Intro Nutr Y Dietetica 281009

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Intro Nutr Y Dietetica 281009

  1. 1. <ul><li>Simple CHO= monosaccharides (single sugars): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>fructose {fruit} </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>glucose {BS/Glu} </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>galactose {milk} </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Other simple CHO are pairs of sugars called disaccharides: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>lactose {milk}= composed of one molecule of glucose & one molecule of galactose </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>maltose {malt- product of starch digestion}= composed of 2 glucose molecules </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>sucrose {table, beet, cane}= one molecule of glucose & one molecule of fructose </li></ul></ul>
  2. 2. <ul><li>Oligosaccharides- short CHO chains of 3-10 sugar molecules </li></ul><ul><li>Polysaccharides- strands of many sugars & most are classified as Complex CHO </li></ul><ul><ul><li>starch, granules, glycogen, & fiber </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Note: their names are characteristic of their chemical make up </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><ul><li>Starch is a plant polysaccharide composed of glucose; once cooked= easily digestible </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Glycogen is a polysaccharide [not considered a complex CHO] composed of glucose, made & stored in the liver & muscles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Note: Glycogen is the storage form of glucose in animals, including humans; when eaten in excess, stored as fat </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>High CHO foods: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High in complex CHO </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bagels </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tortilla </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cereals </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Crackers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Legumes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Potatoes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Peas </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Popcorn </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>High CHO foods: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High in simple CHO [naturally] </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fruits </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fruit juices </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Skim milk </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Plain nonfat yogurt </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High in simple CHO [added] </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Angel food cake </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Soft drinks {known as liquid candy; yields} </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sherbet </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Candy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Jams, etc. {refer to text for more examples} </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Fiber is known to lower cholesterol, aid with elimination by decreasing constipation, reduce risk for colon cancer & diverticulosis </li></ul><ul><li>Cellulose is the best known form of fiber. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides roughage which aids in digestion and elimination. CANNOT be broken down by digestive enzymes. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Insoluble fiber does not dissolve in water </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Veggies, fruits, grains </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Soluble fiber readily dissolves in water, may be gummy or gel-like </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Barley, rye, pectin </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Only plant foods contain dietary fiber </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Foods rich in dietary fiber include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fruits (apples, bananas, grapefruit, pears) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vegetables (asparagus, broccoli, carrots, spinach, red cabbage) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nuts and Seeds (almonds, peanuts, walnuts) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Legumes (most all) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Grains (brown rice, oat bran, oatmeal, whole-wheat breads, wheat-bran cereals) </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Lactose intolerance is seen in about 75% of people as they age because: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lose the ability to produce enough of the enzyme lactase (made in the small intestines) to digest the milk sugar lactose </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>nausea, pain, diarrhea, & excess flatulence result </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Ketosis is the unusual breakdown of fat (ketone bodies) which accumulates in the blood & disturbs acid-base balance. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This stems from using fat w/o the help of CHOs. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The body needs a minimum of 50-100 grams of CHO per day to prevent ketosis. </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Insulin - hormone released after the pancreas is notified by the body that glucose is in the blood stream </li></ul><ul><li>When the blood glucose concentration drops & cells need energy, a pancreatic hormone, glucagon , floods the bloodstream which stimulates the liver to release glucose </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Important: The body cells use what glucose they can for energy. </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Excess glucose is linked together & stored as glycogen until the muscles and liver are full to capacity w/ glycogen; but </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If glucose keeps coming, the liver has no choice but to handle the excess. </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Classifies foods or meals based on their potential to raise blood glucose levels. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Expressed as a % of the response to a standard food or CHO, usually white bread. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Foods with a high glycemic index trigger a sharp rise in blood glucose, followed by a dramatic fall. </li></ul><ul><li>The type of CHO, the cooking process, and the presence of fat and dietary fiber all affect a food’s glycemic index. </li></ul><ul><li>Body copes with low glycemic foods easier b/c of slower and more modest changes in blood glucose levels. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Candy (Jelly Beans)= 78 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fruits (apples)= 38 </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><ul><li>Current evidence has shown that moderation is the key. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When it comes to artificial sweeteners, they pose no known health risk; but the jury is still out. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>There is a lot on controversial research out there. One thing is known is that it is safer for teeth than regular CHO sweeteners </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>It has been stated that artificial sweeteners convert to formaldehyde & can be linked to cancer </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>Saccharin </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Derived from coal tar </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>300-500x sweeter than sugar </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pink package- Sweet N Low </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Research has linked saccharin to cancer in laboratory animals </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>Aspartame </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Contains two amino acids- aspartic acid (non-essential type) + phenylalanine (essential) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>180x sweeter than sugar </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not recommended for cooking b/c flavor changes with heat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blue package- Equal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Researchers believe this one to be safe, some concerns and side effects noted </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>Splenda </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Derivative of sugar </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Comprised of dextrose, maltodextrin, and sucralose </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Newest on the market </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Yellow package </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Believed to be safe </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>Stevia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>300x sweeter than sugar </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Taken from herbs and shrubs (leaf) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stevia was approved for use by FDA in late 2008 and now appears in Coca-Cola & Pepsi products like SoBe life water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Truvia (Rebaudioside A) commonly known sweetener </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>They have little to no nutritional value </li></ul><ul><li>Nutritive Sweeteners (digestible CHO)- have calories </li></ul><ul><ul><li>White sugar </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Brown sugar </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maple sugar </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Honey, etc. </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>FDA set a maximum allowable intake for aspartame of 50 mg/kg </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(Aspartame contains phenylalanine and aspartic acid) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Equal to: 16 12-ounce diet sodas (adults) and 8 12-ounce diet sodas (children) </li></ul></ul>

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