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Chris Bolton

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Compassion presentation revised Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Compassion Of OtherLives ScaleC.O.O.LDr. John ChangChristopher H. Bolton
  • 2. Compassion• “The feeling that arises in witnessing another’s suffering and that motivates a subsequent desire to help.” – Goetz et al. (2010)• “Being moved by another’s suffering and wanting to help.” – Lazurus (1991)• “Feeling sorrow or concern for others along with a desire to alleviate their suffering.” – Steller et al. (2011)
  • 3. How We Define Compassion• Compassion – the unconditional empathy for someone’s suffering, consequently leading towards a desire to alleviate that suffering.• Two Components: • 1) Empathy • 2) Alleviate Suffering Behaviors
  • 4. • Why must empathy occur before the action to Alleviate another’s Suffering? • If the one person is expressing behaviors that alleviate someone else’s suffering WITHOUT FIRST expressing empathy, then this behavior is being acted out of Altruism.
  • 5. Empathy vs. Altruism• Altruism • Unselfish regard for or devotion to the welfare of others, consequently leading to an action to improve the welfare of others. • More of a Social Desirability Component• Compassion • the action of being aware of, being sensitive to and vicariously experiencing the feelings and thoughts of another, consequently leading to an action to alleviate someone’s suffering.
  • 6. Step By Step Process1.) Create initial questionnaire with many items pertaining toEmpathy and Alleviate Suffering Behaviors. -56 items2.) Administer to as many individuals as possible -354 undergraduate ESU students3.) Based on item analysis, determine TWOFACTORS: • Which items measure the same construct? • How statistically significant (strong) are the items?
  • 7. ExploratoryFactor Analysis
  • 8. What floats in water?
  • 9. Items•Bread•Apples•Very Small Rocks•Cherries•A Duck
  • 10. What Floats In Water? Does Float: Does Not Float:
  • 11. Methods• Subjects • 354 Undergraduate ESU Students• Item Examples • Empathy: • I am caring to others. • 1 – 2 – 3 – 4 – 5 – 6 – 7 (Likert Scale) • I understand people’s feelings. • Alleviate Suffering Behaviors: • I would give to a homeless person sitting on the sidewalk. • I don’t have to be paid to help others.• Initial questionnaire had 56 Items!
  • 12. Methods (Cont.)• Procedure • C.O.O.L. Questionnaire administered to students within various majors in a classroom setting. • Mostly given within Intro to Psychology classes. • By using Exploratory Factor Analysis: • Researchers determined how well items measured the two factors: Empathy and Alleviate Suffering Behaviors.
  • 13. Results• Items • 26 Total Items • 13 Items measuring Empathy • 13 Items measuring Alleviate Suffering Behaviors
  • 14. Results (Cont.)• Factors:• Empathy + Alleviate Suffering Behaviors = Compassion of Other Lives
  • 15. Results (Cont.)• Chronbach Alpha (How consistently Items related) • Empathy • Alpha = .89 • Alleviate Suffering • Alpha = .897• Test-Retest Reliability • Empathy • Test-Retest = .98 • Alleviate Suffering not yet determined.
  • 16. Future Directions• Validity • Convergent Validity • Measure of Emotional Empathy Scale • Discriminate Validity • Correlates of Delinquency Scale• Reliability • Implement further Test-Retest Reliability
  • 17. Future Directions (Cont.)• Employment Criteria • Nurses and Medical Doctors • Clergy • Teachers • Mental Health Practioners