Swim ppt ch09


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Swim ppt ch09

  1. 1. Chapter 9 Designing the Curriculum ©2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  2. 2. Infant-Toddler Curriculum • Curriculum is everything that you do with a child or that a child experiences through her interactions with the environment from the time she enters the classroom until the time she leaves it (Greenman et al., 2008) – Plan based upon each child’s development – Caregiving strategies scaffold or challenge each child to reach the next level – Children involved in selecting and initiating activities ©2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  3. 3. Infant-Toddler Curriculum • Curriculum involves the whole child • There is no single curriculum for all infants • Early childhood educators need to continually gather observational data, analyze it, and use it when selecting materials and planning curricular experiences ©2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  4. 4. Influences on the Curriculum • Influences from Cultural Expectations – Parental attitudes and expectations are shaped by various sources – Cultural variations are evident even within a family – Caregiver cultural experiences and expectations are also brought to the caregiving role • Cultural Diversity – Shared, learned symbolic system of values, attitudes and beliefs – Avoid unknowingly acting on your biases – Create partnerships with families to bridge cultural gaps ©2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  5. 5. Influences on the Curriculum • The Anti-Bias movement (King): – Culture is learned – Culture is characteristic of groups – Culture is a set of rules for behavior – Culture is learned to different degrees – Cultures borrow and share rules – Members of cultural groups may not be able to describe the rules ©2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  6. 6. Influences on the Curriculum Influences from the Care Setting • Family Child Care Home – A familiar, home-like setting and 1:1 relationship • Child Care Center – The caregiver works closely with the family to meet infant and family needs • Time – Schedule, number of children and age range affects planning • Educational Philosophy of Program and Teachers – Program philosophy, personal philosophy come into play ©2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  7. 7. Influences on the Curriculum • Influences from the Child – Every child has an internal need to grow, develop, and learn – Children look, touch, taste, listen, smell, reach, bite, push, kick, smile, and take any other action they can in order to actively involve themselves with the world – Infants learn from the responses they get to their actions ©2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  8. 8. Routine Care Times • Our traditional notion of teaching is inappropriate for very young children • Using the 3 As while meeting basic needs promotes optimal development and learning • Flexible Schedule – Your schedule depends on the infants or toddlers you are caring for – The daily schedule must be individualized in infant and toddler care – Schedules and routines change over time ©2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  9. 9. Routine Care Times • Arrival Time – Listen and document details, comfort child • Sleeping – Coordinate home and school routines – Provide safe sleep environments • Eating – Infants and toddlers eat when they are hungry • Toothbrushing • Diapering and Toileting – Engage in positive learning experiences • Handwashing • End of the Day ©2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  10. 10. Planned Learning Experiences • Plan learning activities for times when children are alert, aware, and interested • Observe and stop before the child tires • Allow time for self-directed play • Follow NAEYC’s guidelines for DAP • Evaluate rituals and practices to meet learning needs of infants and toddlers ©2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  11. 11. Planned Learning Experiences • Daily Plans – For each child using developmental profile – Balance reinforcing skills with introducing new • Weekly Plans – Focus on appropriate materials and equipment • Learning Centers • Projects – Open-ended experiences to construct knowledge • Feedback – Use data to make changes to curriculum ©2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  12. 12. Spotlight on Research • Infant Brain Development – Infants and toddlers use everything within their realm—people, materials and equipment—to develop their brains (Lewin-Behnam, 2010) ©2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  13. 13. Checkpoint Discussion Questions • List and explain 3 influences on the curriculum. Make sure that your answer provides examples from three different types of influences. • Write a brief newsletter article for a child care center explaining its approach to cultural diversity. • Write a statement that could be included in a policy handbook describing why flexibility in schedules is important in an infant and toddler program. ©2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  14. 14. Checkpoint Discussion Questions • Choose 3 routine care times. Explain how each event can be used to promote the development of the child. • How is toilet learning a complex developmental accomplishment? • List 3 reasons for creating daily plans for infants and young toddlers. • How can a project be used to involve a child physically? emotionally? socially? cognitively? ©2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.