virus powerpoint


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virus powerpoint

  2. 2. Are Viruses Living or Non-living?<br />Biologists consider viruses to be non-living because:<br />Are not cells<br />Do not grow or respond to their surroundings<br />Cannot make food, take in food, or produce wastes<br />Viruses do not respond to stimuli.<br />They can only multiply if in another living cell<br />
  3. 3. What are Viruses?Definition-<br />Viruses are noncellular particles made up of genetic material and protein that can invade living cells.<br />
  4. 4. 4<br />Discovery of Viruses<br />Beijerinck (1897) coined the Latin name “virus” meaning poison<br />
  5. 5. 5<br />Tobacco Mosaic Virus<br />Wendell Stanley (1935) discovered viruses were made of nucleic acid and protein<br />
  6. 6. 6<br />Smallpox<br />Edward Jenner (1796) developed a smallpox vaccine using milder cowpox viruses<br />Smallpox has been eradicated in the world today<br />
  7. 7. How Big is a Virus?<br />Viruses are very small – smaller than the smallest cell.<br />
  8. 8. 8<br />Characteristics<br />Non living structures<br />Non-cellular<br />Contain a protein coat called the capsid<br />Have a nucleic acid core containing DNA or RNA (one or the other - not both)<br />Capable of reproducing only when inside a HOST cell<br />
  9. 9. 9<br />Characteristics<br />CAPSID<br />Some viruses are enclosed in an protective envelope<br />Some viruses may have spikes to help attach to the host cell<br />Most viruses infect only SPECIFIC host cells<br />DNA<br />ENVELOPE<br />SPIKES<br />
  10. 10. 10<br />EBOLA VIRUS<br />HIV VIRUS<br />Outside of host cells, viruses are inactive<br />Viruses cause many common illnesses/ diseases <br />Some viruses may cause some cancers like leukemia<br />Characteristics<br />MEASLES<br />
  11. 11. 11<br />Characteristics<br />Viruses cause many common illnesses diseases <br />Some viruses may cause some cancers like leukemia<br />MEASLES<br />
  12. 12. What do Viruses look like?<br />Viruses are unusual and different from other things in nature.<br />Viruses come in a variety of shapes<br />Some may be helical shape like the Ebola virus<br />Some may be polyhedral shapes like the influenza virus<br />Others have more complex shapes like bacteriophages<br />
  13. 13. 13<br />Types of Viruses: Helical Viruses<br />
  14. 14. 14<br />Polyhedral Viruses<br />
  15. 15. 15<br />Complex Viruses<br />
  16. 16. 16<br />Viral Taxonomy<br />Family names end in -viridae<br />Genus names end in -virus <br />Viral species: A group of viruses sharing the same genetic information and ecological niche (host).<br /> Common names are used for species<br />Subspecies are designated by a number<br />
  17. 17. 17<br />Used for Virus Identification<br />Morophology<br />RNA or DNA Virus<br />Do or do NOT have an envelope<br />Capsid shape<br />HOST they infect<br />
  18. 18. 18<br />Herpes Virus<br /> SIMPLEX I and II<br />
  19. 19. 19<br />Adenovirus<br /> COMMON COLD<br />
  20. 20. 20<br />Influenza Virus<br />
  21. 21. 21<br />Chickenpox Virus<br />
  22. 22. 22<br />Papillomavirus – Warts!<br />
  23. 23. HOST SPECIFICITY<br />All kingdoms can be infected by viruses<br />Viruses are kingdom specific but they may or may not be species specific<br />Spread is specific to the type of virus <br />
  24. 24. PARASITISM<br />Viruses are parasites.<br />A parasite is an organism that depends upon another living organism for its existence in such a way that it harms that organism.<br />
  25. 25. 25<br />Bacteriophages<br />
  26. 26. 26<br />Cylces<br />Lysogenic Cycle<br />Viral DNA<br />May stay inactive in host for long periods of time<br />Long lasting <br />Example Mono or chickenpox<br />LyticCylce<br />Short and can be over come <br />Example flu virus <br />
  27. 27. Vaccine <br />Is a weaken form of the virus <br />To expose your immune system to the virus which will allow your body to better fight off the virus when exposed to the full blow virus. <br />
  28. 28. Vector Control<br />This is controlling the vectors that are carrying the virus. <br />Examples:<br />We stay home when sick, cover our mouth when we cough etc. <br />We control the mosquito population in order to control the West Nile virus<br />
  29. 29. 29<br />Other DrugTreatments<br />Specific to certain viruses. <br />They don’t cure the virus but they can slow down and inhibit the multiplication of the virus. <br />copyright cmassengale<br />
  30. 30. Reducing the RiskThey can’t be treated but they can be prevented! <br />Cover mouth/nose when you sneeze of cough<br />Wash hands frequently<br />Avoid contact with the body fluids<br />Not foolproof but reduces the risks<br />