Real comm2e ch5


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Real comm2e ch5

  1. 1. Chapter 5 Nonverbal Communication
  2. 2. • Describe the power of nonverbal communication • Outline the functions of nonverbal communication • Describe the set of communication symbols that are nonverbal codes • Illustrate the influences culture, technology, and situation have on our nonverbal behavior Chapter Outcomes
  3. 3. The process of intentionally or unintentionally signaling meaning through behavior other than words Nonverbal Communication
  4. 4. • Nonverbal communication is… – Communicative – Often spontaneous and unintentional – Ambiguous – More believable than verbal communication (channel discrepancy) The Nature of Nonverbal Communication
  5. 5. • Reinforcing verbal messages – Repeating or mirroring verbal messages – Complementing verbal behavior by matching it – Accenting specific parts of the verbal behavior Functions of Nonverbal Communication
  6. 6. • Substituting verbal messages – Occurs in situations where words are unavailable, inappropriate, or unintelligible Functions of Nonverbal Communication (cont.)
  7. 7. • Contradicting verbal messages – May be unintentional or intentional (teasing, joking, sarcasm) • Regulating or coordinating verbal interactions – Pausing to let another speak – Interrupting to gain control Functions of Nonverbal Communication (cont.)
  8. 8. • Creating immediacy, or closeness, with another – Eye contact, smiling, appropriate touching, mimicry • Deceiving others to believe something that is false – Using gestures that normally signal trustworthiness Functions of Nonverbal Communication (cont.)
  9. 9. Symbols we use to send messages without, or in addition to, words Nonverbal Codes
  10. 10. • Gestures and body movements that send nonverbal messages (kinesics) – Emblems have direct verbal translations within a group or culture. – Illustrators help visually explain what is being said. – Regulators help manage our interactions. Nonverbal Codes (cont.)
  11. 11. Nonverbal Codes (cont.) • Kinesics (cont.) – Adaptors satisfy a physical or psychological need. – Affect displays convey feelings, moods, and reactions.
  12. 12. • Facial expressions Nonverbal Codes (cont.)
  13. 13. • Eye behavior – Oculesics is the study of the use of the eyes to communicate. – Accepted norms differ across cultures. Nonverbal Codes (cont.)
  14. 14. • Voice – Paralanguage: vocalized sounds that accompany words; includes • pitch (variations), tone (modulations), volume (loudness), pauses, vocal quality, rhythm, rate – Vocalizations: cues about emotional or physical state • Back-channel cues include “ah, um, uh” Nonverbal Codes (cont.)
  15. 15. • Physical appearance – Attractiveness has advantages – Artifacts (accessories) matter Nonverbal Codes (cont.)
  16. 16. • Space and environment includes: Proxemics: the study of the way we use and communicate with space • Intimate • Personal • Social • Public Nonverbal Codes (cont.)
  17. 17. • Space and environment (cont.) – Territoriality: the claiming of an area through occupation – Environment: arranging our surroundings to encourage or discourage interactions Nonverbal Codes (cont.)
  18. 18. • Touch (haptics) may include: – Functional-professional touch – Social-polite touch – Friendship-warmth touch – Love-intimacy touch – Sexual-arousal touch Nonverbal Codes (cont.)
  19. 19. • Time orientation – Chronemics: study of how people perceive the use of time and how they structure time in their relationships – Sending a message using time may be confusing in certain situations. Nonverbal Codes (cont.)
  20. 20. • Culture – Contact vs. noncontact cultures have different levels of sensitivity to touch. – Sex and gender influence a person’s degree of touch, eye contact, or how nonverbal communication is interpreted. Influences on Nonverbal Communication
  21. 21. • Mediated nonverbal communication – Loss of paralinguistic cues that offer information – Emoticons and use of font sizes, punctuation, and capitalization help convey meaning. Influences on Nonverbal Communication (cont.)
  22. 22. • The situational context determines rules of behavior and roles people must play under different conditions. – Public-private dimension: physical space affecting nonverbal communication – Informal-formal dimension: perceptions about personal vs. impersonal situations Influences on Nonverbal Communication (cont.)