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Chris Bolton

Chris Bolton

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    Compassion presentation revised Compassion presentation revised Presentation Transcript

    • Compassion Of OtherLives ScaleC.O.O.LDr. John ChangChristopher H. Bolton
    • Compassion• “The feeling that arises in witnessing another’s suffering and that motivates a subsequent desire to help.” – Goetz et al. (2010)• “Being moved by another’s suffering and wanting to help.” – Lazurus (1991)• “Feeling sorrow or concern for others along with a desire to alleviate their suffering.” – Steller et al. (2011)
    • How We Define Compassion• Compassion – the unconditional empathy for someone’s suffering, consequently leading towards a desire to alleviate that suffering.• Two Components: • 1) Empathy • 2) Alleviate Suffering Behaviors
    • • Why must empathy occur before the action to Alleviate another’s Suffering? • If the one person is expressing behaviors that alleviate someone else’s suffering WITHOUT FIRST expressing empathy, then this behavior is being acted out of Altruism.
    • Empathy vs. Altruism• Altruism • Unselfish regard for or devotion to the welfare of others, consequently leading to an action to improve the welfare of others. • More of a Social Desirability Component• Compassion • the action of being aware of, being sensitive to and vicariously experiencing the feelings and thoughts of another, consequently leading to an action to alleviate someone’s suffering.
    • Step By Step Process1.) Create initial questionnaire with many items pertaining toEmpathy and Alleviate Suffering Behaviors. -56 items2.) Administer to as many individuals as possible -354 undergraduate ESU students3.) Based on item analysis, determine TWOFACTORS: • Which items measure the same construct? • How statistically significant (strong) are the items?
    • ExploratoryFactor Analysis
    • What floats in water?
    • Items•Bread•Apples•Very Small Rocks•Cherries•A Duck
    • What Floats In Water? Does Float: Does Not Float:
    • Methods• Subjects • 354 Undergraduate ESU Students• Item Examples • Empathy: • I am caring to others. • 1 – 2 – 3 – 4 – 5 – 6 – 7 (Likert Scale) • I understand people’s feelings. • Alleviate Suffering Behaviors: • I would give to a homeless person sitting on the sidewalk. • I don’t have to be paid to help others.• Initial questionnaire had 56 Items!
    • Methods (Cont.)• Procedure • C.O.O.L. Questionnaire administered to students within various majors in a classroom setting. • Mostly given within Intro to Psychology classes. • By using Exploratory Factor Analysis: • Researchers determined how well items measured the two factors: Empathy and Alleviate Suffering Behaviors.
    • Results• Items • 26 Total Items • 13 Items measuring Empathy • 13 Items measuring Alleviate Suffering Behaviors
    • Results (Cont.)• Factors:• Empathy + Alleviate Suffering Behaviors = Compassion of Other Lives
    • Results (Cont.)• Chronbach Alpha (How consistently Items related) • Empathy • Alpha = .89 • Alleviate Suffering • Alpha = .897• Test-Retest Reliability • Empathy • Test-Retest = .98 • Alleviate Suffering not yet determined.
    • Future Directions• Validity • Convergent Validity • Measure of Emotional Empathy Scale • Discriminate Validity • Correlates of Delinquency Scale• Reliability • Implement further Test-Retest Reliability
    • Future Directions (Cont.)• Employment Criteria • Nurses and Medical Doctors • Clergy • Teachers • Mental Health Practioners