Swim ppt ch16


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Swim ppt ch16

  1. 1. Chapter 16 The Child from Thirty to Thirty-Six Months of Age ©2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  2. 2. Materials and Activities • Two year olds like large muscle activity • They are developing fine muscles for controlled manipulation of objects • Children represent their ideas in play and language, and they recognize pictures • They listen to stories and enjoy participating in rhymes, fingerplays, music, and singing • Materials may be homemade or commercially made ©2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  3. 3. Materials and Activities • Activity Ideas – Emergent curriculum is created for each specific child within a group based upon current knowledge of what a child can do, is interested in, and is ready for – Holistic curriculum addressed the development of the whole child – Ongoing projects result in challenges and problems to be solved ©2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  4. 4. Physical Development • The older two-year-old is increasing stability in walking and running • Older toddlers ride tricycles • They jump up and down, they jump off objects, and they jump forward • Handedness is established • Fine motor skills for dressing are developed • Self-help skills help older toddlers to prepare for nap, toilet independently and dress with some assistance ©2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  5. 5. Suggestions for Implementing Curriculum-- Physical Development • Provide space and materials for active play • Play games and sing songs that involve movement and jumping • Play music for dancing, include scarves, etc. • Allow children to hold book and turn pages • Plan a routine that allows time for children to use self-help skills • Be available to assist as needed ©2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  6. 6. Cognitive and Language Development • Cognitive Development: – Older toddlers use observing, questioning, manipulating, classifying and measuring to learn about their world – Children construct physical knowledge by moving and observing – Children construct logico-mathematical knowledge by discovering relationships between objects – Children learn social-arbitrary knowledge from other people ©2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  7. 7. Cognitive Development Curriculum Implementation • As you solve problems together, talk through your own questions • Listen to child’s explanation of classification • Provide choices • Encourage child to use art materials to represent objects and ideas • Use words labeling quantity, number, positions in space • Use time related words during daily experiences ©2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  8. 8. Cognitive and Language Development • Language Development: – The labeling process is part of children’s construction of the identity of objects – Older toddlers speak in more complete sentences and are able to express several ideas in a sequence of sentences – Play provides opportunities to combine language with imagination – Reading aloud provides language patterns, reading pictures encourages self-expression, reading fosters larger vocabularies and story-telling abilities – The ability to produce or express language during the toddler years has been associated with larger vocabularies and better reading outcomes during the early elementary years. – Scribbling continues to involve children in writing ©2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  9. 9. Suggestions for Implementing Curriculum-- Language Development • Provide dramatic play opportunities to combine language with imagination. • Read aloud to provide examples of language patterns and expression • Use correct tense and plurals when responding to children’s language • Partner with families to support language and literacy development with literacy bags • Write children’s names, sentences on their artwork papers, and dictated sentences on their pages of scribbling ©2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  10. 10. Emotional Development • Older toddlers express a wide variety of feelings • They are beginning to express feeling in a socially acceptable manner • There are variations in cultural expression of feelings • Toddlers express negativism and aggression in different ways • Dispositions such as discipline and persistence enables success • Toddlers can be encouraged to display caring behaviors and responsibility through class pets ©2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  11. 11. Suggestions for Implementing Curriculum-- Emotional Development • Be aware of and respect the cultural differences that children bring with them to school • Support caring behaviors with a class pet • Provide opportunities for challenging, developmental and content-rich learning experiences • Provide opportunities for children to work out strong feelings and the need for control through play and classroom responsibilities ©2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  12. 12. Social Development • During the pre-conceptual stage, toddlers continue to work on perspective-taking • Infants and toddlers are capable of building enduring friendships • Children are increasingly aware of others as individuals • They use adults as resources • Self-control is increasing, with some ability to delay gratification • Adults who use the 3 As consistently help children to learn how to interact socially ©2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  13. 13. Suggestions for Implementing Curriculum-- Social Development • Provide enough toys and materials so child can control use of some of them • Allow toddlers to use you as a resource • Praise the child’s spontaneous helping • Encourage sharing by providing opportunities to share • Use daily routines to demonstrate turn-taking, etc. ©2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  14. 14. Learning in Content Areas • Traditional methods of instruction for preschool or elementary-age children should not be used with toddlers • Use engaged, active exploration that is child-led for content learning as well as supporting development • Integrate content across developmental domains • Projects designed for toddlers illustrate how scientific and mathematical knowledge can be explored ©2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  15. 15. Spotlight on Research • Toddlers and Media – AAP recommends elimination of screen time for children under 2 years of age – Comprehension is less from video than from real- life (video deficit) unless parents are engaged in shared focus – Time spent viewing takes away from time spent on reading, playing and interacting ©2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  16. 16. Checkpoint Discussion Questions • Compare how children learn physical knowledge, logico-mathematical knowledge, and social-arbitrary knowledge • Explain the role adults play in toddler’s acquisition of oral and written language skills. ©2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  17. 17. Checkpoint Discussion Questions • What are the benefits to children of having a class pet? • Provide two examples of cultural differences in expressing emotions. Describe which aspects of emotional expression those differences reflect. • Describe how you would assist a child in demonstrating ownership of toys or security items. ©2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.