Real comm2e ch5
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Real comm2e ch5






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Real comm2e ch5 Real comm2e ch5 Presentation Transcript

  • Chapter 5 Nonverbal Communication
  • • Describe the power of nonverbal communication • Outline the functions of nonverbal communication • Describe the set of communication symbols that are nonverbal codes • Illustrate the influences culture, technology, and situation have on our nonverbal behavior Chapter Outcomes
  • The process of intentionally or unintentionally signaling meaning through behavior other than words Nonverbal Communication
  • • Nonverbal communication is… – Communicative – Often spontaneous and unintentional – Ambiguous – More believable than verbal communication (channel discrepancy) The Nature of Nonverbal Communication
  • • Reinforcing verbal messages – Repeating or mirroring verbal messages – Complementing verbal behavior by matching it – Accenting specific parts of the verbal behavior Functions of Nonverbal Communication
  • • Substituting verbal messages – Occurs in situations where words are unavailable, inappropriate, or unintelligible Functions of Nonverbal Communication (cont.)
  • • Contradicting verbal messages – May be unintentional or intentional (teasing, joking, sarcasm) • Regulating or coordinating verbal interactions – Pausing to let another speak – Interrupting to gain control Functions of Nonverbal Communication (cont.)
  • • Creating immediacy, or closeness, with another – Eye contact, smiling, appropriate touching, mimicry • Deceiving others to believe something that is false – Using gestures that normally signal trustworthiness Functions of Nonverbal Communication (cont.)
  • Symbols we use to send messages without, or in addition to, words Nonverbal Codes
  • • Gestures and body movements that send nonverbal messages (kinesics) – Emblems have direct verbal translations within a group or culture. – Illustrators help visually explain what is being said. – Regulators help manage our interactions. Nonverbal Codes (cont.)
  • Nonverbal Codes (cont.) • Kinesics (cont.) – Adaptors satisfy a physical or psychological need. – Affect displays convey feelings, moods, and reactions.
  • • Facial expressions Nonverbal Codes (cont.)
  • • Eye behavior – Oculesics is the study of the use of the eyes to communicate. – Accepted norms differ across cultures. Nonverbal Codes (cont.)
  • • Voice – Paralanguage: vocalized sounds that accompany words; includes • pitch (variations), tone (modulations), volume (loudness), pauses, vocal quality, rhythm, rate – Vocalizations: cues about emotional or physical state • Back-channel cues include “ah, um, uh” Nonverbal Codes (cont.)
  • • Physical appearance – Attractiveness has advantages – Artifacts (accessories) matter Nonverbal Codes (cont.)
  • • Space and environment includes: Proxemics: the study of the way we use and communicate with space • Intimate • Personal • Social • Public Nonverbal Codes (cont.)
  • • Space and environment (cont.) – Territoriality: the claiming of an area through occupation – Environment: arranging our surroundings to encourage or discourage interactions Nonverbal Codes (cont.)
  • • Touch (haptics) may include: – Functional-professional touch – Social-polite touch – Friendship-warmth touch – Love-intimacy touch – Sexual-arousal touch Nonverbal Codes (cont.)
  • • Time orientation – Chronemics: study of how people perceive the use of time and how they structure time in their relationships – Sending a message using time may be confusing in certain situations. Nonverbal Codes (cont.)
  • • Culture – Contact vs. noncontact cultures have different levels of sensitivity to touch. – Sex and gender influence a person’s degree of touch, eye contact, or how nonverbal communication is interpreted. Influences on Nonverbal Communication
  • • Mediated nonverbal communication – Loss of paralinguistic cues that offer information – Emoticons and use of font sizes, punctuation, and capitalization help convey meaning. Influences on Nonverbal Communication (cont.)
  • • The situational context determines rules of behavior and roles people must play under different conditions. – Public-private dimension: physical space affecting nonverbal communication – Informal-formal dimension: perceptions about personal vs. impersonal situations Influences on Nonverbal Communication (cont.)