GD and ND


Published on

1 Like
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • Good place to point out that the spiral of depression is the opposite to the cycle of prosperity. Even discuss in relation to Henry Ford and the impact on the other industries that produced his standardised goods.
  • Why not print this presentation out using the print handout command and select 3 slides per page. The students can then make notes as they go along!
  • GD and ND

    1. 1. Great Depression How Bad Was It?
    2. 2. The Great Depression
    3. 3. 100,000 businesses failed. Stock values fell from $89 billion to $15 billion. From 381 to 41. $74 billion was lost. 25% unemployment rate [15 million](125 million in the U.S.) [Unemployment was 3% in 1929.] Unemployment stayed above 14.3% from 1931-1940. Average unemployment was 18% 10,797 banks failed out of over 25,000, taking the life savings of 9 million people. The Great Depression [How Bad Was It?]
    4. 4. In some cities, girls danced only for 10 cents . 333,000 could not go to school. M any schools were open only three days a week for eight months. One million lost their homes. Housing starts dropped 90%. GDP dropped from $104 billion in 1929 to $56 billion in 1933. “ That will be .10”. The Great Depression
    5. 5. The Great Depression was so bad that when Bonnie and Clyde were shot, [Clyde’s body had 187 bullet holes and Bonnie’s body had 52 bullet holes] that morticians complained that they couldn’t hold embalming fluid.
    6. 6. Their “death hats” were auctioned for $32,000. Clyde’s “death shirt” auctioned for $85,000 “ Death car” w. 160 bullet holes auctioned for $250,000. 1967 “Movie Death car” Many of the bullets went thru the car door, Clyde’s body, Bonnie’s body, then out the other side of the death car. T he “32 Ford” & “ 57 C hevy” are the cornerstone cars of the hot-rod business. And – the Chrysler 300
    7. 7. Apple sellers could make $1.15 profit on 72 sold apples. Many factory wages went from .55 an hour to .05 an hour. Agriculture collapsed. Prices and wages dropped around 25%. Factory production dropped 50%. Auto production fell from 4.5 million cars in 1929 to 1.1 million in 1933. Those who checked into hotels were asked, “ For sleeping or jumping”? The Great Depression [continued]
    8. 8. “ F or S leeping or jumping?
    9. 9. Dust storm approaching Stratford, Texas - 1934 THE DUST BOWL
    10. 10. Storm approaching Elkhart, Kansas in 1937
    11. 11. Dust buried cars and wagons in South Dakota in 1936
    12. 12. HARDEST HIT REGIONS <ul><li>Kansas, Oklahoma, Texas, New Mexico, and Colorado were the hardest hit regions during the Dust Bowl </li></ul><ul><li>Many farmers migrated to California and other Pacific Coast states </li></ul>Boy covers his mouth to avoid dust, 1935
    13. 13. Photographer Dorothea Lange captures a family headed west to escape the dust storms
    14. 15. Great Depression Stats [In 1958 dollars] <ul><li>Year U nempl Real GDP “C” “Ig” “G” In. R ate Inflation </li></ul><ul><li>3.2 203.6 139.6 40.4 22.0 5.9 ___ </li></ul><ul><li>8.9 183.5 130.4 27.4 24.3 3.6 -2.6 </li></ul><ul><li>16.3 169.5 126.1 16.8 25.4 2.6 -10.1 </li></ul><ul><li>24.1 144.2 114.8 4.7 24.2 2.7 -9.3 </li></ul><ul><li>1933 25.2 141.5 112.8 5.3 23.3 1.7 - 2.2 </li></ul><ul><li>22.0 154.3 118.1 9.4 26.6 1.0 7.4 </li></ul><ul><li>20.3 169.5 125.5 18.0 27.0 0.8 0.9 </li></ul><ul><li>17.0 193.2 138.4 24.0 31.8 0.8 0.2 </li></ul><ul><li>14.3 203.2 143.1 29.9 30.8 0.9 4.2 </li></ul><ul><li>19.1 192.9 140.2 17.0 33.9 0.8 -1.3 </li></ul><ul><li>17.2 209.4 148.2 24.7 35.2 0.6 -1.6 </li></ul><ul><li>1940 14.6 227.2 155.7 33.0 36.4 0.6 1.6 </li></ul>-30 % -20 % -87 % -23 %
    15. 16. The Great Depression Fdr’s new deal
    16. 17. Essential Questions : 1. What caused the stock market to crash? 2. How did the Great Depression plunge many Americans into poverty? 3. How did Hoover react to the Great Depression?
    17. 18. Contents <ul><li>Election of 1928, 1932, 1936 </li></ul><ul><li>Flow charts of causes and reversing spiral of Great Depression </li></ul><ul><li>Graphs of stock market and unemployment in the 1930s </li></ul><ul><li>Dust Bowl </li></ul><ul><li>Election of 1932 and links to FDR inaugural address </li></ul><ul><li>New Deal Programs </li></ul><ul><li>Fireside Chats (link to audio of 1 st fireside chat) </li></ul><ul><li>Critics of FDR </li></ul><ul><li>Social Security </li></ul><ul><li>Movies, radio and the arts of the 1930s </li></ul>
    18. 19. <ul><li>(R) Herbert Hoover </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Food Administration WWI </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Secretary of Commerce </li></ul></ul><ul><li>(D) Al Smith (corner) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Governor of New York </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1 st Irish Catholic to run for White House </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Advantage? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Republican prosperity in the 1920s ensure easy victory for Hoover </li></ul></ul>The Election of 1928
    19. 20.
    20. 21. Causes of the Depression Fewer goods are sold . Demand drops. In order to stay in business companies cut wages People lose their confidence & start saving their money Demand drops even further. Companies are forced to cut costs by laying people off The Spiral Of Depression Even more people Lose their confidence And spend less money People lose their jobs.
    21. 25.
    22. 26. I'll have to see my broker Find out what he can do. 'Cause I'm in the market for you. There won't be any joker, With margin I'm all through. 'Cause I want you outright it's true. You're going up, up ,up in my estimation. I want a thousand shares of your caresses too. We'll count the hugs and kisses, When dividends are due, 'Cause I'm in the market for you &quot;I'm In The Market For You” by, George Olsen vocal by Fred MacMurray Date: February 9, 1930
    23. 27. Stock Market Crash of 1929 <ul><li>The Dow Jones Industrial Average plummeted on October 29, 1929. </li></ul><ul><li>$14 billion was lost in one day. </li></ul><ul><li>Stock Market will not recover for decades. </li></ul><ul><li>Unofficial start of the Great Depression. </li></ul>
    24. 28.
    25. 29. Great Depression in the Cities <ul><li>In cities across the country people: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>lost their jobs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Were evicted from their houses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ended up living on the street. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Shantytowns, soup kitchens and bread lines appeared </li></ul>
    26. 30. * People that bought stocks on margin (credit) could not repay their debts. The Philanthropist by, Herb Block (Dec. 5, 1930) During the Great Depression approximately 25% of the workforce was unemployed. People who lost their jobs began selling five-cent apples on the streets of American cities, providing a symbol of the economic hardships of the era. * People that had invested their savings in stocks had little or nothing left.
    27. 31.
    28. 32.
    29. 34.
    30. 35.
    31. 36.
    32. 37.
    33. 38.
    34. 39.
    35. 40.
    36. 41.
    37. 42.
    38. 43.
    39. 44.
    40. 45.
    41. 47. There once was a time when everything was cheap, But now prices nearly puts a man to sleep. When we pay our grocery bill, We just feel like making our will -- I remember when dry goods were cheap as dirt, We could take two bits and buy a dandy shirt. Now we pay three bucks or more, Maybe get a shirt that another man wore -- Tell me how can a poor man stand such times and live? Well, I used to trade with a man by the name of Gray, Flour was fifty cents for a twenty-four pound bag. Now it's a dollar and a half beside, Just like a-skinning off a flea for the hide -- Tell me how can a poor man stand such times and live? &quot;How Can A Poor Man Stand Such Times And Live?” written and played by Blind Alfred Reed , Dec. 4, 1929, New York City
    42. 48. Oh, the schools we have today ain't worth a cent, But they see to it that every child is sent. If we don't send everyday, We have a heavy fine to pay -- Tell me how can a poor man stand such times and live? Prohibition's good if 'tis conducted right, There's no sense in shooting a man 'til he shows flight. Officers kill without a cause, They complain about funny laws -- Tell me how can a poor man stand such times and live? Most all preachers preach for gold and not for souls, That's what keeps a poor man always in a hole. We can hardly get our breath, Taxed and schooled and preached to death -- Tell me how can a poor man stand such times and live?
    43. 49. Oh, it's time for every man to be awake, We pay fifty cents a pound when we ask for steak. When we get our package home, A little wad of paper with gristle and a bone -- Tell me how can a poor man stand such times and live? Well, the doctor comes around with a face all bright, And he says in a little while you'll be all right. All he gives is a humbug pill, A dose of dope and a great big bill -- Tell me how can a poor man stand such times and live?
    44. 50. People waiting in line for bread and soup and also living out of their car.
    45. 51. <ul><li>Farmers in the Midwest had over farmed the soil. </li></ul><ul><li>Drought conditions led to 100 of acres of soil being “blown away.” </li></ul><ul><li>These ‘black blizzards’ lasted from 1933 to 1939 . </li></ul>The Dust Bowl
    46. 52.
    47. 53.
    48. 54.
    49. 55.
    50. 56.
    51. 57.
    52. 58.
    53. 59.
    54. 60.
    55. 61.
    56. 62.
    57. 63. <ul><li>WW I vets marched on Washington DC. </li></ul><ul><li>Demanded the bonus that was due in 1945 be paid presently. </li></ul>The Bonus Army
    58. 64. Bonus Army in DC… <ul><li>Congress refused their demands. </li></ul><ul><li>Gen. MacArthur broke up the marchers and had their shanty town burned to the ground. </li></ul><ul><li>Public relations disaster for President Hoover. </li></ul>
    59. 65. The Election of 1932 Hoover FDR
    60. 66. What were we thinking?
    61. 67. ESSENTIAL QUESTIONS : 1. How did Roosevelt try to restore the confidence of the American people? 2. What programs were created in FDR’s first 100 days?
    62. 68. Key Quotes: FDR’s Inauguration Speech This Nation asks for action, and action now. Our greatest primary task is to put people to work. I shall ask Congress for broad executive power to wage was against the emergency. <ul><li>Link to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Text of Speech </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Video </li></ul></ul>
    63. 69. <ul><li>Series of radio addresses by FDR </li></ul><ul><li>30 total between 1933 to 1944 </li></ul><ul><li>FDR used these to calm American people down. </li></ul><ul><li>CLICK on the radio to link to hear the 1 st chat on the Bank Crisis </li></ul>Fireside Chats
    64. 70. FDR and the New Deal <ul><li>During the presidential campaign of 1932, FDR promised Americans a NEW DEAL. </li></ul><ul><li>This would be his program to get America back on its feet. </li></ul>
    65. 71. Goals of New Deal Program <ul><li>Relief </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Help people right away </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Recovery </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Get the US out of the Depression </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reform </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Make sure another depression does not happen </li></ul></ul>
    66. 72. New Deal : Relief <ul><li>Federal Emergency Relief Association (FERA) </li></ul><ul><li>Civil Works Administration (CWA) </li></ul><ul><li>Public Works Administration (PWA) </li></ul><ul><li>Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) </li></ul><ul><li>Farm Credit Association (FCA) </li></ul><ul><li>Homeowners Loan Corporation (HOLC) </li></ul>
    67. 73. New Deal : Recovery <ul><li>Works Progress Administration (WPA) </li></ul><ul><li>National Recovery Administration (NRA) </li></ul><ul><li>Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA) </li></ul><ul><li>National Youth Administration (NYA) </li></ul><ul><li>Federal Housing Act (FHA) </li></ul>
    68. 74. New Deal : Reform <ul><li>Federal Deposit Insurance Company (FDIC) </li></ul><ul><li>Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) </li></ul><ul><li>Wagner Act (NLRB) </li></ul><ul><li>Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) </li></ul><ul><li>Social Security </li></ul>
    69. 75. Reversing the Spiral of Depression Cycle of Prosperity! Democrats called this Process ‘ Pump Priming’ Government Spending $ Alphabet Agencies More Jobs More Spending Demand for goods increases More goods have to be produced More people with Jobs = more pay $ More Spending Demand for goods increases More goods have to be produced More Jobs More Pay = More Taxes
    70. 76. ESSENTIAL QUESTIONS : How did the Depression affect minority groups? What radical political movements gained influence? Why did people criticize Roosevelt and the New Deal? How did the Second New Deal create new economic and social roles for government?
    71. 77. FDR and the Supreme Court
    72. 78. Court Packing…. <ul><li>The Supreme Court struck down several New Deal laws as unconstitutional. </li></ul><ul><li>FDR wanted to increase the size of the court from 9 to 15. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Would appoint justices who were pro-New Deal </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Congress did not agree with FDR. </li></ul><ul><li>This hurt FDR’s image. </li></ul>
    73. 79. Huey Long <ul><li>FDR was NOT doing enough for the poor . </li></ul><ul><li>Long pushed his “ Share Our Wealth ” program. </li></ul><ul><li>Take all income over $1,000,000 to give: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>House </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Car </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Annual Salary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>For all Americans </li></ul></ul>
    74. 80. Dr. Francis Townshend <ul><li>FDR was NOT doing enough for old people . </li></ul><ul><li>Proposed a $200 a month pension to everyone over 60. </li></ul><ul><li>This was good for (2) reasons: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>$$ to boost economy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Open a job up for a younger American </li></ul></ul>
    75. 81. Charles Coughlin <ul><li>FDR had NOT done enough…. </li></ul><ul><li>Fr. Coughlin felt that FDR did not take on the powerful bankers in the United States. </li></ul><ul><li>Used the radio to blast FDR and became known as the “ Radio Priest”. </li></ul>
    76. 82. Liberty League <ul><li>FDR had gone TO FAR with the New Deal. </li></ul><ul><li>Interfering with business and people’s lives. </li></ul><ul><li>Government was taking away freedoms from Americans. </li></ul>
    77. 83. Social Security Act of 1935
    78. 84. How is Social Security funded? Social Security Trust Fund Workers Employers
    79. 85. Social Security Unemployment Insurance Old Age Pension Dependent Families + Disabled
    80. 86. Election of 1936
    81. 87. Movies
    82. 88. <ul><li>October 30, 1938 </li></ul><ul><li>Orson Wells performed HG Wells classic over the radio. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Made Wells famous </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Caused a panic because people thought Martians were invading </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Link to listen to the radio broadcast. </li></ul></ul>Radio
    83. 89. <ul><li>Famous painting entitled “American Gothic”. </li></ul><ul><li>Best known for his paintings depicting the rural American Midwest. </li></ul>Grant Wood
    84. 90. <ul><li>Folk singer during the Depression </li></ul><ul><li>His personal and musical styles were deeply influenced by his childhood in rural Oklahoma during the Great Depression years. </li></ul><ul><li>This Land is Your Land – famous song </li></ul><ul><li>CLICK HERE to listen to song on YouTube </li></ul>Woody Guthrie
    85. 91. <ul><li>Classical novel written by John Steinbeck in 1939. </li></ul><ul><li>Focuses on a poor family of sharecroppers : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Driven from their home by the drought </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They head to California looking for a better life </li></ul></ul>The Grapes of Wrath
    86. 92. What will end the Great Depression? <ul><li>America’s entry into World War II </li></ul>