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The vietnam war
 

The vietnam war

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Gives a brief history of U.S. involvement in the Vietnam War

Gives a brief history of U.S. involvement in the Vietnam War

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    The vietnam war The vietnam war Presentation Transcript

    • The Vietnam War
    • Intensifies Cold War
      “Let every nation know, whether it wishes us well or ill, that we will pay any price, bear any burden, meet any hardship, support any friend, oppose any foe to assure the survival and success of liberty. We will do all this and more.”
    • Flexible response
      Spent 6 billion on military in his first year in office
      Expanded Special Forces and gave them the green beret
      Added 5 combat divisions
      Construction of nuclear arsenal
      1,000 ICBM
      32 Polaris submarines
      Allowed the U.S. to “choose among a variety of options to fight communism”
    • Going to Vietnam
      Hills
      Densely forested mountains
      Canals, and rivers
      Jungles
      Tropical monsoon climate
    • Roots of American Involvement
    • A divided colony
      A 1954 agreement split the French colony in North and South Vietnam
      France left in 1955
      U.S. stepped in to assist South Vietnam
      U.S. involvement grew slowly
    • Communism in Vietnam
      Geneva Accords
      Agreement between countries involved
      Soviet Union, U.S., China, Laos, Cambodia, Great Britain and France
      Divided Vietnam along the 17th parallel
      North Vietnam
      Communist
      Leader Ho Chi Minh
      South Vietnam
      Anti communist Nationalists
    • Why did the United States aid the French?
      Domino Theory
      Idea that if one nation fell under Communist control, nearby nations will also fall
      Recently settled for a stalemate in Korea
    • A divided Nation
    • Diem’s Repressive Govermment
      A Catholic
      Buddhists protested
      Killed in 1963
    • Communist Infiltration of the South
      Vietcong
      A communist group in South Vietnam
      Opposed Diem government
      Ho Chi Minh Trail
      A network of paths used by the North Vietnamese to transport supplies to Vietcong in the South
    • Johnson and the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution
      U.S.S. Maddox was conducting an espionage mission
      Greatly escalated the war
      Gulf of Tonkin Resolution
      Adopted in 1964
      Granted President broad powers to wage war in Vietnam
    • Americanizing the War
    • Vietcong Tactics
      Guerilla warfare
      Hit and Run ambush
      Booby traps
      Land mines
      Elaborate tunnel networks
      Bridges
      Underground fuel tanks
      Hospitals
      Supply warehouses
    • U.S. Tactics
      War of Attrition
      Gradual wear down of the enemy by continuous harassment
      General Westmoreland
      Requested additional troops
      Led to high body counts
      Search and Destroy missions
      Use of defoliants
      Battle of Hearts and minds
      Convince people that America is there to help
      Vietcong will have no place to hide
    • Philosophies of the War
      Sec. of State McNanamara
      Ho Chi Minh
      “I don’t think these people have the capacity to fight this way”
      “You can kill ten of my men for everyone I kill of yours, but even at those odds you will lose and I will win.”
    • U.S. trouble
      Unsure of terrain
      Difficult to determine friend from foe
      Clear objectives were never set
    • Vietnam: A working class war
      A “manipulative” draft
      Most soldiers were in war drafted
      2.2 million drafted
      Medical deferments
      College deferments
      Draft dodgers
      60,000-100,000 fled to Canada to avoid serving
      Lee Greenwood “I am proud to be an American”
    • 1969: I lost the lottery
      Lottery reinstated to ensure fairness
      Dec 1, 1969
      First lottery was held
      Social Security Headquarters in D.C.
      First date drawn was Sept. 14th
    • America Divided
    • “I may disagree with what you say but I will defend to the death your right to day it.”
      What did soldiers say when asked their opinion on the anti-war sentiment?
      Should freedom of speech be defended at any cost?
      Why did these young men serve when so many others avoided service?
    • Campus Activitism
      “Hey L.B.J., how many kids have you killed today.”
      “Eighteen today, dead tomorrow.”
      “Draft beer, not boys”
      Columbia University
    • Doves v. the Hawks
      Doves
      Hawks
      Opposed war
      Thought it was time to withdraw
      Supported the war
      Should increase military force
    • The TET Offensive
      January-February- the TET Offensive
      North Vietnamese attack cities in South Vietnam
      45,000 Viet Cong and North Vietnam Army (NVA) died
      Shatters the illusion that American is winning the war
      Walter Cronkite changed public opinion
    • My Lai Massacre
      March 1968
      Village of My Lai was known to support Viet Cong
      504 civilians were killed by U.S. soldiers
      Some were carved with “C” for Charlie Co.
      Lt. Calley convicted of killings but he stated he was following orders
      22 year helicopter gunner from a different unit brought massacre to light
      Ron Ridenhour
      Age 3 and younger- 50
      Age 4-7 – 69
      70 or older- 27
    • Ending the Vietnam War
      Three part plan
      Gradual withdraw of American troops
      Renewed bombing
      Hard line negations with Hanoi
    • Response to the Bombing of Cambodia
      Widespread student protest
      Kent State University near Cleveland Ohio had some of the worst riots
      Students bombed the ROTC building
      Governor sent National guard soldiers to university
      Guardsmen opened fire
      4 students were killed and 11 were wounded