Motivation & Learning<br />EDPS 457 – Fall 2010<br />1<br />
Pedagogical theory is not an isolated entity. It is an axis of innumerable relationships.<br />How Do Students Learn?<br />
In other words….<br />What Motivates Students to Learn?<br />9/28/2010<br />
The scientific discipline concerned with the development, evaluation, and application of principles and theories of human ...
Principles & Theories<br />Theory<br />Principles<br />A scientific explanation for why events happen in a certain way and...
<ul><li>Understand
Explain
Improve </li></ul>Educational Psychology<br />9/28/2010<br />A discipline which tries to <br />the processes of teaching a...
Relate psychological theories to teaching and student learning<br />Explore the relationship between psychological theorie...
Test the implications in educational settings</li></ul>9/28/2010<br />To achieve these ends educational psychologists enga...
Is “Theory” Important?<br />Who Cares?<br />
Is “Theory” Important?<br />YES!<br />
Is Theory Important?<br />Prospective teachers<br />Your "intuitive theory of instruction”<br />This course may<br />confi...
<ul><li>Teaching involves solving problems and making decisions
We will focus on two types of knowledge that may help:
the instructional process
psychological knowledge that can be used in instructional decision making</li></ul>Is Theory Important?<br />9/28/2010<br ...
Not a Methods Course!<br /><ul><li>This is not a methods course!
It is a psychological foundations course.
It should help you:
explain why you choose certain teaching methods for your instructional purposes.
decide how to adapt existing methods to your specific circumstances, or create new ones.
decide which approaches you might use to motivate and manage your students.
develop a rationale for your decisions regarding the evaluation of your students. </li></li></ul><li>Course Overview<br />...
Types of <br />Research<br />Goal	<br />Research<br />Questions	<br />Types of Research in Ed Psych<br />
Research that teachers conduct in their own classrooms with the objective of understanding and improving their practices<b...
Increasing Interest</li></ul>Action Research<br />9/28/2010<br />
Action Research<br />Reflective teachers <br />draw from educational theory and research <br />hypothesize about effective...
Commonalities <br />9/28/2010<br />The principles of research emphasized in the Action Research process are the same under...
Individual Differences in Learning<br />
Possible Sources of Individual Differences<br />Personality? <br />Gender?<br />Cultural and Ethnic influences?<br />Peers...
Temperament and Personality<br />Infants are different from one another from the start <br />Some are fussy and cry a lot ...
Sense of self<br />22<br />Refers to an overall set of beliefs about who you are.<br />It includes your beliefs about your...
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  • Pedagogical theory is not an isolated entity. It is an axis of innumerable relationships.Thus far, we’ve only brushed the basic content of this course. Hopefully you’ve all read the chapters and are in a state of what Piaget would call disequilibrium, when you’re forced into confusion over the presentation of new information (have to either accommodate or assimilate)... As teachers we find that it’s necessary to create these states of disequilibrium because without them students, essentially cannot learn!Which raises the questions – How do students learn? – or, in other words, What motivates students to learn?Let’s ponder that thought a little more…..Lecture 5 – 6:30 – Facilitation 6:30 – 7 – Reflection Journal 7 – 7:20
  • What is educational psychology? A discipline that tries to understand, explain, and improve the processes of teaching and learning. What do educational psychologists do?explore the relationship between psychological theories and the phenomena of teaching and learning.make explicit the educational implications of the theoriestest the implications in educational settingsexamine educational questions/problems using psychological research methodsdevelop theories and educational implications from this researchFor example: research on instructional planning and objectives; classroom management; motivation; teaching and learning specific subject matter (e.g., reading, math science).
  • What is educational psychology? A discipline that tries to understand, explain, and improve the processes of teaching and learning. What do educational psychologists do?explore the relationship between psychological theories and the phenomena of teaching and learning.make explicit the educational implications of the theoriestest the implications in educational settingsexamine educational questions/problems using psychological research methodsdevelop theories and educational implications from this researchFor example: research on instructional planning and objectives; classroom management; motivation; teaching and learning specific subject matter (e.g., reading, math science).
  • How does theory come into play in teaching?Teaching involves solving problems and making decisions. The more information you have related to the problems you face the better your decisions will be..We will focus on the instructional process and the ways psychological knowledge and research on teaching can be used in the decision making process.
  • GROUP ACTIVITY: Using our model of information processing (the memory model), identify as many sources of individual differences among students as you can. Report these to the class as a whole.the capacity of the memory stores (e.g., sensory information store, working memory, LTM) - I don&apos;t think there is a great deal of evidence supporting thisthe duration with which information stays in any given memory store (i.e., some people may be able to hold information longer than others) - I don&apos;t think there is a great deal of evidence supporting thisthe speed with which information is processed (e.g., moved from sensory store to working memory, or moved from working memory to LTM, or retrieved from LTM into working memory) - there is some evidence for this.the amount and clarity/accuracy of declarative knowledge: factual information (rote memory); schemata and their interrelationships; there is ample evidence of both of these.the amount and accuracy/sophistication of procedural knowledge: motor skills, cognitive strategies, intellectual skills (discrimination, concepts and rules - ample evidence of all of these.
  • Motivation & learning_bb

    1. 1. Motivation & Learning<br />EDPS 457 – Fall 2010<br />1<br />
    2. 2. Pedagogical theory is not an isolated entity. It is an axis of innumerable relationships.<br />How Do Students Learn?<br />
    3. 3. In other words….<br />What Motivates Students to Learn?<br />9/28/2010<br />
    4. 4. The scientific discipline concerned with the development, evaluation, and application of principles and theories of human learning<br />Educational Psychology<br />9/28/2010<br />
    5. 5. Principles & Theories<br />Theory<br />Principles<br />A scientific explanation for why events happen in a certain way and which helps make predictions about such event in the future<br />9/28/2010<br />Descriptions of established relationships between elements<br />
    6. 6. <ul><li>Understand
    7. 7. Explain
    8. 8. Improve </li></ul>Educational Psychology<br />9/28/2010<br />A discipline which tries to <br />the processes of teaching and learning<br />
    9. 9. Relate psychological theories to teaching and student learning<br />Explore the relationship between psychological theories and the phenomena of teaching and learning.<br /><ul><li>Make explicit the educational implications of the theories
    10. 10. Test the implications in educational settings</li></ul>9/28/2010<br />To achieve these ends educational psychologists engage in the following activities<br />Use psychological research methods to study educational questions/problems<br />Examine educational questions/problems.<br /><ul><li>Develop theories/implications</li></ul>What are the best approaches for creating instructional plans and objectives? <br />How can students most effectively learn this material?<br />
    11. 11. Is “Theory” Important?<br />Who Cares?<br />
    12. 12. Is “Theory” Important?<br />YES!<br />
    13. 13. Is Theory Important?<br />Prospective teachers<br />Your "intuitive theory of instruction”<br />This course may<br />confirm your intuitive theory <br />stretch the limits of your intuitive theory<br />conflict with your intuitive theory<br />
    14. 14. <ul><li>Teaching involves solving problems and making decisions
    15. 15. We will focus on two types of knowledge that may help:
    16. 16. the instructional process
    17. 17. psychological knowledge that can be used in instructional decision making</li></ul>Is Theory Important?<br />9/28/2010<br />How do theories come into play in teaching?<br />
    18. 18. Not a Methods Course!<br /><ul><li>This is not a methods course!
    19. 19. It is a psychological foundations course.
    20. 20. It should help you:
    21. 21. explain why you choose certain teaching methods for your instructional purposes.
    22. 22. decide how to adapt existing methods to your specific circumstances, or create new ones.
    23. 23. decide which approaches you might use to motivate and manage your students.
    24. 24. develop a rationale for your decisions regarding the evaluation of your students. </li></li></ul><li>Course Overview<br />In this course, we will be exploring contemporary theories of human learning as it applies to effective instruction.<br />We will explore a number of different areas, including<br />Developmental Psychology<br />Behaviorism<br />Cognitive Learning<br />Motivation <br />Classroom Management<br />Learning Technology<br />Classroom Assessment<br />
    25. 25. Types of <br />Research<br />Goal <br />Research<br />Questions <br />Types of Research in Ed Psych<br />
    26. 26. Research that teachers conduct in their own classrooms with the objective of understanding and improving their practices<br /><ul><li>Special Type
    27. 27. Increasing Interest</li></ul>Action Research<br />9/28/2010<br />
    28. 28. Action Research<br />Reflective teachers <br />draw from educational theory and research <br />hypothesize about effective classroom practices<br />apply, evaluate, and revise as needed<br />
    29. 29. Commonalities <br />9/28/2010<br />The principles of research emphasized in the Action Research process are the same underlying principles that guide student learning.<br />
    30. 30.
    31. 31. Individual Differences in Learning<br />
    32. 32. Possible Sources of Individual Differences<br />Personality? <br />Gender?<br />Cultural and Ethnic influences?<br />Peers or Parents' influences? <br />
    33. 33. Temperament and Personality<br />Infants are different from one another from the start <br />Some are fussy and cry a lot whereas some are easy going and cheerful.<br />This is Temperament<br />As children grow, they develop specific ways of behaving, thinking, and feeling.<br />This is “Personality”<br />How and why do these things develop the way they do? <br />To what extent do individual differences influence temperament and personality?<br />What are these individual differences?<br />To what extent are nature, nurture, and constructivism influencing these differences.<br />
    34. 34. Sense of self<br />22<br />Refers to an overall set of beliefs about who you are.<br />It includes your beliefs about your personal attributes, strengths, and weaknesses <br />Self-concept<br />It also includes your overall beliefs about your worth.<br />Self-esteem<br />
    35. 35. Self-Esteem<br />I like being myself and accept myself the way I am. <br />Being myself is a guarantee that people will dislike me. <br />I am afraid of being rejected by my friends. <br />If I don't do as well as others, it means that I am an inferior person. <br />I could disappear from the surface of the earth, and nobody would notice. <br />I feel worthless.<br />I will never amount to anything significant. <br />I will never be as capable as I should be. <br />
    36. 36. Factors influencing self-perceptions<br />24<br />Identify the sources of information that students use to help form their self-perceptions.<br />Previous Performance<br />Self-efficacy<br />Behaviors of Others<br />Feedback; modeling<br />Group Membership <br />Ethnic identity<br />
    37. 37. Developmental trends in self-perceptions<br />25<br />Self-perceptions become increasingly abstract.<br />Young kids tend to define themselves in terms of external, concrete factors. <br />Self-perceptions become increasingly differentiated.<br />Development of self-efficacy<br />Self-perceptions become more integrated.<br />Eventually we pull everything together to form an integrated whole about who we are. <br />Children gradually base self-assessments on comparisons with peers<br />Young kids base their self-assessments on their own improvement over time. As we grow, that changes.<br />With age, self-concept becomes more stable.<br />
    38. 38. Diversity in Personal & Social Development<br />Gender differences<br />Self-esteem<br />Interpersonal behaviors<br />Moral reasoning<br />Socioeconomic differences<br />Family challenges<br />Cultural and Ethnic differences<br />Ethnic identity<br />Cultural heritage<br />26<br />
    39. 39. Cultural Differences in Classrooms<br />Students and teachers do not always have the same background. <br />Teachers may have been raised in a different part of the state or country, and may be from a different culture or race. <br />Such differences in background between teachers and students may cause problems.<br />What problems may occur?<br />27<br />
    40. 40. What Problems May Occur<br />Cultural Artifact Analysis: The Office<br />
    41. 41. Impact of Cultural Differences<br />How might cultural differences cause problems in developing lessons for students?<br />Failure to anticipate gaps in students’ knowledge/skill<br />Failure to create examples matching students’ existing knowledge<br />“Self-fulfilling prophecy”<br />
    42. 42. Self-fulfilling prophecy<br />Neo First Meets The Oracle: The Matrix<br />
    43. 43. Impact of Cultural Differences<br />How might cultural differences cause problems in evaluating or interpreting student responses or performance?<br />Misunderstanding the relevance of student responses<br />Mistakenly attribute student errors to laziness or stupidity<br />Lead to incorrect approaches to dealing with the problem<br />
    44. 44. Culturally Relevant Pedagogy<br /><ul><li>Arranged for student academic success
    45. 45. Positive expectations and efforts
    46. 46. Developed students’ cultural competence:
    47. 47. Student culture as a foundation for learning
    48. 48. authentic learning
    49. 49. Developed a critical consciousness among their students to challenge the status.
    50. 50. addressing them in productive ways</li></li></ul><li>Tabula Rasa <br />There are the amorphous but crucial questions not about what your students know, but about what they think they know. <br />Students' minds are not blank slates.<br />Mental models such as these shape how students will understand what we tell them. <br />Schemas<br />Students-like all humans-use their existing models of reality to understand anything new<br />
    51. 51. I never teach my pupils. I only attempt to provide the conditions in which they can learn.Albert Einstein <br />

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