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EDU 221 Children With Exceptionalities

EDU 221 Children With Exceptionalities

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Chapter16 allen7e Chapter16 allen7e Presentation Transcript

  • ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Chapter 16 Facilitating Speech, Language, and Communication Skills
  • ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Defining Speech, Language, and Communication Skills • Communication is the exchange of thoughts and ideas, feelings, emotions, likes, and dislikes – Nonverbal communication—gestures and body language – Printed word—written communication
  • ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Defining Speech, Language, and Communication Skills (continued) • Speech is the sound system of a language. • It depends on the ability to make and produce sound. – Verbal communication—speaking out loud to another
  • ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Defining Speech, Language, and Communication Skills (continued) • Language is a code or symbol system that enables individuals to express ideas and communicate them to others who use the same code. – Syntax—grammar – Semantics—word meaning
  • ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Language Acquisition • Environmental perspective – The child will imitate spoken language, therefore learning to speak. – Children from educated mothers hear more words and therefore are more able to use words to get what they want.
  • ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Language Acquisition (continued) – Infant-directed speech • Motherese • Using a high-pitched voice to talk to the very young • Using short, simple sentences • Infants attention is maintained, exposing them to the use of language and encouraging attempts
  • ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Language Acquisition (continued) • Innateness perspective – Language unfolds as the child matures. – Children are more likely to learn language if it holds meaning for them.
  • ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Language Acquisition (continued) • Integrated explanation 1. The maturationally determined mechanism for learning language 2. The input, or quality and timing of the child’s early language experiences 3. The use the child makes of input; the strategies the child devises for processing spoken language and then reproducing it
  • ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Sequences in Language Acquisition • Prelinguistic communication – Body movements, facial grimaces, and vocalizations – Crying – Cooing – Babbling – Intonation
  • ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Sequences in Language Acquisition (continued) • First words and sentences – Vocabulary – Receptive language – Expressive language
  • ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Sequences in Language Acquisition (continued) • Early sentences – Syntax – Holophrastic speech – Telegraphic speech – Private speech
  • ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Sequences in Language Acquisition (continued) • Language complexity – Use of “W” questions – Transforming positives to negatives – Indicating more than one – Conveying ownership – Overregularization
  • ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Alternative Language Systems • Nonverbal communication – Adults should respond to the body language while giving the child the words to say. • Augmentative communication systems – Use of gestures, signs, symbols, or pictures to communicate with others – Voice synthesizer – Picture Exchange Communication System
  • ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Alternative Language Systems (continued) • Signing – Observe and see what signs are already in place. – Teach simple signs. – Move slowly, picking a child’s favorites to sign – Speak and act naturally when signing.
  • ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. The Naturalistic Language Environment • Arranging a language-learning environment – Teachers arrange the environment so that all children can talk. – Teachers make sure that there are things to talk about.
  • ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. The Naturalistic Language Environment (continued) • Teacher’s expectations – Children should have a reason to communicate. – Children should be given time to share their ideas. – Teachers and children need to become good listeners and alert responders.
  • ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. The Naturalistic Language Environment (continued) • The role of questions – Ask open-ended questions. – Provide a role model for how to answer questions. – Language play and practice. – Information gathering.
  • ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. The Naturalistic Language Environment (continued) • Activities – Materials that are new and unique – Field trips – Life experiences – Picture books – Songs, rhymes, chants, and word-play – Active playtime
  • ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. The Naturalistic Language Environment (continued) • Direct assistance – Choice making – Mand-model – Topic continuation – Time delay – Incidental teaching
  • ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. The Naturalistic Language Environment (continued) • Milieu teaching – Child initiates communication. – Teacher needs to make sure that initiation by the child continues, by • Being readily available • Showing interest in the child’s questions • Prompting a response • Being conscious of keeping contact brief • Making sure the contacts are pleasant
  • ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Speech Irregularities • Articulation errors – Omissions—leaving out sounds – Substitutions—interchanging sounds – Additions—inserting sounds not part of the word – Distortions—deviations in speech sounds
  • ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Speech Irregularities (continued) • Lisping – Lisping usually goes away on its own unless adults encourage it by commenting on it. • Dysfluency – Stuttering that does not correct itself
  • ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Speech Irregularities (continued) • Guidelines – Make sure that the child is well rested. – Provide comfort and care, reduce tension. – Have fun with language. – Discipline with calmness. – Offer activities where a child can be successful.
  • ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Speech Irregularities (continued) • Do not – Correct or nag a child – Call attention to speech irregularities – Hurry a child – Compare a child’s speech to another – Attempt to change a child’s handedness
  • ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Speech Irregularities (continued) • Referral – Early warning signs • Watch for severe delays in talking. • Watch for dysfluencies. • Watch for child to become withdrawn from social activities that require speech. • When in doubt, refer to a specialist for further testing.
  • ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Speech Irregularities (continued) • Intervention – One-on-one therapy is best. – Teachers, specialists, and parents need to work together. – The more repetition and practice the child has, the better the therapy will work.
  • ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Bilingualism and English as a Second Language • Children should not be forced to give up their native language. • Children should not be labeled language impaired because of a language deficiency. • Children should be offered opportunities to practice the new language in a relaxed, play setting.