Heart 1 online

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Heart 1 online

  1. 1. Chapter 17 Overview Layers of heart tissue Heart Chambers Valves Heart contraction Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
  2. 2. Heart Anatomy • Fist sized organ • Located in mediastinum • between 2nd and 5th rib • 2/3 to the left • Enclosed by pericardium, a double-walled sac Midsternal line 2nd rib Sternum Diaphragm Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
  3. 3. Pericardium • Outer fibrous layer • Anchors heart • Parietal layer lines fibrous layer • Visceral layer (epicardium) contacts heart • Separated by pericardial fluid Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
  4. 4. Layers of the Heart Wall 1. Epicardium — inner pericardium layer 2. Myocardium - cardiac muscle layer 3. Endocardium - inner layer of heart Pulmonary trunk Pericardium Myocardium Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Fibrous pericardium Parietal pericardium Pericardial cavity Epicardium (visceral Heart pericardium) wall Myocardium Endocardium Heart chamber
  5. 5. Chambers of the Heart • Four chambers • Two atria (patient’s right and left) • Two ventricles (patient’s right and left) • Separated by septum • interatrial • interventricular Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
  6. 6. Left atrium Right atrium Right ventricle Left ventricle (b) Anterior view Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 17.4b
  7. 7. Atria: The Receiving Chambers • Right atria • Left atria • Low O2 blood • High O2 blood • Blood from: • Blood from: • Sup. & inf. Vena cava • Coronary sinus Sup. Vena cava Right atria R. pulm. vein Inf. Vena cava Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. • R & L pulmonary veins • From lungs L. Pulmonary vein Left atria
  8. 8. Ventricles: The Discharging Chambers Aorta • Right ventricle • pumps blood to the lungs • Via pulmonary trunk Pulmonary trunk • Left ventricle • Pumps blood to the body • Via the aorta Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Right ventricle Left ventricle
  9. 9. Heart Valves • Ensure unidirectional flow • Two major types 1. Atrioventricular valves 2. Semilunar valves Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
  10. 10. Heart Valves 1. Atrioventricular (AV) valves • Separates atria from ventricles • Tricuspid valve (right side) • Mitral valve (left side) • a.k.a bicuspid valve Tricuspid valve Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Mitral valve
  11. 11. Heart Valves • Semilunar (SL) valves • Separate ventricles from circulation • Aortic semilunar valve • Left ventricle / aorta • Pulmonary semilunar valve • Right ventricle / pulmonary trunk Pulmonary SL Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Aortic SL
  12. 12. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
  13. 13. Left atrium Right atrium Mitral (bicuspid) valve Aortic valve Tricuspid valve Right ventricle Chordae tendineae Pulmonary valve Left ventricle Papillary muscle (e) Frontal section Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 17.4e
  14. 14. PATHWAY OF BLOOD Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
  15. 15. Pathway of Blood Through the Heart • The heart is basically two pumps • Right side • Pulmonary circuit • to the lungs • Left side • Systemic circuit • to the body Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
  16. 16. Pathway of Blood Through the Heart • R. atrium  tricuspid valve  R. ventricle  pulmonary valve  pulmonary trunk  pulmonary arteries  lungs • Blood through R. atrium & ventricle is low O2 • In lungs becomes high O2 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
  17. 17. Pathway of Blood Through the Heart • High O2 blood enters left atrium • Lungs  pulmonary veins  L. atrium  bicuspid valve  L. ventricle  aortic semilunar valve  aorta  systemic circulation Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
  18. 18. Pathway of Blood Through the Heart Pulmonary Circuit Pulmonary arteries Venae cavae Capillary beds of lungs where gas exchange occurs Pulmonary veins Aorta and branches Left atrium Left ventricle Right atrium Right ventricle Oxygen-rich, CO2-poor blood Oxygen-poor, CO2-rich blood Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Heart Systemic Circuit Capillary beds of all body tissues where gas exchange occurs Figure 17.5
  19. 19. Pathway of Blood Through the Heart • Left ventricle pumps blood through entire body • Thick myocardium, to generate large force • Right ventricle pumps blood to lungs • Thinner myocardium Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
  20. 20. Coronary Circulation • Supplies the heart with blood • The heart is a muscle that requires its own blood supply • Arteries • Right and left coronary arteries • Veins • Coronary sinus, drains blood into the right atrium Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
  21. 21. Coronary vessels Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

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