How did the first americans get here

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  • 1. How did the first Americans get here?
  • 2. People from Berengia moved to North America.
  • 3. Where did the water in the Bering Strait go?
    Huge glaciers more than a mile thick
    Extended as far South as Illinois and Ohio
    Earth’s waters were turned to ice, dropping the oceans to hundreds of feet below current levels
    Receding waters created a land bridge
  • 4. Refuges are formed due to glaciers
  • 5. Humans first migrate to South America along the Eastern coast.
  • 6. The Bering Strait reopens.
  • 7. Debate over Migration
    One Migration across Bering Strait
    *Series of migrations and means of arrival
    Water travel and “land crossings”
  • 8. The ancestors of Aleuts, Eskimos, Na-Dene people arrive. Central Canada was populated.
  • 9. What were the Paleo-Indians like?
    Pursued large mammals
    Known as mega fauna
    Wholly mammoths
    Mastodons
    Nomads
    Moved slowly following prey
    Small groups
    Goal was survival
    Used fire
    Used tools made of stone
  • 10. Butchering a Bison
    Pembina State Museum exhibit from State of North Dakota @ND.gov
  • 11. Lack of disease
    Stopped hosting communicable diseases
    Small pox
    Measles
    Small incidences of tuberculosis
    Physical isolation
    No contact with domestic animals such as pigs and cattle
    Lost inherited immunities
  • 12. The Wholly Mammoth and Mastodons
    Stood 9 to 11 feet at shoulder
    Weighed 4 to 6 tons
    Long hair covered body
  • 13. Major Paleo-Indian Sites
  • 14. How do we know about the Paleo-Indians?
    Archeological evidence
    Long, fluted, chipped, stone projectiles
    Used as spears
    Named Clovis because the spears were found in Clovis, New Mexico first
    Mammoth and mastodon fossils
    Burying dead at refuge sites