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Revista diseño

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    Revista diseño Revista diseño Document Transcript

    • March 29th 2012 Edition N° 1 EDITORIAL1
    • March 29th 2012 Edition N° 1 March 29th 2012 Edition N° 1 EDITORIAL 2 3
    • March 29th 2012 Edition N° 1 March 29th 2012 Edition N° 1 President A battle field Content Kamila Torres between the General Manager health and the Kamila Torres5 Editorial6 Cover Directress Kamila Torres vanity EDITORIAL We live in a society that every time gives to him but Manager of the importance to the superficial thing, to the vanity, to the proyect consumerism to that incites the means, while selling us Kamila Torres a prototype of thin figure, making him see as perfect. The woman’s figure every time you come out but banalizada, used with the ends of the consumption for products that General editor leave to the market, its body is now object of visual consumption and imponencia of a prototype of beauty, an10 In the aim Kamila Torres aesthetic rehearsal that becomes an imponencia, “if you are thin that you are beautiful”, the being no longer taking the delicate and only value that has the feminine body. Writing boss It is as if we didn’t want to accept that the reality is a Kamila Torres mixture of beauty and ugliness, of suffering and happiness. One can think that the means force us to that enter in a bubble to ignore the unpleasant thing. For example, the age. Me not you in that moment the old men stopped to be Production director synonymous of wisdom to become the invisible beings. Kamila Torres Kamila Angelica Torres As it is that now satanizamos the fact of not having a body like Roncancio the one that paints us the society; the purpose of this magazine is Web Site to try to open the mind and to demonstrate to the readers that the20 Plus manipulation of the means influences a lot in the self-esteem that one has; topics were approached like you disorder them nutritious, in those that was explained, they were spoken of certain cases of the real life, speaking of the risks, the beginnings of certain cases, other options, as we can compare ourselves, the fact of looking at cases of famous, for those that perhaps are influenced, people’s testimonies that have recovered and the conclusion. t is important if you know someone and think they may be bulimic or anorexic, that you notify someone immediately. Treatment and therapy are necessary. Being bulimic or anorexic is not something that will fix itself. It is a disorder that is most likely affecting your loved one physically, emotionally and mentally. 4 5
    • March 29th 2012 Edition N° 1 March 29th 2012 Edition N° 1 Battlefield Health ashamed afterwards—but time think, “I’ve already blown It, amounts of food with no and again you give in. During so I might as well go all out.” obvious change in weight. an average binge, you may Disappearance of consume from 3,000 to 5,000 Unfortunately, the relief that food, numerous Vs Vanity calories in one short hour. binging brings is extremely empty wrappers short-lived. Soon after, or food After it ends, panic sets in and guilt and self-loathing containers in you turn to drastic measures set in. And so you the garbage, or Is possible that at the moment aesthetic a body that has a level because you put on weight). to “undo” the binge, such purge to make up hidden stashes the vanity is causing of so of volume and high weight, “if the gangplanks of the big eli- as taking ex-lax, inducing for binging and of junk food. many deteriorations in the you are fat, you won’t be popu- tes of the fashion are another vomiting, or going for a ten- regain control. health?, are the vanity and lar”; every time but the means influence beginning, extre- mile run. And all the while, you the health at the moment in a sell us the prototype of perfect mely thin women, with heels feel increasingly out of control. Unfortunately, battle field where what it cares body, women of high stature, that make that they walk in purging only is what sells, that that “does blond, thin, full with plastic the tip of the feet, the objecti- It’s important to note that reinforces binge it stand out”, is it worth but surgeries, and he/she makes ve is to show to the I publish bulimia doesn’t necessarily eating. Though you Alternating what the society thinks of you us assimilate that they are the what is the “fashion” and what involve purging—physically may tell yourself, between overeatingCover Cover that that that your you feel, is only ones able to triumph in you have to make to be “up eliminating the food from your as you launch into a and fasting – a clear example the aesthetic the means, them those that to date”, to stand out and to body by throwing up or using new diet, that this is Rarely eats normal surgeries and do you disorder be popular in the society, laxatives, enemas, or diuretics. the last time, in the meals. It’s all-or- them nutritious caused to stand out for what you If you make up for your binges back of your mind nothing when it by the desire of it turns wear and not for what you by fasting, exercising to there’s a voice comes to food. well before the other are. The fact of being fed excess, or going on crash diets, telling you that you ones; if we look behind has transformed for many this also qualifies as bulimia. can always throw Binge eating signs some years, the body was women into a mathemati- up or use laxatives and symptoms conceived as a temple, for cal operation, calculating how Dieting triggers bulimia’s if you lose control Lack of control over this reason it should not be many calories has each food, destructive cycle of binging again. What you eating – Inability to “adorned” with something controlling its weight and the and purging. The irony is that may not realize stop eating. Eating that affected its integrity, quantity of exercise that you/ the more strict and rigid the is that purging until the point of the body of the women it was they make increasing. diet, the more likely it is that doesn’t come physical discomfort a representation in if same of you’ll become preoccupied, close to wiping and pain. the beauty, the femenidad, the Bulimia nervosa is even obsessed, with food. the slate clean S e c r e c y fineness, fragility, fondness, an eating disorder When you starve yourself, after a binge. surrounding and so many sublime epithets characterized by fre- your body responds with eating – Going to that could be, but now the quent episodes of bin- powerful cravings—its way Binge eating signs the kitchen after image of the woman’s ge eating, followed by frantic of asking for needed nutrition. and symptoms everyone else has body has become object of efforts to avoid gaining weight. Lack of control over eating gone to bed. Going out alone consumption of the publicity, have paparazis As the tension, hunger, and – Inability to stop eating. on unexpected food runs. it is used as a tool to attract the thousands behind and they are When you’re struggling with feelings of deprivation build, Eating until the point of Wanting to eat in privacy. consumer, if in a product the envied by hundred of women. bulimia, life is a constant battle the compulsion to eat becomes physical discomfort and pain. Eating unusually large image of a naked woman, the The plastic surgeries are every between the desire to lose weight too powerful to resist: a Secrecy surrounding eating amounts of food with no product appears it attracts but. time but in fashion, and we or stay thin and the overwhel- “forbidden” food is eaten; a – Going to the kitchen after obvious change in weight. There is you satanizado to feel proud for the beauty of our ming compulsion to binge eat. dietary rule is broken. With everyone else has gone Disappearance of food, such a point the concept of wives, made to scalpel tip, en- an all-or-nothing mindset, to bed. Going out alone numerous empty wrappers or “volume” and “I weigh” that dless hours of gym, diets and You don’t want to binge—you you feel any diet slip-up is a on unexpected food runs. food containers in the garbage, now is considered not very prohibitions (you don’t eat this know you’ll feel guilty and total failure. After having a Wanting to eat in privacy. or hidden stashes of junk food. bite of ice cream, you might Eating unusually large nothing when it comes to food. 6 7
    • March 29th 2012 Edition N° 1 Woman’s prototype imposedMarch 29th 2012 gangplanks, by the Edition N° 1 incites the women to be every time but thin, to shine as the models, what bears to you disorder nutritious. The anorexy in the gangplanksCover Cover 8 9
    • March 29th 2012 Edition N° 1 March 29th 2012 Edition N° 1 Factors that affect regeneration sustainable. 11. The elimination, destruction or degradation annoying or noxious. 18. The modification of those elements or factors that determine the climate. behavior or natural potentiality of those basic components of the one set; threaten the viability the environment of the habitat of the entities taxonómicas florísticas or faunísticas considered in 19. The destruction or alteration unnecessary or unsightly of genetics of the earth or I attempted against the life, health, integrity 1. The contamination of them of floors with or I develop of the man or the air, those to fire not practiced under the forest vocation. of you dilute, the floor, the it forms of you burn 6. The alteration of those the vegetables or animals. flora, the fauna controlled; condition natural ofIn the aim In the aim or other basic components and the extractive exploitation sedimentation in courses, Laura Becerra - “Green in of the atmosphere. of masses action” Magazine 2. the erosion, forests, prairies of algae or or deposits of water. other vegetable formations. 7. the noxious alterations of After evaluation of the 4. the sobrecultivo, the one the one consumption of fossil monocultivo in areas natural flow of the waters. fuels and electricity inappropriate, the 8. the noxious changes and the consumption it can be sobrepastoreo, undue use of the channel or stated that the business the irrigable one faulty of bottom of the waters. activities of the Group can those 9. the sobreexplotación of the be categorized as “low to floors and, in general, any wild flora and their gathering I medium carbon intensive”. cultural practice of the one beyond the limits of its sustainable natural am in danger, vulnerable, the one that strange or landscape. In spite of this favorable noxious effects can be regeneration. insufficiently well-known. 20. The establishment of starting point, Recticel continued 10. The sobreexplotación of 12. The massive application or human establishments perseveres in trying for the basic components the indiscriminate of plaguicidas and to eliminate any of the atmosphere. wild fauna, their slaughter and or the realization of environmental 5. the expansion its of fertilizers. activities impact or keep desaprensiva it captures beyond 13. The introduction or industrial or it to an absolute of the the limits distribution of varieties mining in m i n i m u m . agricultural of their vegetables or exotic animals. wild areas The Group thus frontiers natural 14. The introduction or placed focuses its search salinización, to propagation of illnesses or under on production alkalinization, pestización, you plague vegetables or official processes which flood, sedimentation animals. protection. manage natural and desertificación of 15. The use of products 21. The use resources floors and or substances of very slow and abuse of a n d lands. biodegradation. materials energy 3. the pruning or 16. The accumulation or fissionable. m o r e destruction inadequate disposition of 22. In general, efficiently. unjustified or residuals, garbages, waste or any The reduction indiscriminate waste. act or omission of waste and carbon of trees or bushes; those 17. The production of noises, that it alters dioxide emissions is also forest fires; you touch expense vibrations or vibrations negatively the composition, high up on the agenda. 10 11
    • March 29th 2012 Edition N° 1 March 29th 2012 Edition N° 1 The 10 technologies “green” 10 the digital press To imagine reading the tomorrow’s newspaper 8 using plants and microbes to clean the contamination and then using the same leaf “of virtual paper” New recovery technologies are developing that can help to preserve the to read their favorite author’s last novel. This is one of the possibilities of the electronic with the objective of to remove pollutants of the atmosphere and to restore the quality environment newspaper, a flexible screen that resembles a newspaper a lot but it can be used to newspaper. of the ecosystems. These technologies include bio-remediación (using microbes The screen contains millions of microcapsulas for descontaminar places), fito-remediación that transport electric loads stuck by a fine steel (using plants for descontaminar places), For the year 2025 the world population is increased in 2.9 metallic leaf. Each microcapsula has white and and natural attenuation (allowing that the black particles that are associated with positive environment cleans to if same with the time). trillion people, for the year 2030 60% will be required but ofIn the aim In the aim or negative loads. According to that loads it is energy that at the present time. These are the 10 technologies applied, the white particles and quarter notes come out to the surface exhibiting different 7 planting in the roof “green” that can help to preserve the environment.. patterns. Alone in the United States more than It is astonishing that this concept attributed to 55 million newspapers are the hanging gardens of Babylon, one of the 7 sold every working day. marvels of the world, was not successful in the modern world. The legend says that the roofs, the balconies, and the terraces of the real palace of 9 eliminating the CO2 Babylon were transformed into orchards by the The dioxide of carbon king’s order to give him spirits one of their wives. is one of the gases that The roof gardens help to absorb the heat, generates the effect they reduce the impact of dioxide of carbon hothouse and that it absorbing the CO2 and converting it in I contributes to the global oxygenate, they absorb the storm water, they heating. Some experts reduce in summer the use of conditioners of air. say that it is impossible Finally, the technique could reduce the effect of to repress the emission of “island of heat” that happens in urban centers. CO2 in the atmosphere and that we have to find a solution to come undone 6 implementing Waves and Tides of the gas. A proposed The oceans cover more than 70 percent of the method is to inject it in surface of the Earth. The waves are an abundant the earth before this it source of energy that could be directed to can reach the atmosphere. turbines that transform this mechanical energy After the CO2 is separated in electric power. The main inconvenience is from other gases of the implementation, due to the variability in the emission, it can be the size and force of the waves. The key this “buried” in abandoned in being able to store enough energy like to wells of petroleum, be able to replace these moments. In Portugal stagnate saline or rocks. you this developing a new project that it will supply of energy to but of 1500 homes. 12 13
    • March 29th 2012 Edition N° 1 March 29th 2012 Edition N° 1In the aim In the aim 2 eliminating the Salt According to studies carried out by the United become fuel if he/she undergoes them enough Nations the escaces of fresh water it will affect heat and pressure. This process is denominated to people’s trillions by the middle of this century. Thermal Depolimerización and it is very similar The desalinizacion process extracts the salt and to the one to the natural geologic process minerals of the seawater transforming it into that generates fossil fuels as the petroleum. drinkable water. The problem of this solution is This process is characterized by its speed. Instead its high cost, because other energy are needed to of requiring thousands of years and extreme heat the water that by means of the evaporation conditions of heat and pressure, just as the he/ and a later filtrate becomes drinkable water. she makes the production of fuel on the base 5 converting the thermal energy of the of fossils, the PDT achieves the same results in oceans hours, using a series of tanks, pipes, bombs and The collector but big of solar energy that or heat. The two applications but acquaintances 1 elaborating fuels of “almost any thing” boilers, which can settle in the garage of the patio. it is in the earth and it is the ocean. The are the modules fotovoltáicos and the thermal Another new relatively simple technology has oceans absorb every day enough energy of collectors. The new investigations related with appeared, which can help in the transition of the the sun comparable to the thermal energy this technology, use mirrors and parabolic use of fossil fuels. Any I waste that it contains contained in 250 trillion barrels of petroleum. plates, to concentrate the power of the sun carbon from a tire until waste of animals they can The technologies OTEC (Ocean Thermal optimizing this way the energy absorption. It Energy Conversion) they convert the thermal finishes it technological innovation associated energy contained in the oceans in electricity to the solar energy it is the development using the difference of temperature among of a Solar Painting to generate electricity. the surface of the water, which is hot, and the cold of the bottom of the ocean. The inconvenience of this technology is that not yet it is the sufficiently efficient thing as to be used as main source of energy generation. 3 the power of the Hydrogen The hydrogen is presented as the green alternative to the traditional fossil fuels, generating energy 4 the New Ideas Lots starting from an electrochemical reaction The Energy of the sun that arrives to the earth in among I oxygenate and hydrogen. The main form of photons, can be transformed into energy problem is that the hydrogen is not in pure state. 14 15
    • March 29th 2012 Edition N° 1 March 29th 2012 Edition N° 1 Renewable energy At the present time new technologies are transformation of fuels, or what is same, is not developing to optimize the energy production big energy consumptions, neither radioactive generated by the radiation of the sun. The but residuals, neither problems of transport, recent and promising it is the nanotecnología neither black tides, neither contamination of The first steps in the use of these energy were carried out use applied to solar cells. (to see articulates solar Painting to generate electricity) the air in the refineries, neither explosions of gas, neither aggressive chemical agents... “ toward ends of the XIX century, but the appearance of - “Neither there are combustion neither the petroleum braked that development. During the last The Sun hurtles on the Earth four thousand times more energy than the one that we will coalition of fuels, what is equal to you don’t have an accident nuclear, no “poured years, due to the increment of the cost of the fossil fuels and consume in one year, and it influences of direct controlled” of radioactive products, non the derived environmental problems of their exploitation, form or insinuation in the production of other emissions to the atmosphere of Co2 neitherIn the aim In the aim energy, as the eolic one, hydraulics and biomass. other gases provocative hothouses of the the interest has resurged in developing these energy. global climatic change, not sour pollutants, not Environmental benefits toxic gases, absence of thermal pollution... “ - Decrease of the emissions of CO2 and in - “Residuals are not generated, for what consequence reduction of the atmospheric there is not escombreras that can burn also, contamination, of the effect hothouse taken neither radioactive residuals that will obsess place by the emissions of CO2 and of the until the generations that inside hundred climatic change caused by the effect hothouse. and thousands of years will have to inhabit the planet that you/they inherit of us.” Eolic energy Social benefits: It is produced indirectly by the solar - “The Eolic Energy provides many but work energy, since the difference of temperature positions for teravatio-hour taken place a and atmospheric pressure that the solar year (TWh/año) that any other energy source: radiation generates, it is what unchains the 542 the eolic one, have more than enough movement of the masses of air: THE WIND The renewable energy are those whose sources are indispensable for Environmental the life and inexhaustible since they are in continuous renovation. benefits: - “Mining doesn’t exist, that is to The sources of renewable energy are the solar radiation, the say there is not big movements wind, the movement of the waves and the tides, the difference of lands, neither of the water of the rivers, the heat of terrestrial underground haulage of silts, neither alteration and the energy accumulated by the alive beings (biomass). of beds of water, neither Solar energy much for temperature, putting an I liquidate contamination for The solar energy is the one taken place by the in boil that when generating vapor this it will particles, neither solar radiation that arrives to the earth. Of her put in movement the turbines that generate accumulation it can be obtained heat and electricity basically. electricity in definitive or through photovoltaic of sterile It can be used in heating systems using thermal modules that absorb the radiation a chemical radioactive.” collectors and to produce electric power so reaction that generates electricity which can be - “There are not metallurgy neither 100 of the nuclear one, 116 of the coal, etc. stored in batteries for its later use taking place. 16 17
    • March 29th 2012 Edition N° 1 March 29th 2012 Edition N° 1 (data of the Worldwatch Institute, 1990). “ methods that clean the emissions of gases. - “The impact of the Eolic Energy about the - It produces work to the ambient temperature: Public Health is a lot of minor that that of It is not necessary to use refrigeration conventional energy sources as the nuclear systems or boilers that consume energy one, the coal, or the petroleum whose noxious and, in many cases, they contaminate, effects are well-known sobradamente.” for what is more profitable in this aspect. - “The development of the Eolic Energy is - Storage of water for irrigable compatible with other human activities due - He/she allows to carry out recess to its scarce real occupation of the land.” activities (I row, to take a bath, etc) - “Once in operation the Power station, all - It Avoids floods to regulate the flow possibility of alterations is excluded in theIn the aim In the aim quality of the air, since polluting emissions Geothermal don’t take place to the atmosphere. The only To obtain the the energy the reservorio it is damages on this element of the natural means perforated as if was an oil well, and the vapor is sent constitute it the mechanical and aerodynamic by a pipe toward a generating turbine of electricity. noises of the machine, and the generation of shades that varies annual and daily. Although Advantages it should be had it presents that the distances - The geothermal reservations are to that you/they are the next populated areas, enormous and they run much less risk of and the grade of the population’s acceptance for being drained that other energy sources. this type of works are two important factors that - The contamination is smaller and minimize this class of impacts considerably.” the production costs are smaller compared with other energy resources. Hydraulic energy It is based on taking advantage of the fall of Biomass the water from certain height, the tides and the It is the energy that is obtained direct waves. The energy caused by the movement or indirectly of biological resources of the water becomes kinetics when at great Several types of biomass exist each one speed going the water by the turbines, causing a with different technology; this way, the rotation movement that finally, he/she becomes solid biomass, like it is the wood, he/she electric power by means of the generators. burns or it gasifies, while the liquid biomass, atmosphere provided that the vegetation is - like vegetable oils, it is used directly in renewed to the same speed that demeans. It diminishes the external Their potential is basically in its abundance, motors or turbines, and the humid biomass - It doesn’t emit polluting sulforados or dependence of the supply of fuels. since fourth three parts of the surface can become combustion gas biologically. nitrogenados, neither you grieve solid particles. - The technology for its use has of the Earth are covered for water, for - A part of the biomass for energy ends comes a good grade of technological what is a source with many resources. Advantages: from residual materials that it is necessary development for many applications. - The balance of emitted CO2 is neuter. The to eliminate. The energy use supposes - It is an important field of technological Benefits combustion of biomass, if he/she is carried to transform a residual into a resource. innovation. The technological answers in - Readiness: It is an inexhaustible resource, as out under appropriate conditions, it produces - The energy cultivations will substitute course are directed to optimize the energy yield long as as soon as the cycle of the water lasts. water and CO2, but the emitted quantity of to cultivations excedentarios in the of the resource, to minimize the environmental - “It doesn’t contaminate” (in the proportion to this last gas, main responsible for the effect market of foods. That can offer a new effects of the taken advantage of residuals the traditional sources of energy). it doesn’t emit hothouse, it was captured by the plants during opportunity to the agricultural sector. and of the own applications, to increase the gases “hothouse” neither it causes sour rain, that their growth. That is to say, the CO2 of the alive - The production of biomass is completely commercial competitiveness of the products is to say, it doesn’t contaminate the atmosphere, biomass is part of a continuous circulation flow decentralized, based on a dispersed resource and to facilitate new applications of great for what it is not necessary to use expensive between the atmosphere and the vegetation, in the territory that can have great social interest like the biocombustibles, among others. without it supposes increment of that gas in the and economic incidence in the rural world. 18 19
    • March 29th 2012 Edition N° 1 March 29th 2012 Edition N° 1 ART WRITING ON THE of art, leaving the grounds crew and performing large very colorful designs, in keeping with the times. This brought out the tattoo of the ports and began popularizing a first tattoo. In our day these hippies are office workers, teachers and SKIN principals, but lingers on your skin of its youth brand, which has contributed the great popularization of tattooing, separating it entirely from sailors and criminals. This restructuring of the social acceptance of tattooing has now led to people increasingly feel more interest in decorating susu body. The art of tattooing goes back in time farther than most people think. The Egyptians already knew and practiced Tattoos BorneoSe believes the tattoo process was much the art of tattooing 3000 years ago. It is known that since more elaborate than today, was a ritual for example in from the XI dynasty Egyptian practiced the art of tattooing. Egypt was carried out almost exclusively by women, a painful process that often is used to show courage or confirm the maturity in the same way that you canPlus Plus still observe the rituals of tribes of New Zealand. Borneo is one of the few places where it is currently practiced the traditional form of tribal tattoo. The tattoo and piercing recall the art of Bali and Java, and tattoo instruments are similar to those used in Polynesia. The Polynesian tattoo was the most artistic in the ancient world, was characterized by elaborate geometric designs, which were embellished and renewed during the lifetime of the individual to covering your entire body. According to Marco Polo in his “Travels” respect a person is measured by the number of tattoos he had. Tattooing was also used as punishment, and He observed several lines and dots tattooed by the British expedition led by Captain Cook individuals accused of sacrilege should be tattooed. on his body. The Mummy Asecond also found on his return from Tahiti in 1771. This explains Because of this, the Greek and Roman physicians these same models, but also had her pubic region the natural association that has prevailed to started practicing tattoo removal. Slowly left the dotted lower. Evidence to date suggests that in this day among marineros.A tattoos and tell an tattoo slaves and criminals to spread Christianity ancient Egyptian art was restricted to priests. anecdote that Don Juan de Borbon (father of the in the Roman Empire. The Emperor Constantine, present King of Spain) had tattooed his right first Christian emperor of Rome, issued a decree The proof that the tattoo has always lived forearm, a souvenir of their stay in the Navy against this activity. It is believed that the negative with the man found in 1991 in a glacier England. And British royals returned tattooed attitude against the tattoo originated in this decree. on the border between Austria and Italy. his expeditions in the South Seas. Tattoos Papua There appeared frozen Neolithic hunter In North America, tattooing was associated with religious and was 5300 years, back and knees tattooed. The association between tattoos Tattoos and magical practices, was a symbolic ritual and a unique brand crime also came here, sailors, people often that would allow the soul to overcome the obstacles in his way In the photo on the right you can see a second shipped over long periods of time to avoid to death. The tattoo was a common practice among the natives “ice man” found in Siberia, is believed dead for the law, was promoting this partnership. of Central America, the natives in their bodies tattooed images 2500!. It could see a tattoo on his shoulder. The of gods. Tattoo art was rediscovered by explorers. Banks, who latter can be visited at the museum in Moscow. Tattoos remained dormant until it resurfaced sailed scientific artist with Captain Cook, in 1769 described with the hippies in the 60 and 70, they adopted the process of tattooing in Polynesia. Cook’s sailors began the The tattoo was reintroduced into Western society the tattoo and he was elevated to the status tradition of tattooed sailors and this hobby quickly spread among 20 21
    • March 29th 2012 Edition N° 1 March 29th 2012 Edition N° 1 the sailors, who learned the Place in the skin art and practiced it to travel bordo.También Cook were those who described the art among the Maori Moko, a painful and elaborate process that lasted months The word tattoo is said to has two major derivations- from and gave results in spiral the polynesian word ‘ta’ which means striking something patterns and black stripes. and the tahitian word ‘tatau’ which means ‘to mark something’. Tattoos JapónAlrededor 1000 the history of tattoo began over 5000 years ago and is as BC tattooing entry achieved through trade routes to India, diverse as the people who wear them. China and Japan. Despite a glorious start in Japan, Tattoos are created by inserting colored materials beneathPlus Plus tattooing was reserved for those who had committed the skins surface. the first tattoos probably were created serious crimes, and tattooed individuals were ostracized by accident. someone had a small wound, and rubbed it by their families, and this with a hand that was dirty with soot and ashes from the fire. was the worst punishment. Matsuhito Emperor, before once the wound had healed, they saw that a mark stayed the opening of Japan to the permanently. West decided to ban tattoos to avoid giving the impression of savagery to foreigners. Despite the social sciences’ growing fascination with tattooing, In America where it had and the immense popularity of tattoos themselves, existed for centuries, only the practice has not left much of a historical record. massive echoed during the Civil War. One of the first professional tattooists was Bronze age CHFellows. It is considered that the first tattoo studio In 1991, a five thousand year knee, was opened in 1870 in old tattooed man ‘ötzi the ice six straight lines 15 This activity began in the port area, where centimeters long New York by Martin Hildebrandt, a German man’ tattooed sailors but also wealthy people who above the kidneys and immigrant. His biggest competition was made the headlines of possessed vessel. In the late seventies and early numerous parallel Samuel O ‘Reilly invented the tattoo machine newspapers all over the world eighties, the phenomenon spread even more, lines on the ankles. in 1891, this machine was inspired by a when especially among the upper middle classes, the position of the machine invented by Thomas Edison. Around his frozen body was discovered with the birth of an alternative culture that tattoo marks suggests 1900 there were tattoo studios in most major on a mountain between considered this art as a form of extravagance. that they were cities. Today, is famous in the world of tattooing austria and italy. the name of Sailor Jerry Collins (1911-1973). this is the best preserved corpse probably of that period ever found. applied for therapeutic In Spain, you can start talking about tattoos and the skin bears 57 tattoos: a reasons (treatment of tattoo artists around the sixties and seventies. cross on the inside of the left arthritis). 22 23
    • March 29th 2012 Edition N° 1 March 29th 2012 Edition N° 1 Pazyryk culture associated with ritualistic practice. the egyptians spread in 1948, 120 miles north of the border between the practice of tattooing throughout the world. russia and china, russian archeologist sergei the pyramid-building third and fourth dynasties rudenko began excavating a group of tombs, or of egypt developed international nations with kurgans, in the high altai mountains of western crete, greece, persia, and arabia. by 2,000 BC and southern siberia. mummies were found that the art of tattooing had stretched out all the date from around 2400 years ago. The tattoos way to southeast asia .the ainu (western asian on their bodies represent a variety of animals. t nomads) then brought it with them The griffins and monsters are thought to have as they moved to japan. a magical significance but some elements are believed to be purely decorative. altogether the tattoos are believed to reflect the status of the individual.Plus Plus Egypt England written records, physical remains, and works of art relevant to egyptian tattoo have virtually explorers returned home with tattooed been ignored by earlier egyptologists polynesians to exhibit at fairs, in lecture halls influenced by prevailing social attitudes toward and in dime museums, to demonstrate the the medium. height of european civilization compared to the today however, we know that there have been ‘primitive natives’. after captain cook returned bodies recovered from his voyage to polynesia tattooing became dating to as early XI dynasty exhibiting the art a tradition in the british navy. by the middle of form of tattoo. the 18th century most british ports had at least in 1891, archaeologists discovered the one professional tattoo artist in residence. mummified remains in 1862, the prince of wales, later to become of amunet, a priestess of the goddess hathor, at king edward VII, thebes who received his first tattoo - a jerusalem cross lived some time between 2160 BC and 1994 - on his arm. he started a tattoo fad among BC. the aristocracy when he was tattooed before this female mummy displayed several lines and ascending to the throne. dots tattooed in 1882, his sons, the duke of clarence and the about her body - grouping dots and/or dashes duke of york were aligned into were tattooed by the japanese master tattooist, abstract geometric patterns. this art form was hori chiyo. restricted to women only, and usually these women were 24 25
    • March 29th 2012 Edition N° 1 March 29th 2012 Edition N° 1 Criminality Japan for a long time, tattooing was the the earliest evidence of tattooing in japan preserve of sailors and... is found in the form of clay figurines criminals! in prison, the tattoo which have faces painted or engraved to - professionally done and represent tattoo marks. the oldest homemade- indelibly imprint figurines of this kind have been on their bodies what these men recovered from tombs dated 3,000 BC desire in their souls: autonomy or older, and many other such figurines and identity. the ultimate symbol have been found in tombs dating from for gang members are their gang the second and third millennia BC. tattoos, getting a permanent these figurines served as stand-ins for mark is a sign of showing total living individuals who symbolically commitment to the gang. these accompanied the dead on their journeyPlus Plus tattoos can reveal lots of things, into the unknown, and it is believed that like, who you are/what gang the tattoo marks had religious or magical youre in/ what your beliefs are significance. the first written record of (racist etc..), japanese tattooing is found in a what you have done, where you chinese dynastic history compiled in have been, how many years 297 AD. you have been in jail (also referred the japanese were interested in the art to as ‘dead time’) and even mostly for its decorative things like how many you have attributes, as opposed to magical ones. killed. the horis - the japanese known symbols include teardrops tattoo artists - were under the eye as well as spider the undisputed webs on the elbows to symbolize people killed. masters. their use of Circus colors, perspective, Tattoo flash and imaginative designs gave the the popularity of tattooing during the latter as with other artistic mediums and cultural practice a whole part of the nineteenth century and the first half developments, vocabulary continually evolves, new angle. the classic of the twentieth century owed much to reflecting the depth and potential of body japanese tattoo, is a the circus. when circuses prospered, tattooing marking and of the contemporary imagination. full body suit. prospered. for over 70 years every major circus employed several completely tattooed in recent years tattooing has emerged to the people. some were exhibited in sideshows; forefront of popular consciousness. today a others performed traditional circus acts such tattoo ‘flash’, is a folder of tattoo-artwork by as juggling and tattoo artists. styles range from the traditional China sword swallowing. and vernacular to the sacred and innovative. from southern china the practice spread along the silk route. 26 27
    • March 29th 2012 Edition N° 1 March 29th 2012 Edition N° 1 Polynesia subcultures from auckland to the netherlands. North america the hawaiian people had their traditional tattoo in pacific cultures tattooing has a huge historic art, known as ‘kakau’. it served them not only significance. polynesian tattooing is considered for ornamentation and distinction, but to guard early jesuit accounts testify to the the most intricate and skillful tattooing of the their health and spiritual well-being. widespread practice of ancient world. intricate patterns, mimicking woven reeds or tattooing among native americans. polynesian peoples, believe that a persons other natural forms, among the chickasaw, outstanding mana, their spiritual power or life force, is graced mens arms, legs, torso and face. warriors were recognised displayed through their tattoo. women were generally tattooed on the hand, by their tattoos. among the ontario the vast majority of what we know today fingers, wrists iroquoians, elaborate about these ancient arts has been passed down and sometimes on their tongue. tattoos reflected high status. in north- through legends, songs, and ritual ceremonies. west america, elaborate geometrical designs which were often the arrival of western missionaries forced this inuit womens chins were tattooed to added to, renewed, and embellished throughout unique art form indicate marital status the life of the individual until theyPlus Plus and group identity. covered the entire body. the first permanent tattoo shop in new york city was settled up in samoa, the tradition of applying in 1846 and began a tradition by tattoo, or ‘tatau’, by hand, has long tattooing military servicemen been defined by rank and title, from both sides of the civil war. with chiefs and their assistants, samuel oreilly invented the electric descending from notable families in tattooing machine in 1891. the proper birth order. the tattooing ceremonies for young chiefs, typically conducted at the onset of puberty, were elaborate affairs and were a key part of their ascendance to a leadership role. Vikings the permanent marks left by the tattoo artists would forever celebrate it is very likely that the their endurance and dedication to vikings were tattooed. cultural traditions. at around year 1100 the arab the first europeans who set foot on ibn fadlan described a samoan soil were members of a 1787 meeting with some vikings. french expedition. they got a closer he thought them very rude, look at the natives and reported that dirty ‘the men have their thighs painted or - and covered with pictures. tattooed in such a way that one would think them clothed, although they are almost naked’. the mythological origins of samoan into decline as tattooing has been discouraged tattooing and the extraordinary cross-cultural or forbidden by history of tatau has been transported to the most christian churches throughout history. migrant communities of new zealand, and later disseminated into various international 28 29
    • March 29th 2012 Edition N° 1 March 29th 2012 Edition N° 1 tattooing, but it is related to tattooing). made by lifting the skin a little, Africa and making a cut with a knife or some other sharp thing in africa, where people have dark skin, it is special sands or ashes were rubbed in to make difficult to make raised scars coloured tattoos as we know them. in patterns on the body, it can be felt like braille but they want to be tattooed anyway, so they lettering... have developed these patterns often follow local traditions. another technique - they make scarifications (this is not really Greece and rome the greeks learnt tattooing from the persians.Plus their woman were fascinated by the idea of tattoos as exotic beauty marks. the romans adopted tattooing from the greeks. roman writers such as virgil, seneca, and galenus reported that many slaves and criminals were tattooed. a legal inscription from ephesus indicates that during the early roman empire all slaves exported to asia were tattooed with the words ‘tax paid’. greeks and romans also used tattooing as a punishment. early in the fourth century, when constantine became roman emperor and rescinded the prohibition on christianity, he also banned tattooing on face, which was common for convicts, soldiers, and gladiators. constantine believed that the human face was a representation of the image of god and should not be disfigured or defiled. 30 31
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