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Intro Nutr Y Dietetica 281009
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Intro Nutr Y Dietetica 281009


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  • 1.
    • Simple CHO= monosaccharides (single sugars):
      • fructose {fruit}
      • glucose {BS/Glu}
      • galactose {milk}
    • Other simple CHO are pairs of sugars called disaccharides:
      • lactose {milk}= composed of one molecule of glucose & one molecule of galactose
      • maltose {malt- product of starch digestion}= composed of 2 glucose molecules
      • sucrose {table, beet, cane}= one molecule of glucose & one molecule of fructose
  • 2.
    • Oligosaccharides- short CHO chains of 3-10 sugar molecules
    • Polysaccharides- strands of many sugars & most are classified as Complex CHO
      • starch, granules, glycogen, & fiber
      • Note: their names are characteristic of their chemical make up
  • 3.
      • Starch is a plant polysaccharide composed of glucose; once cooked= easily digestible
      • Glycogen is a polysaccharide [not considered a complex CHO] composed of glucose, made & stored in the liver & muscles
        • Note: Glycogen is the storage form of glucose in animals, including humans; when eaten in excess, stored as fat
  • 4.
    • High CHO foods:
      • High in complex CHO
        • Bagels
        • Tortilla
        • Cereals
        • Crackers
        • Legumes
        • Potatoes
        • Peas
        • Popcorn
  • 5.
    • High CHO foods:
      • High in simple CHO [naturally]
        • Fruits
        • Fruit juices
        • Skim milk
        • Plain nonfat yogurt
      • High in simple CHO [added]
        • Angel food cake
        • Soft drinks {known as liquid candy; yields}
        • Sherbet
        • Candy
        • Jams, etc. {refer to text for more examples}
  • 6.
    • Fiber is known to lower cholesterol, aid with elimination by decreasing constipation, reduce risk for colon cancer & diverticulosis
    • Cellulose is the best known form of fiber.
      • Provides roughage which aids in digestion and elimination. CANNOT be broken down by digestive enzymes.
    • Insoluble fiber does not dissolve in water
      • Veggies, fruits, grains
    • Soluble fiber readily dissolves in water, may be gummy or gel-like
      • Barley, rye, pectin
    • Only plant foods contain dietary fiber
  • 7.
    • Foods rich in dietary fiber include:
      • Fruits (apples, bananas, grapefruit, pears)
      • Vegetables (asparagus, broccoli, carrots, spinach, red cabbage)
      • Nuts and Seeds (almonds, peanuts, walnuts)
      • Legumes (most all)
      • Grains (brown rice, oat bran, oatmeal, whole-wheat breads, wheat-bran cereals)
  • 8.
    • Lactose intolerance is seen in about 75% of people as they age because:
        • Lose the ability to produce enough of the enzyme lactase (made in the small intestines) to digest the milk sugar lactose
        • nausea, pain, diarrhea, & excess flatulence result
  • 9.
    • Ketosis is the unusual breakdown of fat (ketone bodies) which accumulates in the blood & disturbs acid-base balance.
      • This stems from using fat w/o the help of CHOs.
    • The body needs a minimum of 50-100 grams of CHO per day to prevent ketosis.
  • 10.
    • Insulin - hormone released after the pancreas is notified by the body that glucose is in the blood stream
    • When the blood glucose concentration drops & cells need energy, a pancreatic hormone, glucagon , floods the bloodstream which stimulates the liver to release glucose
      • Important: The body cells use what glucose they can for energy.
  • 11.
    • Excess glucose is linked together & stored as glycogen until the muscles and liver are full to capacity w/ glycogen; but
      • If glucose keeps coming, the liver has no choice but to handle the excess.
  • 12.
    • Classifies foods or meals based on their potential to raise blood glucose levels.
      • Expressed as a % of the response to a standard food or CHO, usually white bread.
    • Foods with a high glycemic index trigger a sharp rise in blood glucose, followed by a dramatic fall.
    • The type of CHO, the cooking process, and the presence of fat and dietary fiber all affect a food’s glycemic index.
    • Body copes with low glycemic foods easier b/c of slower and more modest changes in blood glucose levels.
      • Candy (Jelly Beans)= 78
      • Fruits (apples)= 38
  • 13.
      • Current evidence has shown that moderation is the key.
      • When it comes to artificial sweeteners, they pose no known health risk; but the jury is still out.
      • There is a lot on controversial research out there. One thing is known is that it is safer for teeth than regular CHO sweeteners
        • It has been stated that artificial sweeteners convert to formaldehyde & can be linked to cancer
  • 14.
    • Saccharin
      • Derived from coal tar
      • 300-500x sweeter than sugar
      • Pink package- Sweet N Low
      • Research has linked saccharin to cancer in laboratory animals
  • 15.
    • Aspartame
      • Contains two amino acids- aspartic acid (non-essential type) + phenylalanine (essential)
      • 180x sweeter than sugar
      • Not recommended for cooking b/c flavor changes with heat
      • Blue package- Equal
      • Researchers believe this one to be safe, some concerns and side effects noted
  • 16.
    • Splenda
      • Derivative of sugar
      • Comprised of dextrose, maltodextrin, and sucralose
      • Newest on the market
      • Yellow package
      • Believed to be safe
  • 17.
    • Stevia
      • 300x sweeter than sugar
      • Taken from herbs and shrubs (leaf)
      • Stevia was approved for use by FDA in late 2008 and now appears in Coca-Cola & Pepsi products like SoBe life water
      • Truvia (Rebaudioside A) commonly known sweetener
  • 18.
    • They have little to no nutritional value
    • Nutritive Sweeteners (digestible CHO)- have calories
      • White sugar
      • Brown sugar
      • Maple sugar
      • Honey, etc.
  • 19.
    • FDA set a maximum allowable intake for aspartame of 50 mg/kg
      • (Aspartame contains phenylalanine and aspartic acid)
      • Equal to: 16 12-ounce diet sodas (adults) and 8 12-ounce diet sodas (children)