Where did the water in the Bering Strait go? Huge glaciers more than a mile thick Extended as far South as Illinois and Ohio Earth’s waters were turned to ice, dropping the oceans to hundreds of feet below current levels Receding waters created a land bridge
Debate over Migration One Migration across Bering Strait *Series of migrations and means of arrival Water travel and “land crossings”
The ancestors of Aleuts, Eskimos, Na-Dene people arrive. Central Canada was populated.
What were the Paleo-Indians like? Pursued large mammals Known as mega fauna Wholly mammoths Mastodons Nomads Moved slowly following prey Small groups Goal was survival Used fire Used tools made of stone
Butchering a Bison Pembina State Museum exhibit from State of North Dakota @ND.gov
Lack of disease Stopped hosting communicable diseases Small pox Measles Small incidences of tuberculosis Physical isolation No contact with domestic animals such as pigs and cattle Lost inherited immunities
The Wholly Mammoth and Mastodons Stood 9 to 11 feet at shoulder Weighed 4 to 6 tons Long hair covered body
How do we know about the Paleo-Indians? Archeological evidence Long, fluted, chipped, stone projectiles Used as spears Named Clovis because the spears were found in Clovis, New Mexico first Mammoth and mastodon fossils Burying dead at refuge sites