BY
 
ASHOK KUMAR UPADHYAY 
Dept. of Library and Information Science
 
Aligarh Muslim University, 
India
Structure of the Thesis
Chapter – 1. Introduction
about retrospective conversion, 
origin of the research problem, 
sel...
Chapter – 3. Review of related literature
•  review of studies conducted abroad as well as in India
Chapter – 4. Profile o...
Chapter – 6. Data Analysis and Interpretation
• the analysis and interpretation of data 
-collected through questionnaire....
Introduction
   The word “Retro” indicates that the process is only 
for already existing records, 
“Conversion”  =  the  ...
Definitions of Retroconversion
ALA Glossary of Library & Information Science:
   “the process of converting the database o...
Selection of the Problem
    The problem is: 
“Retroconversion  of  Documents  in  Central 
Secretariat  Library,  Zakir  ...
Objectives of the Study
• To find out the status of retroconversion in
selected libraries.
To find out the methods of ret...
•To identify the training needs of staff for the
process of retroconversion.
•To study the skilled manpower available.
•To...
Hypotheses
1. Most of the selected libraries are doing outsourcing
retroconversion
2. Most of the staff members of librari...
Methodology
Questionnaire Design:
1. Questionnaire for the librarians/Directors
2.Questionnaire for user groups.
Sample and Population Design
Library Wise Distribution of Sample
CSL ZHL, JMI NMML Total
Sample
Distributed
400 300 175 87...
Data collection procedure
Personal visit to three libraries
Questionnaires administrated among users
Informal interview...
Major Findings
1. Retroconversion process:
- CSL completed retroconversion during 2002 - 2005
- ZHL started in 1998 and st...
6. Operating system used for retroconversion:
CSL = UNIX
 ZHL = LINUX,
NMML = WINDOW 98
7. Budget allocated
CSL = Rs.1...
8. Sources of budget
9. Number of converted records
10. Exchange format,
CSL 7, 54,084 lakhs
ZHL 3.44 lakhs (appro)
NMML 1...
11. Classification & cataloguing Scheme used:
CSL DDC 21st ed AACR- II
NMML DDC 21st ed AACR- II
ZHL DDC 22nd
ed. AACR-...
14. Retroconversion Process
CSL through books,
ZHL through manual card
NMML through data sheet prepared by project
staf...
17. Use of Online Catalogue
18. Training for using OPAC
Frequently Never used
ZHL 227 (85.66%) 03 (1.13%)
CSL 285 (79.17%)...
19. Majority of the users do not face any problem in
using OPAC
20. Favorite search option for documents:
 CSL = Author (...
TENABILITY OF HYPOTHESES
HYPOTHESIS-I
Most of the selected libraries are doing outsourcing
retroconversion.
The findings o...
HYPOTHESIS-III
Most of the users are aware of library
computerization in the library.
Most of the users of ZHL, (97.36%), ...
HYPOTHESIS-V
Most of the users face problem in using OPAC in
the library.
The study evinces that minimum number of users f...
SUGGESTIONS
Retroconversion of catalogue being a massive work,
should be carried out as crash programme in a time-bound
m...
Retroconversion of documents
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Retroconversion of documents

  1. 1. BY   ASHOK KUMAR UPADHYAY  Dept. of Library and Information Science   Aligarh Muslim University,  India
  2. 2. Structure of the Thesis Chapter – 1. Introduction about retrospective conversion,  origin of the research problem,  selection of the problem,  definition of the terms,  objectives of the problem,  scope and limitations of the study,  need and importance of the study,  research design and methodology. Chapter – 2. Retrospective conversion about library automation,  overall picture of retroconversion,  history, its need, importance and process. 
  3. 3. Chapter – 3. Review of related literature •  review of studies conducted abroad as well as in India Chapter – 4. Profile of Libraries  •  introduction about the libraries under study,      -its collection, users, staff and services etc.  Chapter – 5. Research Methodology • statement of the problem, • hypotheses, methodology,  • sample population,  • variable taken,  • pilot study,  • tools used for the study and data analysis method.  
  4. 4. Chapter – 6. Data Analysis and Interpretation • the analysis and interpretation of data  -collected through questionnaire. Chapter – 7. Conclusion, findings and suggestions • conclusion,  • findings,  • tenability of hypothesis and  • suggestions for further research.
  5. 5. Introduction    The word “Retro” indicates that the process is only  for already existing records,  “Conversion”  =  the  form  and  format  of  the  records  changing something from one form to another.  Thus, retroconversion in library and information center  means “changing already existing catalogue from  existing  traditional  form  to  a  machine-readable  form”.
  6. 6. Definitions of Retroconversion ALA Glossary of Library & Information Science:    “the process of converting the database of a library   holdings  from  non-machine-readable  form  to  machine-readable  form  and  that  are  not  converted  during day to day process” Harrold’s Librarian’s Glossary:     “retrospective conversion (information retrieval) is a  partial or complete conversion of an existing  catalogue into machine-readable form as opposed to  converting records created currently”.
  7. 7. Selection of the Problem     The problem is:  “Retroconversion  of  Documents  in  Central  Secretariat  Library,  Zakir  Husain  Library,  JMI,  Nehru  Memorial  Museum  and  Library,  New  Delhi: An Evaluative Study”.  The problem deals with:     criteria, priorities, guidelines, policy matter, hardware  and  software  requirements,  in-house  training  of  library  personnel,  cost  effectiveness  in  outsourcings,  impact on user services and satisfactory level of users  etc.
  8. 8. Objectives of the Study • To find out the status of retroconversion in selected libraries. To find out the methods of retroconversion. To study the hardware and software requirement for the retroconversion. To study how best to accomplish the job of retroconversion. • To study the requirement and cost of manpower for retroconversion project. To study the impact of retroconversion on library staff, users and library system as a whole.
  9. 9. •To identify the training needs of staff for the process of retroconversion. •To study the skilled manpower available. •To study how retroconversion reduces the time for searching of a document. •To measure the user perception about the retroconversion
  10. 10. Hypotheses 1. Most of the selected libraries are doing outsourcing retroconversion 2. Most of the staff members of libraries are trained for retroconversion. 3. Most of the users are aware of library computerization in the library. 4. Most of the libraries have done reclassification and recataloguing of retroconverted materials. 5. Most of the users face problem in using OPAC in the library.
  11. 11. Methodology Questionnaire Design: 1. Questionnaire for the librarians/Directors 2.Questionnaire for user groups.
  12. 12. Sample and Population Design Library Wise Distribution of Sample CSL ZHL, JMI NMML Total Sample Distributed 400 300 175 875 Returned 370 (92.50%) 275 (91.67%) 165 (95.29%) 810 (92.57%) Rejected 10 (2.50%) 10 (3.33%) 13 (7.43%) 33 (3.77%) Sample Selected 360 (90%) 265 (88.33%) 152 (86.86%) 777 (88.80%)
  13. 13. Data collection procedure Personal visit to three libraries Questionnaires administrated among users Informal interview Observation method Data Analysis Method Used MS-Excel to organized and tabulate the data Used simple statistical methods, tables and percentage
  14. 14. Major Findings 1. Retroconversion process: - CSL completed retroconversion during 2002 - 2005 - ZHL started in 1998 and still continuing - NMML completed during 2003 - 2006. 2. CSL and NMML completed the retroconversion through outsourced agency, ZHL is still continuing retroconversion process through their own staff. 3 CSL, ZHL and NMML appointed supervisory staff for the supervision of retroconversion work. 4 CSL, ZHL and NMML have provided training to their staff members for retroconversion process. 5 CSL and ZHL are using Libsys 4.0 software, and NMML Libsys 6.0 software for retroconversion work.
  15. 15. 6. Operating system used for retroconversion: CSL = UNIX  ZHL = LINUX, NMML = WINDOW 98 7. Budget allocated CSL = Rs.1.15 crore, NMML = Rs 75 lakhs, ZHL (Not Available)
  16. 16. 8. Sources of budget 9. Number of converted records 10. Exchange format, CSL 7, 54,084 lakhs ZHL 3.44 lakhs (appro) NMML 1.83 lakhs. (appro) CSL Ministry of Culture, Govt. of India ZHL Ministry of Culture, Govt. of India NMML UGC, New Delhi CSL UNIMARC Exchange format ZHL MARC exchange format. NMML UNIMARC Exchange format
  17. 17. 11. Classification & cataloguing Scheme used: CSL DDC 21st ed AACR- II NMML DDC 21st ed AACR- II ZHL DDC 22nd ed. AACR- II 12, Reclassification and recataloguing ZHL Reclassified Recatalogued NMML Reclassified Recatalogued CSL No reclassification No recataloguing 13. Subject heading CSL Library of Congress List of Subject Heading (LCSH) NMML Library of Congress List of Subject Heading (LCSH) ZHL Sear’s List of Subject Heading
  18. 18. 14. Retroconversion Process CSL through books, ZHL through manual card NMML through data sheet prepared by project staff 15. All the three libraries have OPAC facility - Only ZHL provides WEB OPAC Findings: Users’ perspective 16. Awareness about computerization ZHL 258 (97.36%) CSL 345 (95.83%) NMML 141 (92.76%)
  19. 19. 17. Use of Online Catalogue 18. Training for using OPAC Frequently Never used ZHL 227 (85.66%) 03 (1.13%) CSL 285 (79.17%) 03 (0.83%) NMML 87 (57.24%) 02 (1.32%) Trained Not Trained ZHL 17 (6.42%) 248 (93.58%) CSL 49 (13.61%) 311 (86.39%) NMML 77 (50.66%) 75 (49.34%)
  20. 20. 19. Majority of the users do not face any problem in using OPAC 20. Favorite search option for documents:  CSL = Author (67.22%)  ZHL = Subject (95.09%)  NNML = Title (96.05%) 21. Most of the respondents feel the need of trained library staff to acquire relevant information in the libraries. 22. Maximum number of respondents of the libraries are satisfied with OPAC in their libraries. 23. Maximum number of respondents are aware of automated circulation service, online journal service, SDI service. 24. Majority of users do not use E-CAS and E-Reference Service provided by the library
  21. 21. TENABILITY OF HYPOTHESES HYPOTHESIS-I Most of the selected libraries are doing outsourcing retroconversion. The findings of the study exhibit that, out of three libraries the two libraries, CSL and NMML, i.e., (66.67%) of the selected libraries have done retroconversion with the help of outsourced agency. So the hypothesis is proved to be true. HYPOTHESIS-II Most of the staff members of libraries are trained for retroconversion. The findings of the study reveals that all staff members of the three libraries, i.e., (100%). are trained for retroconversion. So the hypothesis is proved to be true.
  22. 22. HYPOTHESIS-III Most of the users are aware of library computerization in the library. Most of the users of ZHL, (97.36%), CSL (95.83%) and NMML (92.76%) are aware of library computerization. So the hypothesis is proved to be true HYPOTHESIS-IV Most of the libraries have done reclassification and cataloguing for retroconversion work. Study reveals that, two libraries, ZHL and NMML (66.67%) have done reclassification and recataloguing for the retroversion. So the hypothesis is proved to be true.
  23. 23. HYPOTHESIS-V Most of the users face problem in using OPAC in the library. The study evinces that minimum number of users face problems in using OPAC, i.e., (ZHL:7.17%, NMML:7.89% & CSL:19.44%). So the hypothesis is proved to be null.
  24. 24. SUGGESTIONS Retroconversion of catalogue being a massive work, should be carried out as crash programme in a time-bound manner. As library staff remains busy with routine jobs of the library, outsourcing is the better solution for retroconverstion. A separate fund exclusively for retroconversion work needs to be allocated for the speedy implementation. Computer training should be provided and make mandatory for all the professional library staff. In- house training programme should be conducted. In-service training at regular intervals should be conducted to keep staff abreast with the latest technology.
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