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    Chapter002 1 Chapter002 1 Presentation Transcript

    • Patient Assessment and Communication in Imaging Chapter 2
    • Introduction
      • As Radiographers, we must learn to asses the needs of the patient and formulate a plan of care that best fits the individual.
        • Assessment
        • Critical thinking
        • Problem solving
        • Therapeutic communication
        • Patient education
    • The Health-Illness Continuum
      • All persons seek to maintain a high level of well-being. Health can be defined as the status of an organism functioning without any evidence of disease or disfigurement. Unfortunately a perfect state of health is rarely achieved; therefore, health is seen as on a “continuum.”
      • Stress
      • Basic needs
    • Basic Human Needs
      • 1. Physiological needs
      • 2. Safety and security
      • 3. Love and belonging
      • 4. Self-esteem and esteem of others
      • 5. Self actualization
    • Critical Thinking
      • The hallmark of an excellent radiographer is the ability to achieve a positive diagnostic or treatment result in a timely, efficient manner while meeting the unique needs of the individual patient.
        • Cognition
        • Effect
        • Didactic
        • Psychomotor
      • Learning requires cognitive, affective and psychomotor skills.
    • Critical Thinking Requires
      • The ability to interpret
      • Analyze
      • Evaluate
      • Infer
      • Explain
      • Reflect
    • Modes of Thinking
      • Recall
        • Knowledge of scientific facts that you can recall at a moment’s notice while with patients
      • Habit
        • You will develop habits that make for the efficient practice of learned skills
      • Inquiry
        • Using the skills of recall and habit along with higher mode of thinking
      • Creativity
        • It is used to solve individual problems and to prevent causing the patient discomfort or pain
    • Problem Solving and Patient Assessment
      • Every patient and every diagnostic procedure presents problems ranging from simple to complex.
      • The student radiographer must decide how to perform the assignment quickly, efficiently, and as comfortable as possible for the patient.
        • Data collection
        • Data analysis
        • Implementation
        • Evaluation
    • Data Collection
      • There are 2 types:
      • Subjective: Anything that the patient or significant other who accompanies the patient say in regards to their care.
      • Objective: Anything you see, hear, feel, or read on the patient’s chart; or, information given by another health care worker.
    • Data Analysis
      • This part of assessment integrates all segments of critical thinking.
      • Once all the data has been collected, you must decide how will you achieve your goal to perform this exam with quality images, patient comfort, and efficiency.
      • This method requires demand recall.
    • Planning and Implementation
      • Planning requires the use of all modes of thinking.
      • Theoretical concepts learned from classroom instruction are recalled.
      • Implementation of the plan depends on the patient’s problems and the need for assistance to achieve the desired goal safely.
    • Evaluation
      • Each patient care situation differs in some way or another. As a student you will observe many approaches to a successful exam.
      • One must never cease learning from the patient regardless of how many years of experience he or she possesses.
      • Each patient care situation differs in some ways from all others encountered; therefore, all patient care experiences are learning experiences.
    • Cultural Diversity in Patient Care
      • Culture is defined as: “The socially inherited characteristics of a group of people that are transmitted from one generation to the next” (Fejos, 1959).
      • The patient’s culture and ethnicity will play a major role in assessing the patient.
        • Culture
        • Sociological
        • Psychological
        • Physiological and Biological
      • Cultural and ethnic diversity are a part of the radiographer’s assessment and plan of care.
    • Patient Expectations
      • The patient also has expectations of health care professionals.
      • The patient expects professionals to be:
        • Concerned
        • Clean
        • Well groomed
        • Professional
        • Deliver quality patient care
    • Communication
      • All members of the health care team must learn to communicate clearly and therapeutically with the patients.
      • Any problem of communication, whether major or minor, has an impact on the patient’s health care.
      • To become a successful communicator you must develop skills:
        • Listening
        • Observing
        • Speaking
        • Writing
    • Non Verbal Communication
      • There is more to communicate than the spoken word.
      • The unspoken or nonverbal aspects of communication can be defined as all stimuli other than the spoken word involved in communication.
      • Non-Verbal communication functions in the following ways:
        • It may repeat or stress the spoken messages
        • It may accent the spoken word
        • It may regulate the spoken word
        • It may substitute for verbal communication
    • Gender Factors
      • The radiographer must be aware that the manner of communication will vary depending upon the sex of the patient.
      • The possibility of a patient requesting a technologist of the opposite gender.
      • The radiographer must also be sensitive to the issue of gender in his or her professional interactions with co-workers.
      • Avoid sexual innuendoes.
    • Other Factors that Affect Communication
      • Paralanguage – has to do with the sounds of the speech, rather than the content.
      • A patient who has difficulty standing, sit the patient and make them comfortable.
      • If the patient has difficulty hearing, speak louder.
      • Speak to the patient.
    • Establishing Communication Guidelines
      • Many relationships between the radiographer and patient are brief and it is essential to make the best use of the time.
      • Establishing guidelines for interaction is essential.
        • Introducing oneself to the patient
        • Give an explanation of the exam
        • Give an explanation of what is expected of the patient and what the patient can expect from the imaging staff
    • Obtaining a Patient History
      • The goal of a patient history is to obtain necessary information to perform a safe and comfortable examination.
      • Obtaining the information accurately demands sensitivity and critical thinking on the radiographer’s part.
      • During the history taking process, the radiographer must convey a professional image to ensure the patient’s confidence.
    • Patient Education
      • A patient who comes to the imaging department has a right to expect that he or she will be instructed as to the exam.
        • A detailed description of the procedure.
        • A description of the purpose of the exam.
        • Approximate amount of time.
        • An explanation of any unusual equipment.
        • Follow up care/results after procedure is complete.
        • If the patient questions the exam, do not begin until the problem is resolved.
    • Loss and Grief
      • Phase I – Denial
      • Phase II – Anger
      • Phase III – Bargaining
      • Phase IV – Depression
      • Phase V – Acceptance
    • Patients Rights Related to End of Life Issues
      • The public’s wishes to make their own determination in this matter was resolved when the PATIENT SELF DETERMINATION ACT (PSDA) was made law in 1990.
      • Advanced Directive
        • They are legal documents that are formulated by a competent person that provides written information concerning the patient’s desire if they are unable to make the decision on their own.
    • Cont.
      • Living will
      • Directive to Physician
      • Durable Power of Attorney for Health Care (DPAHC)
      • DNR
      • NO CODE