Surveillance Society

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  • 1. Surveillance Society
  • 2. Definition • The monitoring of the behavior, activities, or other changing information, usually for the purpose of influencing, managing, directing, or protecting. • Most usually involves observation of individuals or groups by government organizations.
  • 3. Positive? Negative? • Surveillance is useful to governments and law enforcement to maintain social control, recognize and monitor threats, and prevent/investigate criminal activity. • Civil rights groups are concerned that mass surveillance will result in limited or nonexistent political and/or personal freedoms.
  • 4. Types of Surveillance • • • • • • • Computer surveillance Telephones Surveillance cameras Social network analysis Biometric surveillance Aerial surveillance Corporate surveillance
  • 5. Types of Surveillance • • • • • • • • • Human operatives Satellite imagery Identification and credentials RFID and geolocation devices RFID tagging Global positioning system Mobile phones Surveillance devices Postal services
  • 6. Computer Surveillance
  • 7. • Vast majority of computer surveillance involves monitoring of data and traffic on the Internet. • Real-time monitoring by Federal law enforcement agencies. • “Trigger” words or phrases • Visiting certain types of web sites • Communicating with suspicious individuals or groups
  • 8. • FBI software - Magic Lantern and CIPAV can be used to gain unauthorized access to data; can be installed physically or remotely • vanEck phreaking – reads electromagnetic emanations remotely from computing devices to extract data • Pinwale – stores and indexes large numbers of emails of American citizens and foreigners
  • 9. Telephones • Widespread official and unofficial wiretapping • AT&T and Verizon are paid by the FBI to keep records easily searchable and accessible • Speech-to-text software creates machinereadable text from intercepted audio • Technology available to US, UK governments to remotely activate microphones in cell phones • “Multilateration” of cell phone towers used to collect location data from cell phone use
  • 10. Surveillance Cameras
  • 11. • Video cameras used to observe an area • Connected to a recording device or IP network • Automated software organizes digital video footage into a searchable database • Homeland Security grants in US enable cities to install cameras and to connect them to central monitoring center • “Golden Shield Project” – US companies install cameras, facial recognition software in China to track individuals. Goal is to have a picture of every person in China in central database.
  • 12. • Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) funding research to link cameras to a central monitoring station in a city • Identix’s facial recognition software used at Super Bowl 2001 • Traffic cameras in DC used for day-to-day monitoring by DC police • Trapwire - Closed Circuit TeleVision (CCTV) cameras track people’s movements across city
  • 13. Social Network Analysis • Maps of social networks based on data from Facebook, MySpace, Twitter, traffic analysis information from phone call records • These maps are “data mined” to extract personal interests, friendships, affiliations, beliefs, thoughts, activities. • DARPA, National Security Agency (NSA), Department of Homeland Security (DHS) invest in social network analysis.
  • 14. • AT&T’s programming language “Hancock” sifts through databases of phone call and Internet traffic records. • Employers report using social networking sites to collect personal data on prospective or current employees.
  • 15. Biometric Surveillance
  • 16. • Biometric surveillance measures and analyzes human physical and/or behavioral characteristics for authentication, identification, or screening purposes. • Fingerprints, DNA, facial patterns, voice recognition, iris scanning, etc. • Some technology can identify a person up to 500 ft. by facial features.
  • 17. • Affective computing – computers recognize a person’s emotional state based on analysis of facial expressions, speed of talking, tone and pitch of voice, posture, etc. • DNA fingerprinting – analyzes major markers in DNA to produce a match • FBI spending $1 billion to build database for people in US. Computers are in underground facility as large as two football fields. • Facial thermographs – identify fear, stress
  • 18. Aerial Surveillance
  • 19. • Aerial surveillance gathers visual imagery or video from an airborne vehicle. • Unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), helicopter, spy plane, micro-aerial vehicles (MAV), forward-looking infrared devices. • DHS testing UAVs to patrol US skies • UK building up fleet of UAVs for its police • MAVs can carry Tasers for crowd control or as weapons
  • 20. • DARPA programs automate much of the aerial surveillance process. • Self-piloting UAVs decide who is “suspicious,” monitor them, coordinate with other UAVs, notify human operators in centralized monitoring station • AI drones increase area that can be continuously monitored, reducing number of human operators
  • 21. Data Mining and Profiling • Data mining – application of statistical techniques to discover relationships within data • Assemble data to create a profile, i.e., a picture of patterns and behavior • Economic and social transactions create data • Web traffic and online purchases also used for profiling
  • 22. • Data analysis used by programs such as ADVISE and TALON to determine whether the person is a military, criminal, or political threat • ADVISE – Analysis, Dissemination, Visualization, Insight, Semantic Enhancement R&D program authorized by DHS. • TALON – Threat and Local Observation Notice, activated after 9/11 by Dept. of Defense; contains info on antiwar groups
  • 23. • US is planning 43 “fusion centers”, a national network of surveillance centers in over 30 states • Fusion centers will collect, analyze data from drivers’ licensing centers, hospital records, criminal records, school records, credit bureaus, banks, etc. • Info will be placed in a centralized database that can be accessed by all centers as well as federal law enforcement and intelligence agencies
  • 24. Corporate Surveillance • Monitoring of a person or group’s behavior by a corporation • Data usually used for marketing purposes • Can be shared with government agencies • Google stores identifying information for each web search, scans content of Gmail webmail service to tailor advertising
  • 25. • Many US companies monitor e-mail traffic or workers and/or Internet connections • Companies use software to block non-work related websites such as offensive sites, game sites, social networking sites, entertainment sites, shopping sites, and sports sites • Some companies track keystrokes and time spent at keyboards • Infragard – FBI, DHS, corporations have information-sharing partnership
  • 26. Human Operatives • Organizations that have enemies who wish to gather information about the groups’ members or activities face the issue of infiltration • HUMINT – intelligence gathered by humans rather than by electronic monitoring and data mining
  • 27. Satellite Imagery • Local, state, and domestic Federal agencies can access imagery from military intelligence satellites and aircraft sensors • These devices can penetrate cloud cover, detect chemical traces, and identify objects in buildings and underground bunkers • Real-time video better than still images from Google Earth
  • 28. Identification and Credentials • A card containing an identification number • Some countries have national ID numbers • IDs can be verified by passports, drivers’ licenses, library cards, banking or credit cards • Machine-readable data can create an electronic trail
  • 29. RFID and Geolocation Devices
  • 30. a. RFID Tagging • Use of very small electronic devices applied or incorporated into a product, animal, or person for identification and tracking using radio waves • Some companies tag employees, who are monitored while on job • VeriChip (Applied Digital Solutions), injected under skin, stores personal information in “Global VeriChip Subscriber Registry”
  • 31. b. Global Positioning System • In US, police have planted hidden GPS tracking devices in people’s vehicles to monitor their movements • Some cities require parolees to wear GPS devices to track their movements when they get out of prison
  • 32. c. Mobile Phones • Commonly used to collect geolocation data • Multilateration – calculates the differences in time for a signal to travel from the cell phone to each of several cell towers near the owner of the phone
  • 33. d. Surveillance Devices • “Bugs” are hidden electronic devices used to capture, record, and/or transmit data to a receiving party such as a law enforcement agency • COINTELPRO – US domestic intelligence program bugged homes, office, vehicles of political activists, subversives, criminals
  • 34. e. Postal Services • Significance of surveillance of postal system decreasing in favor of Internet and telephone surveillance • Interception of mail is still option for law enforcement
  • 35. Controversy over Surveillance
  • 36. Support • These tools protect society from terrorists and criminals • People must become accustomed to having no privacy • “If you aren’t doing anything wrong, then you don’t have anything to worry about.”
  • 37. Opposition • “As long as we do what we’re told, we have nothing to fear.” • Political activists do not want the government to know their names • Mass surveillance may make future opposition impossible • Most people do have things to hide, e.g., job hunter may not want present employer to know this
  • 38. Opposition: Totalitarianism • Fear that society is moving toward a state of mass surveillance • “Laying the bricks one at a time for a police state.” • Blurring of lines between public and private places • Surveillance techniques are not equal, e.g., facial recognition requires no cooperation
  • 39. Opposition: Psychological/Social Effects • Creates in people a feeling of always being watched, so they become self-policing • The State can control the populace without having to resort to physical force
  • 40. Opposition: Privacy • Civil rights groups include Electronic Privacy Information Center, Electronic Frontier Foundation, American Civil Liberties Union • Lawsuits include Hepting v. AT&T, EPIC v. Department of Justice • The Church Committee investigated domestic intelligence programs such as COINTELPRO
  • 41. Counter-surveillance, Inverse Surveillance, Sousveillance • Counter-surveillance – avoiding surveillance or making surveillance difficult • Inverse surveillance – reversal of surveillance on other individuals or groups, e.g., citizens photographing police • Sousveillance – inverse surveillance, involving the recording by private individuals, rather than government or corporate entities
  • 42. Assignment • Look for the assignment on this PowerPoint in the Activities section of the Surveillance Society Project. • As you go through the PowerPoint presentation, complete the assignment and submit it to your teacher/coach.