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Swim ppt ch08


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  • 1. Chapter 8 The Indoor and Outdoor Learning Environments ©2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  • 2. Introduction to Principles of Environmental Design • The classroom environment as the “third teacher” • Arrangement of space and materials provide cues for appropriate behavior • Spaces support social relationships and cognitive development • How can the learning environment facilitate optimal development? ©2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  • 3. The Teacher’s Perspective • Decision making based upon reflection about: –The age of children in the classroom –Their needs, interests, and abilities –The program’s philosophy –Licensing and accreditation standards –Guidelines for developmentally appropriate practice ©2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  • 4. The Teacher’s Perspective • Learning centers – Space is arranged in centers for exploration and routines – Any experience done inside can be done outside – A balance of real and open-ended materials promotes cognitive development – Independently selected materials promotes social and emotional development ©2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  • 5. The Teacher’s Perspective • Use of Space – An understanding of child development and learning theory guides space planning – Daily experience with sand and water – Arrange space to allow for messes – Arrange noisy areas close together – Provide space for quiet play and areas to be alone ©2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  • 6. The Teacher’s Perspective • Calm, Safe Learning Environment – Provide for exploration of familiar and novel spaces – Add homelike features – Plan for transparency and traffic patterns • Basic Needs – Provide separate sinks for eating and diapering, which allow for supervision – Plan for rest throughout the day ©2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  • 7. The Child’s Perspective • Spaces must guarantee the well being of each child and of the group of children • Spaces must reflect and be responsive to the unique developmental characteristics of children of specific ages as well as the individual children within that age group ©2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  • 8. 10 General Principles of Infant and Toddler Learning Environments • Transparency – Space that provides good sight lines and visible materials • Flexibility – Space can be modified in response to child and group • Relationships – Space promotes relationships between staff, children, and families • Identity – Space includes representations of child, family, culture • Movement – Space for exploration and large/small muscles ©2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  • 9. 10 General Principles of Infant and Toddler Learning Environments • Documentation – Space for communication and record keeping • Senses – Space is pleasing to all senses • Representation – Space allows for all “hundred languages” • Independence – Space promotes independence • Discovery – Space encourages exploration ©2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  • 10. Society’s Perspective • Environmental Changes for the Classroom – Encourage energy conservation and recycling • Curricular Changes – Incorporate indoor and outdoor exploration of nature and growing plants/food • Partnerships and Advocacy – Work with community and licensing agency to reduce waste and recycle ©2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  • 11. Selecting Equipment and Materials • Select materials based on your observation of children to support individual needs and interests • Materials must withstand use by multiple children • Age-Appropriate Materials – Note both age and individual appropriateness – Perform cost-benefit analysis • Homemade Materials – Can be individualized for children’s interests – Must be durable ©2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  • 12. Protecting the Children’s Health and Safety • Programs must have clearly defined policies and procedures for protecting the children’s health and safety: – Respectful care and treatment of children, families, and staff – Confidentiality of children’s records – Detection and prevention of child abuse – Emergency care and training for staff – Communicable diseases – Keeping medical records and files for children and staff ©2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  • 13. Protecting the Children’s Health and Safety • All programs must have clearly defined policies, procedures and training on: • Emergency procedures • Immunization Schedule • Signs and Symptoms of Possible Severe Illness • First Aid • Universal Precautions • Playground Safety ©2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  • 14. Spotlight on Research • Rough and Tumble Play – Boisterous, physical play is a developmental necessity (Carlson, 2011) – Rough and tumble play is exciting and engaging (Flanders et al., 2010) ©2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  • 15. Checkpoint Discussion Questions • When planning classroom environments, why do we need to balance opposites such as real objects versus open-ended materials, noisy versus quiet, and novel versus familiar? • Why is it important to consider the child’s perspective when designing a learning environment? • What can teachers do to make sure that their environment addresses each child’s development and learning? ©2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  • 16. Checkpoint Discussion Questions • What are three things that teachers could do to “go green” in their classrooms? • Compare the teacher’s perspective, the child’s perspective, and society’s perspective on environmental design. How are they alike and different? • Explain how universal precautions serve to protect everyone’s safety, but especially the caregivers’. ©2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  • 17. Checkpoint Discussion Questions • How can caregivers determine whether a piece of equipment or material is useful in the program? • List four safety factors caregivers must consider in selecting toys and equipment for infants and toddlers. • Describe how a toy or piece of equipment may be safe for one child and unsafe for another child. ©2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.