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Compassion Of OtherLives ScaleC.O.O.LDr. John ChangChristopher H. Bolton
Compassion• “The feeling that arises in witnessing another’s suffering and that motivates a subsequent desire to help.” – Goetz et al. (2010)• “Being moved by another’s suffering and wanting to help.” – Lazurus (1991)• “Feeling sorrow or concern for others along with a desire to alleviate their suffering.” – Steller et al. (2011)
How We Define Compassion• Compassion – the unconditional empathy for someone’s suffering, consequently leading towards a desire to alleviate that suffering.• Two Components: • 1) Empathy • 2) Alleviate Suffering Behaviors
• Why must empathy occur before the action to Alleviate another’s Suffering? • If the one person is expressing behaviors that alleviate someone else’s suffering WITHOUT FIRST expressing empathy, then this behavior is being acted out of Altruism.
Empathy vs. Altruism• Altruism • Unselfish regard for or devotion to the welfare of others, consequently leading to an action to improve the welfare of others. • More of a Social Desirability Component• Compassion • the action of being aware of, being sensitive to and vicariously experiencing the feelings and thoughts of another, consequently leading to an action to alleviate someone’s suffering.
Step By Step Process1.) Create initial questionnaire with many items pertaining toEmpathy and Alleviate Suffering Behaviors. -56 items2.) Administer to as many individuals as possible -354 undergraduate ESU students3.) Based on item analysis, determine TWOFACTORS: • Which items measure the same construct? • How statistically significant (strong) are the items?
What floats in water?
Items•Bread•Apples•Very Small Rocks•Cherries•A Duck
What Floats In Water? Does Float: Does Not Float:
Methods• Subjects • 354 Undergraduate ESU Students• Item Examples • Empathy: • I am caring to others. • 1 – 2 – 3 – 4 – 5 – 6 – 7 (Likert Scale) • I understand people’s feelings. • Alleviate Suffering Behaviors: • I would give to a homeless person sitting on the sidewalk. • I don’t have to be paid to help others.• Initial questionnaire had 56 Items!
Methods (Cont.)• Procedure • C.O.O.L. Questionnaire administered to students within various majors in a classroom setting. • Mostly given within Intro to Psychology classes. • By using Exploratory Factor Analysis: • Researchers determined how well items measured the two factors: Empathy and Alleviate Suffering Behaviors.