Parkinson’s disease


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Parkinson’s disease

  1. 1. Parkinson’s Disease Human Biology
  2. 2. History <ul><li>Parkinson’s was named after a Scottish physician; James Parkinson. He published an article describing the conditions of the disease in 1817 titled “An Essay on the Shaking Palsy.” </li></ul><ul><li>Retrieved from: </li></ul>
  3. 3. What is Parkinson’s ? <ul><li>Parkinson’s Disease is classified as a brain/neurological degenerative disorder. It occurs when neurons in the brain either die or are damaged. These nerve cells produce the chemical dopamine. Dopamine is important because it is responsible for muscle and movement throughout the body. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Retrieved from:
  5. 5. How dopamine containing nerve cells travel. <ul><li>Retrieved from </li></ul>
  6. 6. How dopamine is released <ul><li>Retrieved from </li></ul>
  7. 8. Symptoms <ul><li>Tremors (shaking) </li></ul><ul><li>Slowness of movement </li></ul><ul><li>Stiffness </li></ul><ul><li>Problems with balance </li></ul><ul><li>Walking with small steps (shuffling feet) </li></ul><ul><li>“ Masked expression” (stiff facial expression) </li></ul><ul><li>Symptoms appear after approximately 80% of dopamine cells are damaged. </li></ul>
  8. 9. Who does it inflict? <ul><li>It affects an equal amount of men and women. </li></ul><ul><li>It usually occurs in people over the age of 65, however 15% of cases are in people under 50. </li></ul><ul><li>It does not discriminate; it affects people of different ethnic, socioeconomic, and geographical backgrounds. </li></ul>
  9. 10. Statistics <ul><li>US: 60,000 new cases are diagnosed each year. On top of the 1.5 million already diagnosed. </li></ul><ul><li>It is the second most common neurological/ brain disease next to Alzheimer’s. </li></ul>
  10. 11. Diagnosis <ul><li>There is no blood test or X-rays that can determine the presence of Parkinson’s. </li></ul><ul><li>Blood tests and MRI’s are used to rule out other conditions. </li></ul><ul><li>A neurologist should perform a thorough examination. </li></ul>
  11. 12. Stages <ul><li>  Stage One       1.  Signs and symptoms on one side only       2.  Symptoms mild       3.  Symptoms inconvenient but not disabling       4.  Usually presents with tremor of one limb       5.  Friends have noticed changes in posture, locomotion and facial expression   Stage Two       1.  Symptoms are bilateral       2.  Minimal disability       3.  Posture and gait affected </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  12. 13. Stages Con’t <ul><li>  Stage Three       1.  Significant slowing of body movements       2.  Early impairment of equilibrium on walking or standing       3.  Generalized dysfunction that is moderately severe    Stage Four       1.  Severe symptoms        2.  Can still walk to a limited extent        3.  Rigidity and bradykinesia       4.  No longer able to live alone       5.  Tremor may be less than earlier stages </li></ul>
  13. 14. Stages Con’t <ul><li>Stage Five       1.  Cachectic stage       2.  Invalidism complete       3.  Cannot stand or walk       4.  Requires constant nursing care This rating system has been largely supplanted by the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale, which is much more complicated. </li></ul><ul><li>( ) </li></ul>
  14. 15. Treatment <ul><li>There is currently no cure for this debilitating disease. </li></ul><ul><li>Medicines may help treat the symptoms, but need to be adjusted (or additional medication needs to be added) as more dopamine cells are damaged. </li></ul><ul><li>Many of which attempt to mimic dopamine. </li></ul><ul><li>Symptoms vary, as does treatment. </li></ul>
  15. 16. Treatment Con’t <ul><li>Physical therapy </li></ul><ul><li>Surgery (in rare cases) </li></ul><ul><li>Lifestyle changes: rest and relaxation. </li></ul>
  16. 17. People living with PD <ul><li>It is common when people are first diagnosed to be in denial and seek out different specialists to get more conclusive answers. </li></ul><ul><li>They hide the diagnosis from family and friends. </li></ul><ul><li>They often refuse to take the prescribed medication. </li></ul>
  17. 18. Living w/PD continued <ul><li>People become angry, are in disbelief. </li></ul><ul><li>They also have a very difficult time becoming adjusted to the fact that learning to live with PD means accepting the idea that they have an illness that they cannot recover from. </li></ul><ul><li>It is a huge psychological adjustment. </li></ul>
  18. 19. Main areas of adjustment <ul><li>Lifestyle : Hobbies need to be modified; a walk on the beach can be substituted for going on a hike. Employment may need to be changed, modified, or the person may not be able to work at all. </li></ul>
  19. 20. Spouse/ Partner Concerns <ul><li>They share the same fears as the patient and need to be kept informed and also need time to accept and adjust to the situation. Spouses often go into denial too. </li></ul>
  20. 21. Telling the Children <ul><li>Parents do not want to tell their children for fear that their children will see them differently. </li></ul><ul><li>Children’s impact can be compared to a spouse’s reaction. </li></ul><ul><li>Communication is key. </li></ul><ul><li>Support groups are a valuable source of help and comfort to all. </li></ul>
  21. 22. Celebrities with PD <ul><li>Michael J. Foxx </li></ul><ul><li>Muhammad Ali </li></ul>
  22. 23. Hope for the future <ul><li>Researchers have found success with using stem cells in mice. They are working on creating dopamine nerve cells from stem cells. The hope for the future is that people can be implanted with such cells. </li></ul>