1. Chapter 12
2. • Describe the power of public
speaking and how preparation eases
• Identify the purpose of your speech
• Conduct audience analysis
• Choose an appropriate topic and
3. • Support and enliven your speech
with effective research
• Cull from among your sources the
material that will be most convincing
• Give proper credit to sources and
take responsibility for your speech
4. The Power of Public
– A speaker with a reason
– An audience that gives the
– A message that is meant
to accomplish a specific
5. Clarifying the
General Purpose of
Your Speech• Three general
– Informative speeches
– Persuasive speeches
6. Clarifying the General
Purpose of Your
• To determine the
– Ask what you want your
audience to learn, do,
consider, or agree with.
– Write an action state-
ment encompassing the
topic and general
8. Analyzing Your
• Consider audience expectations and
– Speaking situation
– Cultural expectations about public
– Knowledge of the speaker
– Time of day
9. Analyzing Your
• Consider audience demographics.
– Demographics: the quantifiable
characteristics of a large group
• May focus on gender, socioeconomic
status, age, nationality, and so on.
– Such consideration will help make your
topic or approach more interesting.
• Use salient demographic details; avoid
10. Analyzing Your
• Anticipate your audience’s response
– Considering audience motivation
– Seeking common ground (homogeny)
– Determining prior exposure
– Considering disposition
– Laying the groundwork through
observation, relationship building,
surveys, Internet research
11. Choosing Your Topic
• Find a topic that intrigues you.
• Brainstorm or cluster to find topic
• Narrow your topic by asking:
– Am I interested?
– Does it meet the assignment’s criteria?
– Will my audience find it worthwhile?
12. Choosing Your Topic
• Determine the specific purpose of
– A specific purpose statement
expresses both the topic and general
speech purpose in action form.
13. Choosing Your Topic
• Develop a thesis statement.
– Conveys the central idea / core
assumption about your topic
– Summarizes what you want the
audience to get out of your speech
– Serves as a take-away message for
14. Researching the
• Types of information
– Expert testimony
– Lay testimony
– Scientific research
– Comparisons and contrasts
15. Researching the
• Researching Supporting Material
– Talk to people
– Search the literature
• Library gateways
– Use the Internet
• Search engines, metasearch engines
16. Researching the
• Evaluate supporting material to
ensure it is:
17. Ethical Speaking
• Recognizing plagiarism
– Do not present someone else’s information
as your own.
• Taking accurate notes
– Note all quotes and paraphrases.
– Keep a running bibliography.
• Speaking ethically and
– Be trustworthy, respectful, responsible,