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Real comm2e ch2


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  • 1. Chapter 2 Perceiving the Self and Others
  • 2. • Describe how our personal perspective on the world influences our communication • Explain how we use and misuse schemas when communicating with others • Define the attributions we use to explain behavior Chapter Outcomes
  • 3. • Describe cultural differences that influence perception • Identify how our self-concept—who we think we are—influences communication • Describe how our cognitions about ourselves and our behavior affect our communication with others Chapter Outcomes (cont.)
  • 4. A cognitive process through which we interpret our experiences and come to our own unique understandings Perception
  • 5. • Gathering, organizing, and evaluating the information we receive • Also involves our basic senses, along with personal factors Communication Processing
  • 6. • Selecting information • Organizing perceptions • Interpreting perceptions • Improving perceptions The Perception Process
  • 7. Schemas: Organizing Perceptions • Schemas: – Mental structures that put together related bits of information – Help us understand how things work and how they should proceed – Evolve and change over time
  • 8. Challenges with Schemas and Perception • Mindlessness – Passive information processing vs. mindfulness • Selective perception – Receiving only the information we want • Undue influence – Giving another person power over our perceptions
  • 9. Attributions: Interpreting Your Perceptions • Attributions: personal characteristics used to explain others’ behaviors – Fundamental attribution error: overemphasizing internal, underestimating external causes of behaviors
  • 10. Attributions: Interpreting Your Perceptions (cont.) – Self-serving bias: attributing personal success to internal factors – Interaction appearance theory: changing another’s attributions based on increased contact
  • 11. • Verify your perceptions. • Be thoughtful when seeking explanations. • Look beyond first impressions. Improving Your Perceptions
  • 12. Culture affects how we perceive ourselves and others. Perception in a Diverse World
  • 13. • Narrow perspective – Cultural myopia: believing one’s own culture is appropriate and relevant in all situations • Stereotyping – Fitting others into an existing schema without adjusting the schema appropriately – May be positive, negative, or neutral Perceptual Barriers
  • 14. Perceptual Barriers (cont.) • Prejudice – Deep-seated feelings of unkindness and ill will toward particular groups – Usually based on negative stereotypes and feelings of superiority over those groups
  • 15. Cognition: Perceiving Ourselves • Self-concept • Self-esteem • Self-efficacy
  • 16. Self-Concept: Who You Think You Are • Influenced by thoughts, actions, abilities, values, goals, and ideals • Influences how you communicate with others • Reinforced by how others communicate with you based on: – Direct and indirect evidence – Social comparison theory
  • 17. Self-Esteem: How You Feel About Yourself• A set of attitudes you hold about your own emotions, thoughts, abilities, skills, behavior, and beliefs • Linked to self-concept: You must know yourself to have attitudes about your self.
  • 18. Self-Efficacy: Assessing Your Own Abilities• Ability to predict actual success based on your self-concept and self- esteem • Affects your ability to interpret events and cope with failure and success • Inaccurate self-efficacy can lead to self-fulfilling prophecies.
  • 19. Assessing Our Perceptions of Self • Self-Actualization – Feelings and thoughts resulting from negotiating a communication situation as well as you possibly could – Can lead to satisfaction
  • 20. Assessing Our Perceptions of Self (cont.) • Self-Adequacy – Assessing your communication competence as sufficient or acceptable – Can lead to contentment or self- improvement
  • 21. Assessing Our Perceptions of Self (cont.) • Self-Denigration – A negative assessment (self- criticism) about a communication experience. – Often unwarranted that occurs when communicators place undue importance on weaknesses
  • 22. Behavior: Managing Our Identities • Self-presentation – Intentional communication designed to show elements of self for strategic purposes – Occurs through various channels – Requires self-monitoring
  • 23. Behavior: Managing Our Identities (cont.) • Self-disclosure – Revealing yourself to others by sharing personal information – Must not be information easily known to others – Sharing must be voluntary
  • 24. Behavior: Managing Our Identities (cont.)
  • 25. Technology: Managing the Self and Perceptions • Self-presentation can be more controlled online than in person. • Make conscious choices about what to reveal to others. • Others may create perceptions about you based upon what you reveal. • Technology allows for experimentation with identity.