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Respiratory anat online
Respiratory anat online
Respiratory anat online
Respiratory anat online
Respiratory anat online
Respiratory anat online
Respiratory anat online
Respiratory anat online
Respiratory anat online
Respiratory anat online
Respiratory anat online
Respiratory anat online
Respiratory anat online
Respiratory anat online
Respiratory anat online
Respiratory anat online
Respiratory anat online
Respiratory anat online
Respiratory anat online
Respiratory anat online
Respiratory anat online
Respiratory anat online
Respiratory anat online
Respiratory anat online
Respiratory anat online
Respiratory anat online
Respiratory anat online
Respiratory anat online
Respiratory anat online
Respiratory anat online
Respiratory anat online
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Respiratory anat online

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  • 1. Overview of Chapter 21 part I Organs of the superior respiratory system tissues Organs of the inferior respiratory system tissues Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 2. Respiration • The main function of the respiratory system is respiration • supply O2 to cells and dispose of CO2 from body • Involves both respiratory and circulatory systems Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 3. Respiration 1. Pulmonary ventilation (breathing): air movement into and out of the lungs 2. External respiration: O2 and CO2 exchange, lungs : blood Respiratory system 3. Transport: O2 and CO2 in blood 4. Internal respiration: O2 and CO2 exchange, blood : tissues Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Circulatory system
  • 4. Respiratory System: Functional Anatomy Major organs • Nose, nasal cavity, and paranasal sinuses • Pharynx • Larynx • Trachea • Bronchi and their branches • Lungs and alveoli Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 5. Nasal cavity Nostril Oral cavity Pharynx Larynx Trachea Carina of trachea Right bronchus Right lung Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Left bronchus Left lung Diaphragm Figure 21.1
  • 6. The Nose • Provides an airway • Moistens and warms entering air • Filters and cleans air • Resonating chamber for speech • Houses olfactory receptors Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 7. The Nose Two regions 1.External nose: root, bridge, and apex • Philtrum • a groove below nose on upper lip • Nostrils (nares) Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 8. The Nose 2. Nasal cavity: • Location: • Divided by nasal septum (R &L) • Open posteriorly to nasaopharynx • Roof: ethmoid and sphenoid bones • Floor: hard and soft palates • Contains nasal conchae • Superior, middle & inferior • Helps to circulate air Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. ethmoid sphenoid Nasal pharynx Nasal conchae Hard palate Soft palate
  • 9. Nasal Tissues • Olfactory mucosa • Lines the superior nasal cavity • Contains smell receptors • Respiratory mucosa • Pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium • Mucous • Cilia move mucus to back of throat • Sensory nerves triggers sneezing Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 10. Pharynx Muscular tube 1.Nasopharynx • nasal cavity 1.Oropharynx • mouth 1.Laryngopharynx • larynx Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 11. Nasopharynx • Posterior nasal cavity • Pseudostratified ciliated columnar • Pharyngeal tonsil (adenoids) on superior posterior wall • Uvula and soft palate • Inferior border • close during swallowing • Pharyngotympanic (auditory) tubes • on lateral walls Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 12. Oropharynx • From the soft palate to the epiglottis • stratified squamous epithelium • Isthmus of the fauces (opening to the oral cavity) • Palatine tonsils lateral walls of fauces • Lingual tonsil posterior of tongue Laryngopharynx • From the epiglottis to the larynx • continuous with the esophagus Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 13. Pharynx Nasopharynx Pharyngeal tonsil Opening of pharyngotympanic tube Uvula Oropharynx Palatine tonsil Isthmus of the fauces Hard palate Soft palate Tongue Lingual tonsil Laryngopharynx Hyoid bone Esophagus Trachea (c) Illustration Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 21.3c
  • 14. Larynx • Composed of 9 cartilages • Superior region of the trachea • Voice production • Separates trachea from esophagus Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 15. Larynx Cartilages of the larynx Epiglottis • Thyroid cartilage • laryngeal prominence (Adam’s apple) • Cricoid cartilage - ring-shaped • Arytenoid, cuneiform, and corniculate cartilages Thyroid cartilage • All paired • Epiglottis • elastic cartilage • covers the larynx during swallowing Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Cricoid cartilage Tracheal cartilages
  • 16. Larynx Voice production •Vocal ligaments • Attach arytenoid cartilages : thyroid cartilage • Form vocal folds (vocal cords) • Air pushes forced through glottis (opening) • vibrate to produce sound • Vestibular folds (false cords) • Superior to ligaments, for swalloing Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 17. Voice Production Base of tongue Epiglottis Vestibular fold (false vocal cord) Vocal fold (true vocal cord) Glottis Inner lining of trachea Cuneiform cartilage Corniculate cartilage (a) Vocal folds in closed position; closed glottis (b) Vocal folds in open position; open glottis Anything other than air passing through causes a “cough” reflex Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 21.5
  • 18. Trachea • Windpipe: from larynx to mediastinum • Tissues • Inner lining: ciliated pseudostratified epithelium with goblet cells • Outer lining: fibrous connective tissue • Cartilage • After cricoid all cartilages are incomplete rings • Open towards esophagus • Allows expansion Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 19. Posterior Mucosa Esophagus Lumen of trachea Hyaline cartilage Adventitia Anterior (a) Cross section of the trachea and esophagus Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 21.6a
  • 20. Lower Respiratory System Trachea divides into right and left main bronchi • One for each lung (primary) •Main bronchus branches into lobar (secondary) bronchi • three right, two left • Each lobar supplies one lobe Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 21. Lower Respiratory System • Lobar bronchus branches into segmental (tertiary) bronchi • Segmental bronchi divide repeatedly • Bronchioles small conduits • Entire structure is the respiratory tree Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 22. Alveolar sacs • Terminal bronchioles subdivide into alveolar ducts • Contain alveolar sacs • alveoli = one sac • majority of lung volume • Site of gas exchange Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 23. Respiratory Membrane • Air-blood barrier (0.5 µm thick) • Alveolar and capillary walls • Alveolar walls • Single layer of squamous epithelium • Capillary walls • Single layer of endothelium • Share a single basement membrane Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 24. Terminal bronchiole Respiratory bronchiole Smooth muscle Elastic fibers Alveolus Capillaries (a) Diagrammatic view of capillary-alveoli relationships Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 21.9a
  • 25. Red blood cell Nucleus of type I (squamous epithelial) cell Alveolar pores Capillary O2 Capillary CO2 Alveolus Alveolus Type I cell of alveolar wall Macrophage Endothelial cell nucleus Alveolar epithelium Fused basement membranes of the Respiratory alveolar epithelium membrane and the capillary Red blood cell endothelium Alveoli (gas-filled in capillary Type II (surfactantCapillary air spaces) secreting) cell endothelium (c) Detailed anatomy of the respiratory membrane Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 21.9c
  • 26. LUNGS Major organs of the respiratory system Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 27. Lungs • Occupy majority of thoracic cavity • Lung regions: • Root: bronchial attachment site • Costal surface • Apex: superior tip • Base: rests on diaphragm • Hilum: on mediastinal surface • Cardiac notch of left lung: accommodates the heart Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 28. Posterior Right lung Root of lung at hilum Left lung Thoracic wall Pulmonary trunk Sternum Anterior mediastinum Anterior (c) Transverse section through the thorax, viewed from above. Lungs, pleural membranes, and major organs in the mediastinum are shown. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 21.10c
  • 29. Lungs • Left lung • smaller • two lobes (superior / inferior) • Cardiac notch • Right lung • three lobes (superior / medial / inferior) • Brochopulmonary segments: 10 R / 8-9 L Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 30. Trachea Thymus Lung Intercostal muscle Rib Parietal pleura Pleural cavity Visceral pleura Apex of lung Right superior lobe Horizontal fissure Heart (in mediastinum) Right middle lobe Oblique fissure Right inferior lobe Diaphragm Base of lung Left superior lobe Oblique fissure Left inferior lobe Cardiac notch (a) Anterior view. The lungs flank mediastinal structures laterally. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 21.10a
  • 31. Lung Coverings: Pleurae Thin, double-layered membrane •Parietal pleura – outer border •Visceral pleura – internal border • external lung surface •Pleural fluid fills pleural cavity Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

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