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Swim ppt ch12
Swim ppt ch12
Swim ppt ch12
Swim ppt ch12
Swim ppt ch12
Swim ppt ch12
Swim ppt ch12
Swim ppt ch12
Swim ppt ch12
Swim ppt ch12
Swim ppt ch12
Swim ppt ch12
Swim ppt ch12
Swim ppt ch12
Swim ppt ch12
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Swim ppt ch12

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  • 1. Chapter 12 The Child from Eight to Twelve Months of Age ©2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  • 2. Materials and Activities • Materials for this age group must be challenging and safe: – Most infants in this age range are mobile and will encounter an expanded world – Small enough to grasp with the palm and fingers or with thumbs and forefingers, but not small enough for them to swallow • Materials may be homemade or commercially made ©2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  • 3. Physical Development • Infants of this age are rapidly developing gross motor skills: – The sequence of locomotion proceeds from creeping to crawling, pulling up to standing, stepping to walking • Infants of this age use the following fine motor skills: —Poking, pushing, pulling, using pincer grasp, clapping, bringing hands to mid-point, banging objects, making marks with crayon, transferring toys hand to hand • Infants use fingers and spoon to eat • Nap schedules are changing ©2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  • 4. Suggestions for Implementing Curriculum-- Physical Development • Provide adequate floor space where they can roll, crawl, climb, reach, stand, and walk • Remove furniture that could tip over, cover sharp corners • Place toys slightly beyond reach to stimulate movement • Allow infant to stand and step around to hold on to furniture • Provide materials for grasping, mouthing, banging, throwing, dropping, carrying • Allow infant to hold bottle, cup, spoon, finger food ©2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  • 5. Cognitive and Language Development • Cognitive Development – The processes of assimilation and accommodation help children to make sense of information • Piaget’s Sensorimotor Stage of Cognitive Development: – In Stage 3, the infant continues to explore object permanence – Infants imitate people and things not present, deferred imitation ©2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  • 6. Suggestions for Implementing Curriculum--Cognitive Development • Play hiding games with familiar objects • Introduce games where actions are imitated and repeated • Follow the child’s lead • Verbalize the child’s actions ©2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  • 7. Cognitive and Language Development • Language Development – About one year of age, infants typically speak their first recognizable words and use a combination of sounds, babbling, and single words to communicate with themselves and others – Responsiveness to babbling builds vocabulary – Book reading guides young children in turn-taking patterns and conversation – Young children can express their ideas using writing tools ©2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  • 8. Suggestions for Implementing Curriculum-- Language Development • Name important objects with one word • Reinforce talk about Mama and Dada • Use infant’s name when you talk with him • Label actions such as “bye-bye” • Read aloud to infants, point to pictures as you read • Allow infants to begin to scribble ©2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  • 9. Emotional Development • Infants express feelings such as happiness and anger • Infants can now conceive of goals or desires and actively pursue them • Teachers must help infants and family members to develop rituals to deal with emotions • At this age, infants are developing preferences and independence • Redirecting negative behaviors to positive works better than drawing attention to negative • The temperaments of infants produce varying responses and intensity of response ©2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  • 10. Suggestions for Implementing Curriculum-- Emotional Development • Use calm, quiet talking to describe feelings • Allow infants to make choices • Identify and record preferences, use this information for planning • Encourage attempts at self dressing and feeding • Provide attention for appropriate behavior • Use ‘no’ sparingly ©2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  • 11. Social Development • The mobility infants now have enables them to encounter different people or to move away from them • Infants at this age do not clearly separate others’ desires and needs from their own • Securely attached mobile infants will stay with a trusted caregiver, watching newcomers with a healthy suspicion ©2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  • 12. Suggestions for Implementing Curriculum-- Social Development • Low teacher-child ratios and a primary caregiving system assist in meeting the social needs of infants • Verbalize limits and help infant choose other activities and materials • Play responsive games like ‘patty-cake’ • Provide enough toys and materials so infant does not need to share • Provide positive verbal attention even though you may be busy with another child ©2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  • 13. Spotlight on Research • Infants and Divorce – Given the importance of healthy attachment, the impact of divorce on very young children should not be overlooked – Infants are especially vulnerable to emotional and physical effects of divorce – Research has substantiated the positive impact of both mothers and fathers on developmental outcomes ©2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  • 14. Checkpoint Discussion Questions • List five strategies you can use to facilitate the physical development of an infant in this age range. • An 11-month-old is responding to labels of objects. Describe a game you can play with this child to stimulate the child’s understanding and use of language. ©2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  • 15. Checkpoint Discussion Questions • Why is sharing difficult for the infant between 8 and 12 months of age? • Identify four ways an infant in this age range asserts independence. • Explain the concept of object permanence and how it reflects and impacts both social and cognitive development. ©2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.

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