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Chapter15 allen7e

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EDU 221 Children With Exceptionalities

EDU 221 Children With Exceptionalities

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Chapter15 allen7e Chapter15 allen7e Presentation Transcript

  • ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Chapter 15 Facilitating Social Development
  • ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Social Development • The Four How’s – How to Approach – How to Interact – How to Deal with Difference – How to Manage Conflict
  • ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Social Skills and Overall Development • Social skills cannot be separated from overall development. • While engaged in a social conversation, language, physical skills, and cognitive skills are intertwined. • Therefore social skills need to be taught and reinforced to all children.
  • ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Defining Appropriate Social Skills • Appropriate social skills are rules and expectations prescribed by particular groups as to how group members will conduct themselves in private and in public.
  • ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Defining Appropriate Social Skills (continued) • The major social skills learned in early childhood relate to getting along with others. • Children need to be provided opportunities to interact with peers, adults, and family members.
  • ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Acquiring Social Skills • Temperament and emotions – Three main types: • Easy • Difficult • Slow to warm up – Emotions are felt, but reactions to the emotions are learned. – Appropriate responses to an emotion need to be taught.
  • ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Acquiring Social Skills (continued) • Social reinforcement – Adult responsiveness • This refers to how an adult responds to a young child’s needs. • If the response is immediate and appropriate, then the child and the adult are satisfied. • If the response is delayed or inappropriate, then the child becomes mistrustful and wary of the environment.
  • ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Acquiring Social Skills (continued) • Impact of developmental problems – Infants who do not respond in the typical sense with smiles, coos, or eye gazing often are not stimulated by the caregivers to express emotion. – Overstimulated children tend to withdraw and turn away from caregivers’ show of emotion. – Over responding children cannot control their responses and often turn a caregiver off emotionally.
  • ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Acquiring Social Skills (continued) • Social skills in sequence – Attachment – Joint attention – Separation protest – Fear of strangers – Stranger anxiety – Theory of mind – Pretend and role-playing
  • ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Acquiring Social Skills (continued) – Role of early learning programs • Initially it begins as one-on-one time. • It progresses to small group activities. • Then we introduce circle time. • Children are given opportunities to share ideas. • Children learn not to interrupt each other. • Older children become aware of turn-taking and waiting for a turn.
  • ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Acquiring Social Skills (continued) • Play – Other children are seen as obstacles and not playmates – The “Mine” stage – Independent interacting toward a common purpose – Cooperative stage – Friendships
  • ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Acquiring Social Skills (continued) • Teaching children to play – Arrange for children to be near each other. – Physically guide them into the play. – Give them materials to stimulate play. – Place objects in their hands. – Verbalize actions. – Rejoice. – Help others join in.
  • ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Acquiring Social Skills (continued) – Provide social reinforcement. – Move the child toward a group. – Teacher slowly removes herself from the play experience. • Gentle insistence – Teacher gently prods a child into participating in an activity.
  • ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Acquiring Social Skills (continued) • Incidental social learning – Explain the differences in a positive light. – Answer questions honestly and openly. – Use simple words the child can understand. – Assure the child that the disability is not “catchy” and it is okay to touch and ask.
  • ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Acquiring Social Skills (continued) – To encourage incidental social learning: • Move closer to the children playing. • Smile and encourage play with all children. • Bring new materials to the interaction. • Make encouraging comments, keeping the play going.
  • ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Acquiring Social Skills (continued) • Sharing and turn-taking – A difficult concept for children because they have to give up what is theirs to meet the needs of someone else – Self-assertion • Teach children to stand up for what is theirs and not let others just take from them.
  • ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Acquiring Social Skills (continued) • Materials and equipment – Provide multiple materials in areas where more than one child can play at a time. – Encourage imitation by providing two of some toys.
  • ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Acquiring Social Skills (continued) • Imitation and modeling – Arrange the environment to ensure that interactions take place. – Reinforce the children for playing together. – Reinforce imitation of appropriate behaviors.
  • ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Teacher-Structured Peer Interactions • Create activities in which all children must participate for the game to work. • Discovery play sets up the activity for the children to engage in and work together.
  • ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Teacher-Structured Peer Interactions (continued) • Peer tutoring and peer mediating – Children who are typically developing are given a chance to explain a new idea to a peer. – Mediation is done to keep children engaged. – Children with disabilities get the chance to play with others. – Teachers provide support and encouragement.
  • ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Teacher-Structured Peer Interactions (continued) • Peer tutoring – The child with the disability learns from the peer. – The peer is given a chance to refine and master a skill.
  • ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Teacher-Structured Peer Interactions (continued) • Additional ways teachers can structure and facilitate learning: – Choose stories that focus on character development. – Practice manners. – Seat children close to appropriate models at circle time and large group activities. – Provide group projects. – Initiate a buddy center.
  • ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Teacher-Structured Peer Interactions (continued) • Fair play – Rules in the classroom are for everyone. – No one child should be allowed to break rules because of his or her disability. – Encourage rule-following and reward appropriate behaviors
  • ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Teacher-Structured Peer Interactions (continued) • Sometimes more intervention is needed – If a child is hesitant or overwhelmed by the classroom: • Provide a quiet small group area for the child to practice social interaction. • Give the child time to practice with the teacher before engaging another child. • Offer suggestions and play materials that the child can use independently to encourage others to play with him or her.