• Identify and control your anxieties
• Choose a delivery style best suited
to you and your speaking situation
• Employ effective vocal cues
• Employ effective visual cues
• Connect with your audience
• Enhance your words with effective
• Make efficient use of your practice
• Public speaking anxiety (PSA):
– Nervousness from knowing we have to
communicate publicly to an audience
– May include physical symptoms
• Communication apprehension
– General “…fear or anxiety associated with
either real or anticipated communication
with another person or persons”
• Identifying Anxiety Triggers
– Upsetting experiences
– Fear of evaluation
– Distaste for attention
• Building Your Confidence
– Prepare for the unexpected.
– Desensitize yourself.
– Visualize your success (performance
– Take care of yourself.
– Practice, practice, practice.
Methods of Delivery
• Speaking from
– Useful when accuracy is
• Speaking from memory
– May feel more like a
Methods of Delivery
• Speaking spontaneously
– Think on your feet
– Listen to others
• Speaking extemporaneously
– Uses key-word or phrase outline
– Requires advance preparation, an
• Effective Vocal Delivery
– Vary your pitch (avoid monotone).
– Adjust your volume.
– Adjust your speaking rate.
– Use pauses for effect.
– Speak clearly and precisely.
• Use correct pronunciation and
• Avoid mumbling.
• Be mindful of accents.
• Effective Visual Delivery
– Dress for the occasion.
– Use effective eye behavior.
• Use scanning.
– Incorporate facial expressions
– Control body movements.
• Watch posture.
• Use planting.
• Connecting with Your Audience
– Express emotion.
– Adapt to your audience.
– Create immediacy with your audience.
• The Function of Presentation Aids
– Help listeners process and retain
– Promote interest and motivation
– Convey information clearly and concisely
• Types of Presentation Aids
– Props and models
– Media clips and images
– Graphs and charts
• Bar graphs, tables, pie charts display
data and facts clearly
– Posters and transparencies
– Flip charts and marker boards
– Presentation software
• Remember Your Speaking Outline
• Practice Using Presentation Aids
– Eliminate surprises; test facilities in
– Write notes to yourself.
– Rehearse with a partner.
– Have backup plan.
• Simulate the Situation
– Create similar conditions.
– Practice in front of someone.
– Keep an eye on the time.
• Practice Your Delivery
– Focus on your message.
– Use mirrors cautiously.
– Record a practice session.
– Ask for feedback.