9. 9. Organisms need 4 things to live Necessities of Life
  10. 10. Your body is made up of 70% water Most of the chemical reactions involved in metabolism require water 1. Water
  11. 11. A mixture of gases (oxygen and carbon dioxide) Organisms on land get oxygen from the air Marine animals get dissolved oxygen from the water or by coming up for air Green plants, algae, and some bacteria need carbon dioxide in addition to oxygen to undergo their food making process called photosynthesis 2. Air
  12. 12. Gives us energy and raw materials needed to carry on life processes such as replacing cells Producers: make their own food Consumers: get food by eating other organisms Decomposers: break down nutrients of dead organisms or animal wastes 3. Food
  13. 13. 1. Proteins 2. Carbohydrates 3. Lipids 4. ATP 5. Nucleic Acids 5 Building Blocks of Cells
  14. 14. Proteins: molecule made up of amino acids; helps build and repair body structures Example: protein hemoglobin is in red blood cells and binds to oxygen to deliver it throughout the body Proteins
  15. 15. Carbohydrates: molecules made up of sugars A. Simple carbohydrates: one sugar molecule, like table sugar B. Complex carbohydrates: hundreds of sugar molecules, such as starch (potato, whole wheat) Carbohydrates
  16. 16. Lipids: do not dissolve in water; include fats and steroids Phospholipids are the molecules that form much of the cell membrane; the head is attracted to water but the tail is not- the tails attract and form two layers Lipids
  17. 17. ATP: “Adenosine Triphosphate”; major energy-carrying molecule in the cell; provides energy for the cell 4. ATP
  18. 18. Nucleic acids: have all the information a cell needs to make proteins DNA is a nucleic acid 5. Nucleic Acids
  19. 19. All living things need a place to live that has all the necessities of life (enough space, food, water, etc.) 4. Shelter (a place to live)

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