Design and development of subject gateways with special reference to lisgateway


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WCM 2011 organised by DLIS, AMU, Aligarh

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Design and development of subject gateways with special reference to lisgateway

  1. 1. DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT OF SUBJECT GATEWAYS WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO LISGATEWAY Monawwer Eqbal INMNATEC Institutions, Ghaziabad National workshop on Web Content Management (WCM 2011) Department of Library and Information Science Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh December 03-04-2011
  2. 2. Introduction <ul><li>Information technology has made many advances over the years, with the most rapid ones coming recently. From Gothenburg’s printing press to e-publishing. One might think that technology is making it easier for us to organize and store information, has made access and retrieval easier; however, it is not a straightforward case. Advancing technology has created a whole new problem – information boom .  </li></ul><ul><li>Technological advances have made it easier and faster to analyze, collect, abstract, index, search, and use data and information. But the information may be scattered, not only in several different databases, but also on completely different systems, some, of which users may not be able to access. If information professionals find it difficult, then for users it is nearly impossible. </li></ul><ul><li>So to arrest this titanic problem, the concept of “ Subject Gateways” has emerged. The subject gateways engaged in response to the challenges of “resource discovery” in a fast developing Internet environment in the early and mid 1990s. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  3. 3. Concept of Gateways <ul><li>Moffat describes the establishment of the gateways as “a process of identification, filtering, description, classification and indexing before they are added to databases which is freely available via a WWW. </li></ul><ul><li>Gateways are the Internet search tools to help people find resources on the Internet. Gateways offer linked collections of Internet resources via a database of resource description. This can be: Browsed – according to broad classification </li></ul><ul><li>Searched –through index </li></ul><ul><li>Quality controlled – due to selection </li></ul><ul><li>Thus it can be said that the gateways are “ a gathering place of discipline specific resources.” </li></ul>
  4. 4. What is Subject Gateways <ul><li>Subject gateways is nothing but the facility that allows easier access to networked-based resources in a definite subject area. The simplest type of subject gateways are sets of web pages containing lists of links to resources. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Subject gateways are Internet services which supports systematic resource discovery. They provide links to resources( documents, objects, sites or services) predominantly accessible via the Internet. The service is based on resource description. Browsing access to the resource via a subject structure is an important feature” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Subject gateways are Internet- based services designed to help users locate high quality information that is available on the Internet. They are typically, data bases of detailed metadata (or catalogue) records which describes Internet resources and offer a hyperlink to the resources .” </li></ul>
  5. 5. Objective of Subject gateways <ul><li>The main objectives of subject gateway are; </li></ul><ul><li>Subject gateway can be used to promote the particular subject resource. </li></ul><ul><li>To provide current information about the online subject resources. </li></ul><ul><li>To provide access to online and CD-ROM based reference source such as database and catalogue. </li></ul><ul><li>To provide quality of information on the web. </li></ul><ul><li>To provide links to number of other site or document on the internet. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Characteristic of Subject Gateway <ul><li>It is quality controlled information services that have following characteristics. </li></ul><ul><li>An online service that provides links to numerous other sites or documents on the Internet </li></ul><ul><li>Selection of resources is an intellectual process. </li></ul><ul><li>Intellectually produced content descriptions. </li></ul><ul><li>Manually generated bibliographic metadata for the individual resources. </li></ul><ul><li>The subject gateway may describe both print and electronic resources. ; </li></ul><ul><li>The subject gateways resources should be indexed according to a recognized subject classification scheme in order to enable subject browsing. Controlled vocabulary systems such as subject headings list and thesauri should be used in these process; </li></ul><ul><li>The resource linked from the gateway must go through a selection process conducted by the jurisdiction response for the gateway, to ensure a high level of quality and relevance to the subject matter </li></ul><ul><li>The metadata describing the resources in the gateway must meet a recognized standard for resource discovery such as Dublin Core, MARC standard etc. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Difference between search engines and subject gateways Search Engine Subject Gateways General resource is available It is a gathering place of discipline specific resources It totally depends on the powerfulness of the selected search-engines algorithms. High level of human input is there, as the selected resources must meet a number. Of criteria applied by a librarian or academic, who ensures that only high quality, relevant resources are included in the database. The results can be overwhelming, unmanageable, full of irrelevant references and are often too prolific to meet user needs. The results are specific, precise, and linked to relevant documents. Records are created by an automatic process and typically consist of a mixture of metadata offered by the author of the page (if this is available) and text picked up from the page itself. Records are created by a cataloguer, which is designed to highlight the main features of resource in an easily readable, concise fashion. Entries are displayed more as “raw-data” Entries are described in a more “human- read able fashion” In indexes pages. It indexes resources.
  8. 8. Why libraries should go for subject gateways? <ul><li>The natural metaphor </li></ul><ul><li>Browsing, reference desk </li></ul><ul><li>Expertise in relevant areas- Classification, acquisition, keywords Information seeking behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Guiding & helping users </li></ul>
  9. 9. Initiatives of Subject Gateways <ul><li> ( </li></ul><ul><li>Librarians’ Index to the Internet (LII) ( </li></ul><ul><li>Argus Clearing House ( </li></ul><ul><li>Galaxy ( </li></ul><ul><li>?Direct Search ( </li></ul><ul><li>Vlib: The Virtual Library ( </li></ul><ul><li>Academic Info ( </li></ul><ul><li>BUBL ( </li></ul><ul><li>BIOME ( </li></ul><ul><li>Edinburgh Engineering Virtual Library (EEVL) ( </li></ul><ul><li>Social Science Information Gateway (SOSIG) ( </li></ul><ul><li>BioMedNet ( </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  10. 11. The Archaeology Data Service <ul><li>The Archaeology Data Service supports research, learning and teaching with freely available, high quality and dependable digital resources. It does this by preserving digital data in the long term, and by promoting and disseminating a broad range of data in archaeology. The ADS promotes good practice in the use of digital data in archaeology, it provides technical advice to the research community, and supports the deployment of digital technologies. </li></ul>
  11. 13. AERADE <ul><li>AERADE Launched in November 1999. AERADE was an initiative developed by Cranfield University to enable aerospace and defence experts to find quality, relevant information on the Internet. The service is a joint venture between subject specialists within the information and library services at Cranfield campus (aerospace) and Shrivenham campus (defence). It provides integrated access to a collection of over 4,000 quality assessed resources that have been created worldwide in aerospace and defence resources. </li></ul><ul><li>The resources are selected, evaluated, regularly monitored and updated by subject specialists from Cranfield University, and the team has produced a Statement of Quality for all assessment and procedural. </li></ul>
  12. 15. About Biz/ed <ul><li>Biz/ed is a free online service for students, teachers and lecturers of business, economics, accounting, leisure and recreation and travel and tourism. </li></ul><ul><li>Since its launch in January 1996 </li></ul><ul><li>Biz/ed has established itself as the primary provider of Internet-based learning materials for the economics and business education community . </li></ul>
  13. 19. About Eldis <ul><li>Eldis aims to share the best in development, policy, practice and research. </li></ul><ul><li>support the documentation, exchange and use of evidence-based development knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>The aim of Eldis is to: </li></ul><ul><li>communicate this knowledge effectively through a range of appropriately designed services, using the Internet (web and email) as the main communication medium for delivery </li></ul><ul><li>reach audiences of researchers, development practitioners and policy formers at national and international levels </li></ul><ul><li>play a role in the processes of evidence-based policy formation </li></ul><ul><li>provide this information and services free of charge at point of use </li></ul>
  14. 23. About infolaw <ul><li>infolaw was established in 1991. Since inception we have specialised in the provision of forms and precedents and law publishing services. We have been active on the web since early 1995 and have broadened the range of our services to cover all web-based publishing activity. Our products and services are used by over 1,200 law firms, corporate legal departments, barristers, academics, students and a number of law publishers. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1995 we established the first UK legal information service on the web - what is now this website. infolaw is still the leading UK legal web gateway, maintaining a high ranking on Google and attracting visits from across and beyond the legal sector. </li></ul>
  15. 25. About PADI <ul><li>The National Library of Australia's Preserving Access to Digital Information (PADI) initiative aims to provide mechanisms that will help to ensure that information in digital form is managed with appropriate consideration for preservation and future access. </li></ul><ul><li>Its objectives are: </li></ul><ul><li>to facilitate the development of strategies and guidelines for the preservation of access to digital information; </li></ul><ul><li>to develop and maintain a web site for information and promotion purposes; </li></ul><ul><li>to actively identify and promote relevant activities; and </li></ul><ul><li>to provide a forum for cross-sectoral cooperation on activities promoting the preservation of access to digital information. </li></ul><ul><li>The PADI web site is a subject gateway to digital preservation resources. It has an associated discussion list padiforum-l for the exchange of news and ideas about digital preservation issues. </li></ul>
  16. 29. The Knowledge for Health <ul><li>The Knowledge for Health (K4Health) project is a leader in health information dissemination using traditional and new media mechanisms and in facilitating information use through dynamic learning and exchange programs. We embrace the two-way information flow that Internet and mobile technology provides by utilizing innovative communication channels to engage audiences and deliver the information they need, when they need it, in the form they need it.  </li></ul><ul><li>Through virtual collaboration, we ensure that K4Health’s products and services meet the needs of key audiences, including policy makers, program managers, and health service providers working in international public health settings. </li></ul>
  17. 32. LISgateway (Library and Information Science Gateway) <ul><li>LISgateway is the first subject gateway in the field of library and information science in india . LISgateway is a gateway designed to provide easy and free access to high quality, evaluated Internet resources in the fields of library and information science provides searchable and browsable catalogue of Internet based resources related to Library & Information Science. </li></ul><ul><li>LISgateway service aims to provide a trusted source of selected, high quality Internet information for students, lecturers, researchers and practitioners in the areas of library and information science and also promote the electronic resources, which result from research and teaching in library profession. The purpose of LISgateway is to support identification and dissemination of high quality research materials available on the Internet. </li></ul>
  18. 33. LISgateway (Library and Information Science Gateway) <ul><li>Project Title “Preparation of Web Based Gateway for Resources in Library and Information Science &quot; </li></ul><ul><li>Financial Support : University Grants Commission, New Delhi over a period of two years (2003 to 2005). </li></ul><ul><li>Principal Investigator: Dr. M. Masoom Raza </li></ul><ul><li>WINDOWS NT SERVER </li></ul><ul><li>Web Hosting supports ASP/MS Access based web applications </li></ul><ul><li>PHP based application with mySQL database </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  19. 34. Planning, Development and Design <ul><li>Phase 1: Pre-project </li></ul><ul><li>Outline planning of project </li></ul><ul><li>Securing funding for project </li></ul><ul><li>Producing outline project timetable and plan </li></ul><ul><li>Phase 2: Project planning and set-up </li></ul><ul><li>Drawing up detailed timetable and plan </li></ul><ul><li>Hiring staff and developing skills </li></ul><ul><li>Developing policy documents (scope and selection criteria) </li></ul><ul><li>Technical planning </li></ul><ul><li>Phase 3: Technical implementation </li></ul><ul><li>Technical set up and system testing </li></ul><ul><li>Training of non-technical staff in system usage </li></ul><ul><li>Phase 4: Catalogue development and Collection management </li></ul>Planning Steps of planning
  20. 35. Hardware and Software Issues <ul><li>System requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Network connectivity </li></ul><ul><li>Hardware configuration (memory, CPU speed, disk space) </li></ul><ul><li>Operating system software </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Subject gateway database and associated software </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use reliable hardware </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use reliable software </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data security </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Server security </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Web server software </li></ul></ul>
  21. 36. Methodology for Gateway Design <ul><li>The various stages have been followed for the development of website or gateway. These are as follows, </li></ul><ul><li>Collection Resources (Offline/Online) </li></ul><ul><li>Criteria for the evaluation of web resources </li></ul><ul><li>Programming </li></ul><ul><li>Designing the site </li></ul><ul><li>Web publishing </li></ul>
  22. 37. Methodology for Gateway Design <ul><li>Collection of the resources </li></ul><ul><li>Tools used for the collection data for the purpose of linking </li></ul><ul><li>Online data collection </li></ul><ul><li>Search engine </li></ul><ul><li>Mata search engine </li></ul><ul><li>Online directory </li></ul><ul><li>Web site related to library and information science </li></ul><ul><li>Reference and information service on the on web </li></ul><ul><li>Online abstracting and indexing service </li></ul><ul><li>Offline data collection </li></ul>
  23. 38. Methodology for Gateway Design <ul><li>Criteria for the evaluation of web resources </li></ul><ul><li>Information Coverage </li></ul><ul><li>Subject Matter </li></ul><ul><li>Acceptable Resources </li></ul><ul><li>Geographical Coverage </li></ul><ul><li>Language </li></ul><ul><li>Access Issues </li></ul><ul><li>Resources descriptions </li></ul>
  24. 39. Methodology for Gateway Design <ul><li>Content Criteria </li></ul><ul><li>Validity </li></ul><ul><li>Authority and Reputation of Source </li></ul><ul><li>Substantiveness </li></ul><ul><li>Accuracy </li></ul><ul><li>Comprehensiveness </li></ul><ul><li>Uniqueness </li></ul><ul><li>Composition and Organisation </li></ul>
  25. 40. Methodology for Gateway Design <ul><li>Form Criteria </li></ul><ul><li>Ease of Navigation </li></ul><ul><li>Provision of User Support </li></ul><ul><li>Use of Recognised Standards </li></ul><ul><li>Appropriate use of Technology </li></ul><ul><li>Aesthetics </li></ul><ul><li>Process Criteria </li></ul><ul><li>Information Integrity </li></ul><ul><li>Site Integrity </li></ul><ul><li>System Integrity </li></ul>
  26. 41. Methodology for Gateway Design <ul><li>Content Criteria </li></ul><ul><li>Validity </li></ul><ul><li>Do the resources fulfil the stated purpose? </li></ul><ul><li>Does the resource have a scope statement? </li></ul><ul><li>Is there any information missing? </li></ul><ul><li>Does the information appear to be well researched? </li></ul><ul><li>Are references given? </li></ul><ul><li>Is there a bibliography? </li></ul><ul><li>Are the sources of the information stated? </li></ul><ul><li>Has the format been derived from another format e.g. print? (e.g. Is it an electronic version of a printed book/newspaper?) </li></ul><ul><li>Is there any mention of the resource being available in another format? </li></ul><ul><li>Is there a request for payment? </li></ul><ul><li>Is the information genuine i.e. what it appears to be? </li></ul><ul><li>URL - Does the URL support the claim of authorship? </li></ul><ul><li>Email addresses: are emails for a publisher, the author, referees, sources, etc. given? </li></ul><ul><li>Contact details: are addresses and phone numbers given that support claims of authorship, </li></ul><ul><li>Sponsorship etc.? </li></ul><ul><li>Does the resource point to other sources, which could be contacted for confirmation? </li></ul><ul><li>Is the content of the resource verifiable - can you cross check the information? Does the information claim to be unbiased. </li></ul>
  27. 42. Methodology for Gateway Design <ul><li>Content Criteria </li></ul><ul><li> Authority </li></ul><ul><li>Authorship is the major criterion used in evaluating information. </li></ul><ul><li>The authority of resource can be decided on the basis of these filters, </li></ul><ul><li>Is the origin of the document documented? </li></ul><ul><li>Is the information attributed to an author or editors? </li></ul><ul><li>Has the material been disseminated by a trade publisher? </li></ul><ul><li>Do you know the educational background of the author? </li></ul><ul><li>Do you know the occupational background of the author? </li></ul><ul><li>Is URL a university server? </li></ul><ul><li>Is the author is a well-known and well-regarded name? </li></ul>
  28. 43. Methodology for Gateway Design <ul><li>Content Criteria </li></ul><ul><li> Accuracy </li></ul><ul><li>The criteria for evaluating accuracy includes, </li></ul><ul><li>For a research document, the data that was gathered and an explanation of the research method(s) used to gather and interpret it are included. </li></ul><ul><li>The methodology outlined in the document is appropriate to the topic and allows the study to be duplicated for purposes of verification. </li></ul><ul><li>The document relies on other sources that are listed in a bibliography or includes links to the documents themselves. </li></ul><ul><li>The document names individuals and/or sources that provided non- published data used in the preparation of the study. </li></ul><ul><li>The background information that was used can be verified for accuracy. </li></ul>
  29. 44. Methodology for Gateway Design <ul><li>Content Criteria </li></ul><ul><li> Currency </li></ul><ul><li>Currency refers to the timeliness of information. In printed documents, the date of publication is the first indicator of currency. For some types of information, currency is not an issue, rather authorship or place in the historical record is more important. For many other types of data, however, currency is extremely important, as is the regularity with which the data is updated. </li></ul><ul><li>The document includes a publication date or a &quot;last updated&quot; date. </li></ul><ul><li>The document includes a date of copyright. </li></ul><ul><li>If no date is given in an electronic document, the directory can be viewed in which it resides to read the date of latest modification. </li></ul>
  30. 45. Methodology for Gateway Design <ul><li>Content Criteria </li></ul><ul><li>Uniqueness </li></ul><ul><li>Comprehensiveness </li></ul><ul><li>Composition and Organisation </li></ul><ul><li>Is the information well composed? Does the text follow basic rules of grammar, spelling and literary composition? </li></ul><ul><li>Does it include jargon? </li></ul><ul><li>Is the information within a resource phrased unambiguously? </li></ul><ul><li>Is the information clearly organised? </li></ul><ul><li>Is there a good structure? </li></ul><ul><li>Is the information within a resource arranged logically and consistently? </li></ul><ul><li>Is the information broken down into logical parts? </li></ul><ul><li>Is the resource well laid out? </li></ul><ul><li>Is the resource organised by the needs of the user? </li></ul><ul><li>Is the information broken down into digestible parts? </li></ul><ul><li>Is the content clearly described? </li></ul><ul><li>Are the headings clear and descriptive? </li></ul><ul><li>Is there evidence of internal standardization . </li></ul>
  31. 46. Methodology for Gateway Design <ul><li>Form criteria </li></ul><ul><li>LISgateway have been evaluated by considering the following criteria: </li></ul><ul><li>Ease of Navigation </li></ul><ul><li>Is it easy to navigate the resource? </li></ul><ul><li>Is it easy to browse the resource? </li></ul><ul><li>Is it easy to search the resource? </li></ul><ul><li>Appropriate use of technology </li></ul><ul><li>Is appropriate interactivity available? </li></ul><ul><li>Is metadata provided? </li></ul><ul><li>Does it use standard multimedia formats? </li></ul><ul><li>Is it written in standard HTML? </li></ul>
  32. 47. Methodology for Gateway Design <ul><li>Process Criteria </li></ul><ul><li>The processes associated with resources have been evaluated by considering the following criteria to the LISgateway . </li></ul><ul><li>Information integrity </li></ul><ul><li>Information integrity refers to the stability of the content of the resource over time. This depends on the information provider. Information integrity of any resource is evaluated on the following basis:, </li></ul><ul><li>Is information current and up to date? </li></ul><ul><li>Is the information durable in nature? </li></ul><ul><li>Is there adequate maintenance of the information content? </li></ul><ul><li>Site integrity </li></ul><ul><li>Site integrity of any resource is evaluated on the following basis for the LISgateway; </li></ul><ul><li>Is site current and up to date? </li></ul><ul><li>Is the site expected to be durable? </li></ul><ul><li>Is the adequately administered and maintained? </li></ul>
  33. 48. Methodology for Gateway Design <ul><li>Process Criteria </li></ul><ul><li>System integrity </li></ul><ul><li>System integrity refers to the permanent accessibility of the site over time. This is usually the work of system administrator. System integrity of any resource is evaluated on the following basis: </li></ul><ul><li>Is the technical performance of the resource acceptable? </li></ul><ul><li>Is the system stable? </li></ul><ul><li>Are adequate measures taken to maintain the integrity of the system? </li></ul><ul><li>Use Metadata format ( Dublin Core currently involves 15 core elements) </li></ul><ul><li>Title </li></ul><ul><li>Author or Creator </li></ul><ul><li>Subject and Keywords </li></ul><ul><li>Description </li></ul><ul><li>Publisher </li></ul><ul><li>Other Contributor </li></ul><ul><li>Date </li></ul><ul><li>Resource Type </li></ul><ul><li>Format </li></ul><ul><li>Resource Identifier </li></ul><ul><li>Source </li></ul><ul><li>Language </li></ul><ul><li>Relation </li></ul><ul><li>Coverage </li></ul><ul><li>Rights Management </li></ul>
  34. 49. Programming, Designing and Coding <ul><li>Programming </li></ul><ul><li>After the evaluation of resources the web pages of gateway was designed with the help of various programming language e.g. HTML, PHP, ASP, Java Script, CSS, DHTLM. </li></ul><ul><li>Designing the site </li></ul><ul><li>This phase deals with the over all-planning, designing of site layout, coding and testing of the web site. There are several ways to design the site layout. The following methods have been used for the design web site which is divided into two parts, </li></ul><ul><li>Server side technology </li></ul><ul><li>Client/user side technology </li></ul><ul><li>Server side technology </li></ul><ul><li>Creation of Database </li></ul><ul><li>using MS Access and ASP. But in Beta version using PHP and MySQL </li></ul><ul><li>Steps of LISgateway database creation </li></ul><ul><li>Design the structure of database. </li></ul><ul><li>Create data entry forms. </li></ul><ul><li>Validate the data entered and check for inconsistencies </li></ul><ul><li>Sort and manipulate the data in the database </li></ul><ul><li>Query the database. </li></ul>
  35. 50. Resources available on LISGATEWAY <ul><li>LIS Association(India and International) </li></ul><ul><li>LIS Schools (Indian school International and Distance education) </li></ul><ul><li>Library Networks </li></ul><ul><li>LIS software </li></ul><ul><li>OPAC (Online Public Access Catalogue) </li></ul><ul><li>Financial Assistance </li></ul><ul><li>Scholarships </li></ul><ul><li>Fellowships </li></ul><ul><li>Publishers </li></ul><ul><li>Journals </li></ul><ul><li>Books </li></ul><ul><li>Libraries </li></ul><ul><li>Digital library </li></ul><ul><li>LIS jobs </li></ul><ul><li>LIS Thesis </li></ul><ul><li>News and Events </li></ul><ul><li>Conferences / Seminars </li></ul><ul><li>Resources, Conference proceeding </li></ul>
  36. 51. Home page
  37. 52. <ul><li>PLEASE visit </li></ul><ul><li>THANKS </li></ul>