Egypt and mesopotamia study guide key

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  • 1. Egypt and Mesopotamia Study Guide Answer Key
  • 2. How did the Nile River affect ancient Egypt? • Fertile soil that led to settlement • Yearly floods that deposited silt • United Upper & Lower Egypt • Trade route/transportation • NOTE: deserts & seas protected Egypt from invasions
  • 3. 3 Main Periods of Egyptian History • Old Kingdom 2700 – 2200 BCE “The Pyramid Age” • Middle Kingdom 2050 – 1800 BCE turbulent/troubled times • New Kingdom – 1550 1100 BCE empire building &trade
  • 4. Egypt affected by… • 1. Hyksos – invaded w/horse-drawn war chariots • 2. Hittites – from Asia Minor, fought vs. Ramses, peace treaty (IRON) • 3. Nubia/Kush – fought & traded, traded & fought…lots of cultural diffusion
  • 5. Define • Pharaoh – royal ruler of ancient Egypt (monarchy); seen as a god; dynasty system – passing down from 1 generation to another • Vizier – chief minister; supervised government bureaucracy • Ptah-hotep – famous vizier who wrote a “how to” book
  • 6. Identify • Osiris – god of Nile, god of underworld • Isis – goddess of “womanly” arts like grinding grain, spinning, weaving, child care • Amon-Re – Sun God
  • 7. Identify • Tutankhamen – King Tut…minor pharaoh, but his tomb wasn’t robbed, so much info learned • Akhenaton – pharaoh who believed god Aton was only 1 who should be worshipped; married to Nefertiti, unpopular • Narmer/Menes – considered 1st ; united Upper & Lower Egypt
  • 8. Identify • HatSHEpsut – She was a great pharaoh who trade • Ramses II – an “empire builder”; considered most powerful of New Kingdom pharaohs
  • 9. Egyptian Social Hierarchy PEASANT FARMERS Pharaoh Priests, priestesses, nobles Merchants, scribes, artisans slaves
  • 10. Advances/Achievements • Medicine: checked symptoms, diagnosed illness, tried to cure diseases, surgery, herbs – anise, castor beans, saffron • Astronomy: calendar based on planet movement, mapped constellations • Math: developed geometry to draw boundaries, build pyramids, temples
  • 11. Advances/Achievements • Arts & Literature including the following: • Statues, obelisks, wall paintings, literature • WRITING! – hieroglyphics on papyrus – Demotic=informal writing style – ROSETTA STONE – allowed scholars to decode hieroglyphics – 1 of most important archaeological finds ever!!
  • 12. Sumer • 3200 BCE • First Sumerian Empire extends from the Eastern Mediterranean to Western Iran, including all of Mesopotamia. • Beginning of the Bronze Age • Height of the Sumerian civilization; development of numerous cultural and technological inventions. – writing (cuneiform) – the wheel – the plow – walled cities
  • 13. Sumer • 3200 BCE • First Sumerian Empire extends from the Eastern Mediterranean to Western Iran, including all of Mesopotamia. • Beginning of the Bronze Age • Height of the Sumerian civilization; development of numerous cultural and technological inventions. – writing (cuneiform) – the wheel – the plow – walled cities
  • 14. Cuneiform (first writing) • Evolved from pictograms into phonograms. • Written on a clay tablet with a stick called a stylus.
  • 15. Epic of Gilgamesh • Believed in afterlife. “the place where they live on dust, their food is mud, and they see no light, living in blackness on the door and door-bolt, deeply settled dust.” What does this say about the Sumerian, or Mesopotamian for that matter, view of life? (Think about the flooding of the twin rivers, versus a steady/ dependable Nile River).
  • 16. Babylon • About 1790, Hammurabi conquered most of the Fertile Crescent.
  • 17. Code of Hammurabi • 1st written law code (codify) • “an eye for an eye” • Not equal justice for all classes, but the first “civil law” • protected women and slaves (women could divorce if “blameless” or they were thrown in the Euphrates. • 300 laws on a stone pillar
  • 18. Hittites • Pushed out of Asia Minor about 1400 B.C. • Although not sophisticated, they could USE IRON. • Their empire collapsed in about 1200 B.C.
  • 19. The Assyrians • From upper Tigris River Valley took over in 1100 B.C. • Warfare central to their culture • Well ordered societies • Assurbanipal ruled from Capital of Nineveh (NIHN uh vuh) toward the end of the empire.
  • 20. The library at Nineveh, and a statue of Assurbaniphal as a fierce animal. Does he look anything like a sphinx?
  • 21. Phoenicians (sea trade and first alphabet) • manufacturing (glass from sand, purple dye from small snail, timber) • trade (established colonies) • first phonetic alphabet • Colony of Tyre “tyrian purple” • Colony of Biblos (Bible and bibliography)
  • 22. Phoenicians at sea
  • 23. Phoenician alphabet
  • 24. The Hebrews • Abraham • Hebrew (one from across the river) • covenant with Yahweh (2000 B.C.) • 1st monotheistic religion • Sabbath • Canaan
  • 25. Out of Egypt • Jews left Canaan due to famine • Exile to Egypt • Made slaves by Pharaoh • Moses • Red Sea • 10 Commandments