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most common form of body modification in North America is tattoos
having a tattoo has changed meaning over the years: went from being a mark of royalty, to popular among the U.S. Navy, being rebellious in the 1960's, and today is more pervasive, accepted, and common than ever
tattoos range from small and personal to big and obvious
tattoos from other places in the world are very common in North America; Generation X is known for embracing the tattoo trend of tribal symbols
the first tattoo shop was opened in 1846 by Martin Hildebrandt who inked Civil War soldiers from both sides with the names of their wives/girlfriends, it was seen as good luck
Japan *The earliest evidence of tattooing in japan is found in the form of clay figurines which have faces painted or engraved to represent tattoo marks.>>>>>>>>>>>
*These figurines served as stand-ins for living individuals who symbolically accompanied the dead on their journey into the unknown, and it is believed that the tattoo marks had religious or magical significance. *The japanese were interested in the art mostly for its decorative attributes, as opposed to magical ones.
*The horis - the japanesetattoo artists - were the undisputed masters. Their use of colors,perspective, and imaginative designs gave the practice a whole new angle.
*The classic japanese tattoo, is a full body suit.>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>
In mexico and central americareveal tattoos to be a sign of courage. when cortez and his conquistadors arrived on the coast of mexico in 1519 they were horrified to discover that the natives had somehow managed to imprint indelible images of idols on their skin. the spaniards, who had never heard of tattooing, recognized it at once as the work of satan.
Dates back thousands of years. Until the recent discovery of [[Ötzi the Iceman]], the oldest known tattoos belonged to the mummy of Amunet, a priestess of the goddess Hathor somewhere between 2160 BC -1994 BC. With her simple parallel lines on her arms, legs, and an elliptical pattern below her navel, Amunet was the oldest glimpse we know had into tattooing in Africa, and the world. The designs found on her mummy, were believed to be symbols of fertility and rejuvenation. No male mummies in Egypt have been found with tattoos, but this does not mean they didn't exist, as male mummies have been found in Libya with tattoos of images relating to sun worship. In the tomb of Seti the first, dating back to around 1300 BC tattoos symbolizing Neith, a fierce goddess who led warriors into battle were also found on men. Very early tattoos portraying Bes, the god of sex and overseer of orgies have also been found on Nubian female mummies dating back to 400 BC.
The great variety of tribes and peoples of Africa mean that it's hard to state all the reasons for tattoos, however, tribal hierarchy, geographical location (as in the case of the [[Makonde tribal tattoos]] from Mozambique), spiritual protection, and rites of passage feature highly as reasons for tattooing throughout Africa's past.
African Body Art With the current resurgent trend in tribal tattoos, its surprising that African tattoos are not much more common in the western world of body art designs. However as beautiful as African Tribal designs are, do you understand the meanings behind them Well here are five facts that explore some of the lesser know ideals behind African Tribal Tattoo designs: Fact 1 Some African body art are drawn to give the wearer protection from harm, the symbolism in the images guarding them throughout life. Fact 2 African body art were never meant to be merely drawings for bodily decoration. They are drawn so that the wearer of the art can take on an almost Supernatural state. Given the term scarification, represent a way for the wearer to appear more than human. Fact 3 African scarification or tattooing, often uses symbols that reflect the wearers character, and is used as proof of courage and braver; which are the things one needs to undergo the painful application of the body art. Fact 4 The first African tattoo found was dated back to a mummy in 1994 BC, although it is estimated that there are tattoos dating back to 2000BC; and images showing Egyptian High Priestesses with tattooed arms have been found. Fact 5 There is a type of body art that is done by those in Africa whose skin is generally too dark for regular tattoo coloration to appear. It is called cicatrisation and it works by opening a small part of the skin to create a designed wound. They then rub ash into the wound so that when it heals, it results in a permanent raised scar.
Henna is a form of expression in India to symbolize weddings, and religious holidays such as Diwali.
(Festival of Lights). The extravagant designs symbolize happiness and life.
Black Henna is fermented, dried indigo. It is called "black henna" because it could be used in combination with henna to dye hair black. The west started to see this practice during the 19th century.