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LEUKOCYTES
White blood cells (WBCs)

Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
Leukocytes
• Make up <1% of total blood volume
• Buffy coat

• Increase in number (↑) b/c of infection
• Two types:
1.Gran...
Granulocytes
• Granulocytes: neutrophils, eosinophils, and
basophils
• Granules in cytoplasm
• Wright’s stain

• Larger th...
Neutrophils
• Most numerous WBCs
• aka. Polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs)

• Lobed nucleus

• ↑ during acute infections
...
Eosinophils
• Red-staining
• bilobed nuclei
• Digest parasitic worms
• ↑ Allergies

Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, In...
Basophils
• Rarest WBCs
• Large, purplish-black granules
• contain histamine
• Histamine: inflammatory,
attracts other WBC...
Agranulocytes
• Agranulocytes: lymphocytes and monocytes
• Lack visible granules
• Have spherical nuclei

Copyright © 2011...
Lymphocytes
• Large, dark-purple, circular nuclei with thin, blue cytoplasm

• Two types of lymphocytes:
• T cells, act ag...
Monocytes
• The largest leukocytes
• Large pale-blue cytoplasm
• Dark purple U-shaped nuclei
• ↑ chronic infections
• Phag...
Leukopoiesis
• Production of
WBCs
• All blood cells form
from
hemocytoblasts
• Directed by
chemical
messages

Copyright © ...
Leukemia
• Cancer of WBCs
• Uncontrolled growth of leukocytes
• Nonfunctional WBCs accumulate
• Death from infections
• Na...
PLATELETS
And clot formation

Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
Platelets
• Small fragments of megakaryocytes
• Small an irregularly shaped

• Thrombopoietin regulates formation
• Initia...
Clot Formation
Clot Formation aka. hemostasis
Fast steps to stop bleeding
1. Vascular spasm
2. Platelet plug formation
3. ...
Vascular Spasm
• Vasoconstriction of damaged blood vessel
• Caused by injury or pain

Platelet Plug Formation
• Stick to e...
Coagulation
• Blood goes from liquid to gel
•

Prothrombin  thrombin (protein modification)

•

Causes formation of a fib...
Hemostasis
Step 1 Vascular spasm
• Smooth muscle contracts,
causing vasoconstriction.

Collagen
fibers

Step 2 Platelet pl...
Clotting Disorders
1. Thromboembolytic disorders:
• Clots or “thrombus” form in unbroken vessels
• Embolisms – floating th...
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Blood online 2

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White blood cells

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Transcript of "Blood online 2"

  1. 1. LEUKOCYTES White blood cells (WBCs) Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
  2. 2. Leukocytes • Make up <1% of total blood volume • Buffy coat • Increase in number (↑) b/c of infection • Two types: 1.Granulocytes 2.Agranulocytes Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
  3. 3. Granulocytes • Granulocytes: neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils • Granules in cytoplasm • Wright’s stain • Larger than RBCs • Lobed nuclei • Phagocytic Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
  4. 4. Neutrophils • Most numerous WBCs • aka. Polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) • Lobed nucleus • ↑ during acute infections • Phagocytic • bacteria eaters Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
  5. 5. Eosinophils • Red-staining • bilobed nuclei • Digest parasitic worms • ↑ Allergies Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
  6. 6. Basophils • Rarest WBCs • Large, purplish-black granules • contain histamine • Histamine: inflammatory, attracts other WBCs Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
  7. 7. Agranulocytes • Agranulocytes: lymphocytes and monocytes • Lack visible granules • Have spherical nuclei Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
  8. 8. Lymphocytes • Large, dark-purple, circular nuclei with thin, blue cytoplasm • Two types of lymphocytes: • T cells, act against viruses • B cells, produce antibodies Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
  9. 9. Monocytes • The largest leukocytes • Large pale-blue cytoplasm • Dark purple U-shaped nuclei • ↑ chronic infections • Phagocytes & activators Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
  10. 10. Leukopoiesis • Production of WBCs • All blood cells form from hemocytoblasts • Directed by chemical messages Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
  11. 11. Leukemia • Cancer of WBCs • Uncontrolled growth of leukocytes • Nonfunctional WBCs accumulate • Death from infections • Named by type of WBC • Lymphocytic leukemia = lymphocytes Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
  12. 12. PLATELETS And clot formation Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
  13. 13. Platelets • Small fragments of megakaryocytes • Small an irregularly shaped • Thrombopoietin regulates formation • Initiate clot formation Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
  14. 14. Clot Formation Clot Formation aka. hemostasis Fast steps to stop bleeding 1. Vascular spasm 2. Platelet plug formation 3. Coagulation (blood clotting) Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
  15. 15. Vascular Spasm • Vasoconstriction of damaged blood vessel • Caused by injury or pain Platelet Plug Formation • Stick to exposed fibers • Swell, become spiked and sticky • release chemical messengers Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
  16. 16. Coagulation • Blood goes from liquid to gel • Prothrombin  thrombin (protein modification) • Causes formation of a fiber mesh Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
  17. 17. Hemostasis Step 1 Vascular spasm • Smooth muscle contracts, causing vasoconstriction. Collagen fibers Step 2 Platelet plug formation • Injury to lining of vessel exposes collagen fibers; platelets adhere. • Platelets release chemicals that make nearby platelets sticky; platelet plug forms. Platelets Fibrin Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Step 3 Coagulation • Fibrin forms a mesh that traps red blood cells and platelets, forming the clot. Figure 16.13
  18. 18. Clotting Disorders 1. Thromboembolytic disorders: • Clots or “thrombus” form in unbroken vessels • Embolisms – floating thrombus • Help prevent with aspirin 1. Bleeding disorders: • prevent normal clotting • Hemophilia • Hereditary bleeding disorders Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
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