Jude 8-9 Review (Previous Weeks): What are some of the written sources from which Jude draws?○ Broadly, Jude draws from the Old Testament (v. 5, 6, 7, and 11), the Pseudepigrapha (v. 6, 9, and 14-15),and Apostolic prophesy (v. 17). In the Pseudepigrapha, 1 Enoch (v. 6, 14-15) and the Assumption of Moses(v. 9) are particularly important for Jude. Why does Jude draw from these sources?○ He uses these sources as the “prophetic” words that speak of the condemnation of his detractors (v. 4). To what event does Jude 5 allude?○ The deliverance being referred to is the Exodus, which a pivotal event insalvation history. The disbelief referred to is likely a reference to the generationthat failed to believe God would deliver Canaan to them. This disbelief led to thedestruction of the entire generation (save Caleb and Joshua) in the wilderness,hence the 40 years of wondering. The narrative is given in Numbers 14:11ff, 26ff. What biblical event is being referenced in Jude 6?○ Although it may be unclear from the allusion in Jude, the text is referring toGenesis 6:1-4. What extra-biblical event is alluded to in Jude 6?○ The extra-biblical event being referred to is the fall of the angels (a.k.a., theWatchers). This event is recorded in various texts, i.e., 1 Enoch, Jubilees.
Jude 8-9 New Material (Jude 8-9): READ Jude 9○ To what does this passage allude? Jude 9 is a reference to an event recorded in the Assumption ofMoses. We are not in possession of this document; however, it wasknown to early church fathers, who reference the text in connectionto Jude 9.- since the underlying text is not available, we’ve sought to make the text more familiar by looking attexts that reference it- might shed some light on the roles of those involved.○ What is the role of Satan in the OT? In Job 1 and 2, Satan appears among the sons of God (angels) in the gather of the divine council (Ps.89:5-8; 1 Kings 22:19ff). God alerts Satan to righteous Job; Satan, then, proceeds to makes accusationagainst Job’s integrity. This activity aligns with Satan’s actual label in the narrative, i.e., the accuser. Hisrole might then be described as the one in the divine council that brings accusation against therighteous. This role coheres with the picture given in Zech. 3:1, where the accuser tacitly bringsaccusation against the sullied High Priest, Joshua. His role as accuser is also highlighted in Rev. 12:10.○ What do we know about Michael? What role does he play in theBible? In Dan. 12:7 he is referred to as the protector of God’s people. In Rev. 12:7, he leads the war againstSatan and his angels. The biblical narrative suggests his role as protector/warrior for God’s people.
Jude 8-9 New Material (Jude 8-9): READ Life of Adam and Eve○ What role does Michael play in Life of Adam and Eve (a.k.a.,Apocalypse of Moses)? Michael is entrusted with the remains of Adam and gives instruction on burial rites for Eve (and latergenerations). This suggests some connection with burial, not unlike the image we have in Jude 9.NOTE: The dating of Life of Adam and Eve is difficult. It is not certain this document predates Jude; thesimilarity between Jude and Life of Adam and Eve is interesting, however.○ How can we make sense of Jude 9? Jude 9 gives a picture of Satan, the accuser of God’s people, disputing with Michael, the champion ofGod’s people, about the body of Moses. The nature of the dispute is still unclear. It is possible thedispute regards the right of a proper burial.○ What does Michael restrain himself from speaking againstSatan? Translations vary widely on this:- NIV: “did not himself dare to condemn him for slander”- NASB: “did not dare pronounce against him a railing judgment”- NRSV: “he did not dare to bring a condemnation of slander against him”- ESV: “he did not presume to pronounce a blasphemous judgment”- KJV: “durst not bring against him a railing accusation” Several translations suggest Michael withheld an accusation of blasphemy (NIV, NRSV); others suggestMichael withheld a defaming/slanderous judgment (KJV, ESV, and NASB). At this point it is unclearwhich is to be preferred.
Jude 8-9 New Material (Jude 8-9): READ Jude 8○ What is the connection between these dreamers and the defilement of the flesh? It is unclear. It is possible these dreams are used as a claim to divine authority, used to justify theirsexual licentiousness, viz., their defilement. Dreams are often seen as a source of divine revelation(Gen. 20:3; Num. 12:6; Dan. 4:18; Matt. 1:20; Acts 2:17).○ Who are the authorities? Jude asserts that his detractors reject authority/glorious ones. This language is somewhat cryptic.Similar language is used in Eph. 1:21 and Col. 1:16; in both instances, these authorities are used to propup the power/loftiness of Christ. They are described as high/powerful beings. In Ephesians, these beingsare tacitly placed in the heavenly realm, and in Colossians they are listed among the created.○ Who are the glories? These are likely heavenly beings. The language used is intended to highlight the highhandedness of theslander; Jude’s detractors bring such slander against majestic heavenly beings. Similar language is usedin 2 Pet. 2:10.○ What accusation does Jude bring against his detractors? He accuses them of slandering these glories.○ How does Jude 8 clarify the meaning of Jude 9? Jude 9 serves as an argument from the lesser to the greater. This strongly suggests that Michael iscommended to Jude’s audience because even he, an archangel, restrained himself from brining aslanderous judgment against Satan; whereas Jude’s detractors, mere humans, slander lofty beings. READ Jude 9○ The charge brought against Jude’s detractors in Jude 8b is noted again. In this verse, Jude highlights theignorance that drives the activity of his detractors.○ What constitutes a slanderous judgement? What would be a contemporary example of a slanderousjudgment? In what ways are Christians guilty of slanderously judging others?