Real comm2e ch12

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  • 1. Chapter 12 Preparing and Researching Presentations
  • 2. • Describe the power of public speaking and how preparation eases natural nervousness • Identify the purpose of your speech • Conduct audience analysis • Choose an appropriate topic and develop it Chapter Outcomes
  • 3. • Support and enliven your speech with effective research • Cull from among your sources the material that will be most convincing • Give proper credit to sources and take responsibility for your speech Chapter Outcomes (cont.)
  • 4. The Power of Public Speaking Public speaking includes… – A speaker with a reason for speaking – An audience that gives the speaker attention – A message that is meant to accomplish a specific purpose
  • 5. Clarifying the General Purpose of Your Speech• Three general purposes include: – Informative speeches – Persuasive speeches – Special-occasion speeches
  • 6. Clarifying the General Purpose of Your Speech (cont.) • To determine the specific purpose: – Ask what you want your audience to learn, do, consider, or agree with. – Write an action state- ment encompassing the topic and general speech purpose.
  • 7. Analyzing Your Audience • Analysis requires understanding: – Audience expectations – Unique situational factors – Demographics
  • 8. Analyzing Your Audience (cont.) • Consider audience expectations and situational factors. – Speaking situation – Cultural expectations about public speaking – Knowledge of the speaker – Time of day
  • 9. Analyzing Your Audience (cont.) • Consider audience demographics. – Demographics: the quantifiable characteristics of a large group • May focus on gender, socioeconomic status, age, nationality, and so on. – Such consideration will help make your topic or approach more interesting. • Use salient demographic details; avoid stereotyping.
  • 10. Analyzing Your Audience (cont.) • Anticipate your audience’s response by: – Considering audience motivation – Seeking common ground (homogeny) – Determining prior exposure – Considering disposition – Laying the groundwork through observation, relationship building, surveys, Internet research
  • 11. Choosing Your Topic • Find a topic that intrigues you. • Brainstorm or cluster to find topic ideas. • Narrow your topic by asking: – Am I interested? – Does it meet the assignment’s criteria? – Will my audience find it worthwhile?
  • 12. Choosing Your Topic (cont.) • Determine the specific purpose of your speech. – A specific purpose statement expresses both the topic and general speech purpose in action form.
  • 13. Choosing Your Topic (cont.) • Develop a thesis statement. – Conveys the central idea / core assumption about your topic – Summarizes what you want the audience to get out of your speech – Serves as a take-away message for your audience
  • 14. Researching the Topic • Types of information – Expert testimony – Lay testimony – Scientific research findings – Statistics – Anecdotes – Quotations – Comparisons and contrasts
  • 15. Researching the Topic (cont.) • Researching Supporting Material – Talk to people • Interviews • Surveys – Search the literature • Library gateways – Use the Internet • Search engines, metasearch engines
  • 16. Researching the Topic (cont.) • Evaluate supporting material to ensure it is: – Credible – Up-to-date – Accurate – Relevant – Compelling – Reliable
  • 17. Ethical Speaking • Recognizing plagiarism – Do not present someone else’s information as your own. • Taking accurate notes – Note all quotes and paraphrases. – Keep a running bibliography. • Speaking ethically and responsibly – Be trustworthy, respectful, responsible, and fair.