By adolescence, many teenagers are major decision makers in their food choices.<br /> Teenagers themselves exert stronger influence over family eating, perhaps sharing in food shopping and food preparation.<br /> Compared with their childhood years, they probably eat more food and beverages away from home.<br /> Chances are, teenagers know the basics of nutrition and healthful eating.<br />
However, peer pressure, school and work schedules, a sense of independence, lack of personal discipline, and unrealistic notions about body weight can get in the way of their own healthful eating.<br /> They know the benefits of exercise, but may not follow trough by living an active lifestyle.<br /> Adolescents often don´t connect their immediate food and exercise patterns to their long term health.<br />
adolescence<br /><ul><li>Adolescence is a stage of life marked by significant emotional changes, social and physiological. Feeding on the latter is particularly important because the nutritional requirements to meet these changes are very high and is necessary to ensure an adequate supply of energy and nutrients to avoid situations that may cause deficiency disorders and health disorders .
The nutritional needs of adolescents are marked by sexual maturation, increased size and weight gain characteristic of this stage of life. These processes require a high amount of energy and nutrients, should be borne in mind that at this stage the child gains about 20% of the size that will have as an adult and 50% by weight.
The most recent dietary recommendations (RDA) for energy and protein, the Food and Nutrition Board of the National Research Council (1989) for adolescents have been established according to weight, age and sex are the most commonly used and best guide.</li></li></ul><li>Food, nutrients, and the teen years<br />Adolescence is the fastest growth stage in life. Even when teens reach their adult height (for girls sooner than for boys), their bodies are still growing and developing.<br /> Eating a healthful diet does help determine if a person grows to his or her maximum height potential.<br /> Nutrients, not specific foods, affect how a person grows. For example, everyone needs calcium for bone growth, protein for muscles, carbohydrates and fats for energy, and vitamins and minerals for the "spark" that makes it all happen.<br />
Puberty marks the start of the teenage growth spurt. That time differs for each child. For girls, it typically comes at about age 12 or 13, about two years younger than for boys.<br /> The nutritional needs of adolescents are marked by sexual maturation, increased size and weight gain characteristic of this stage of life. These processes require a high amount of energy and nutrients, should be borne in mind that at this stage the teenager earns about 20% of the size that will have as an adult and 50% by weight.<br />
MacronutrientRecommendations<br /><ul><li>With regard to carbohydrates and protein recommendations in quantity and quality are the same as for a healthy adult. Rations should be maintained in a healthy and balanced diet that is recommended at least 50% of the total energy of the diet comes from carbohydrates and from 15 to 20% of the protein part of ensuring a good source plant.
As for fats, should represent 30-35% of total calories of the diet with the ratio of saturated fatty acids / monounsaturated / polyunsaturated adequate.</li></li></ul><li>What minerals and vitamins are especially important in adolescence?<br /><ul><li>There are three minerals that are especially important in adolescence: calcium, iron and zinc. Each of them is related to a particular aspect of growth:
The calcium to the growth of bone mass. The iron with the development of blood-borne tissue (red cells) and muscle. The zinc with the development of bone and muscle mass. It also interacts with growth of hair and nails.
Calcium: recommended about 1200 mg / day. The availability is different depending on the food from which it derives most suitable food being milk and all its derivatives. Vitamin D, lactose and proteins that facilitate its absorption as fiber, caffeine and sugar make it difficult. </li></li></ul><li>Iron: The RDA recommends a supplement of 2 mg / day for teen-age males during the period of maximum growth, between 10 and 17. For girls it is recommended a charge of 5mg/day after menarche. The iron is best absorbed from meat, while the source of grains, vegetables and other foods is absorbed worse.<br />
<ul><li>Zinc is directly related to protein synthesis and thus with the formation of tissues and it is especially important in adolescence. Zinc deficiency is related to skin lesions, delayed wound healing, hair loss, brittle nails and so on. The chronic deficit can cause hypogonadism (small size of reproductive organs). The GDR established a daily intake of zinc at around 12 mg / day for girls and for boys 15mg/día.
The main source of zinc are meat, fish and eggs. Also complex cereals and legumes are an important source. Fiber acts to hinder its absorption.
Recommended for adolescents, especially vitamins that one or another way related to protein synthesis, growth and development: Vitamin A, D, and Folic Acid, B12, B6, Riboflavin, Niacin, and Thiamine without recommending specific minimum or neither. The main source of all of them are fruits and vegetables. </li></li></ul><li>What foods and how much guaranteed an adequate diet for a teenager?<br />Plastic Food: Milk and dairy products of 600-850 ml, and a serving of cheese (150-200 g) at least once a day. Meat or fish: 150-200 g per serving. (1 time a day). Eggs: 1 day (to complete 4 week). When replacing a serving of meat or fish must take two. <br />Food energy: It should take at least two daily rations (potatoes, rice, pasta, bread, etc.). Not too bulky and ensure intake of sugar and carbohydrates especially at breakfast. <br />
Food regulators: It is very important to fruit and vegetables cooked and raw. We recommend taking a daily salad and 3-4 pieces of fruit. <br />Drinks: You must drink enough water (about two liters per day) and a moderate amount of sugary drinks. It should emphasize the harmful effects of consumption of any alcoholic beverage in this period of life.<br />
ThePyramidforTeens<br />It´s key messages of variety, balance, and moderation apply to adolescence , too. The only difference is the amount of food group servings they may eat.<br /> Teenage boys have high energy needs: about 2500 calories a day if they´re 11 to 14 years old, and 2800 calories a day if they´re 15 to 18 years of age, compared to 2000 calories a day when they were a bit younger.<br />
Most Common diseases<br />Bulimia <br />Ciclos hormonales<br />Obesidad<br />Anorexia<br />Diabetes<br />Hipertension<br />
bibliography<br />http://www.alimentacion-sana.com.ar/informaciones/novedades/alim%20en%20adolesc.htm<br />http://www.mspas.gob.sv/regulacion/pdf/guia/Guia_alimentacion_nutricion_adolesc.pdf<br />Nutrition-Popular works I. American DieteticAssociation, II. Title RA784.D89 1996<br />