Birthweigth is the most reliable indicadort od infant´s health.
Underweight: an underweigth woman has a high risk of having a low birthweigth infant, in adition the rates of preterm births and infatn deaths are higher. The way to improves chances of having a healthy infant is to gaining sufficient weigth prior to conception or by gaining extra weight dring pregnancy.
Overweight: Overweight women have an especially high risk of medical complication such as hypertension, gestational diabetes, and postpartum infections, stillbirths and labor and delivery complications. Infants are likely to born post term and to weight more than 9 pounds.
Weight-loss during pregnancy is never advisable. Overweight women should try to achieve a healthy boby weight before becoming pregnant .
RECOMENDED WEIGHT GAINS BASED ON PREGNANCY WEIGHT STATUS PREGNANCY WEIGTH STATUS RECOMENDED WEIGTH GAING Underweight 12.5 to 18 kg. Normal weight 11.5 to 16 kg Overweigth 7 to 11.5 kg Obese 6.8 kg minimum
Exercise during pregnancy An active, physically fit woman experiencing a normal pregnancy can continue to exercise throughout pregnancy, adjusting the duration and intensity as the pregnancy progresses. Doing exercise during pregnancy can improve fitness, prevent gestational diabetes, facilitate labor and redice stress. Regular exercise develops the strenght and endurance a woman needs to carry the extra weight throuht pregnancy and to labor through an intense delivery. It also mantein the habits women need to lose weight after the birth.
Never exercise to the point of exhaustion or breathlessness. This is a sign that your baby and your body cannot get the oxygen supply they need.
Wear comfortable exercise footwear that gives strong ankle and arch support.
Take frequent breaks, and drink plenty of fluids during exercise.
Avoid exercise in extremely hot weather.
Low- impact activities.
Avoid rocky terrain or unstable ground when running or cycling.
Contact sports should be avoided during pregnancy.
Weight training should emphasize improving tone, especially in the upper body and abdominal area. Avoid lifting weights above your head and using weights that strain the lower back muscles.
During the second and third trimesters, avoid exercise that involves lying flat on your back as this decreases blood flow to your womb.
Include relaxation and stretching before and after your exercise program
Energy and nutrient needs during pregnancy
Energy: A pregnant woman nedds extra food energy, but only a little extra 300 kcalories. The increase in nutrients needs is greater than this, so nutrient-dense foos should supply the 300 kcalories.
Breads and cereals
Dark green vegetables
Nonfat milk and milk products
Lean meats ( fish, polutry and eggs)
Protein RDA during pregnancy: + 10 g/day Thiamin RDA during pregnancy: 1.4 mg/ day Riboflavin RDA during pregnancy: 1.4 mg/ day Niacin RDA during pregnancy: 18 mg/ day Vitamin B6 RDA during pregnancy 1.9 mg/ day Folate RDA during pregnancy: 600 ug DFE/ day
Nutrient Supplements during pregnancy Nutrient Amount Folate 300 ug Vitamin B6 2 mg Vitamin C 500 mg Vitamin D 5 ug Calcium 250 mg Copper 2 mg Iron 30 mg Zinc 15 mg
Common Nutrition-Related Concerns of Pregnancy
Constipations and hemorrhoids
Food cravings and aversions
MALNUTRITION AND PREGNANCY
Malnutrition and fertility: Severe malnutrition and food deprivation can reduce fertility, women may develp amenorrhea and men may lose their ability to produce viable sperm.
Malnutrition and early pregnancy: If a malnourished woman does become pregnant, she faces the challenge of supporting both the growth of a baby and her own health iadequate nutrition stores.
Malnutrition and fetal development: the consequences of malnutrition during pregnancy include:
Fetal groeth retardation
Spontaneous abortion and stillbirth
Low infant birth weight
Infant´s birthweight A high-risk pregnancy may produce a low-birthweight infant. A low-birthweight infants, defined as infants who weight 5 ½ pounds or less. Preterm or premature infants are born before they´re fully developed; they´re ofren underweight
Mother´s health status
Medical disorders can thereatern the life and health of bouth mother and fetus. If diagnosed and treated early, manby diseases can be managed to ensure healthy outcome.
Transient hypertension of pregnancy
Preeclamsia ( a condition characterized by hypertension, fluid retention and protein in the urine)