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  • 1. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Chapter 10 Assessment and the IFSP/IEP Process
  • 2. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Assessment of Young Children • There are six interrelated steps: – Screening – Determining eligibility – Determining services – Planning the program – Monitoring progress – Evaluating the program
  • 3. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Assessment of Young Children (continued) • Criterion-referenced assessment – A child’s progress is measured against a preset standard. – These are helpful in planning. – The child is not compared to other children.
  • 4. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Assessment of Young Children (continued) • Norm-referenced tests – A child is compared to other children of the same age. – These are not as helpful with young children. – It is used as a screening process to begin further testing.
  • 5. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Assessment of Young Children (continued) • IQ tests – Most are norm-referenced. – The purpose is to attempt to determine how much a child knows, how well the child solves problems, and how quickly a child can perform a variety of mental tasks. – Scores should be used with caution. – High scores as a young child are not a determining factor of future intelligence.
  • 6. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. The Process of Early Identification • Case finding – Identifying children early to prevent further developmental delays – Child Find • Established in the 1960s • To publicize information to families on disability services and where to find help
  • 7. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. The Process of Early Identification (continued) • Screening – This is a process to identify children. – It uses low-cost, easily administered tests to identify children. – Screening tests need to be reliable and valid. – Results are not a diagnosis. – Follow-through is essential.
  • 8. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. The Process of Early Identification (continued) • Partnerships with families – Listen to the parents. – Parents know their child best and usually see a problem first. – Ignoring parents can only delay a diagnosis and early intervention.
  • 9. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. The Process of Early Identification (continued) • Cultural, ethnic, and linguistic differences – Assessment must be conducted in a child’s native language. – Assessments must be designed for use in the native language, not just translated. – Assessments should be given by a cultural mediator, fluent in both languages. – Multiple forms of information should be collected. – Test items should measure a child’s strengths and weaknesses.
  • 10. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. The Process of Early Identification (continued) • Types of screening instruments – DIAL 3 – Denver II – ESI-R – ASQSE
  • 11. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. The Process of Early Identification (continued) • Who does the screening? – Professionals and paraprofessionals screen. – Depending on the screening, a certain level of training may be required. – Little training is required for the Snellen Eye Screening, but specialized training is required for a hearing screening.
  • 12. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. The Process of Early Identification (continued) • Limitations of screening – It is only a snapshot of the child at that time. – The child was probably in a new place with new people and had difficulty focusing. – Use results to begin the evaluation process.
  • 13. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Teachers’ Role in Early Identification • Teachers’ qualifications – Teachers see the children daily and understand child development. – They are trained to notice the differences in development.
  • 14. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Teachers’ Role in Early Identification (continued) • Teacher as observer – The teacher is trained to observe all children and record what they see. – They are able to note differences in daily interactions as well as see problems over the long run. – Teachers use facts when recording observations and not opinions or subjective statements.
  • 15. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Teachers’ Role in Early Identification (continued) • Systematic observations – Teachers need to develop a system to collect observation data. – All observations should include: • Child’s name • Date and time • Setting • Initials of observer
  • 16. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Types of Observations • Checklists – This is a list of skills in which the observer records whether the child can or cannot do a skill. – Often this is done throughout the day, not in a contrived setting.
  • 17. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Types of Observations (continued) • Frequency counts – These are tally marks collected every time a child does a behavior. • Duration measures – When a behavior occurs, the observer notes the time and then notes the time when the behavior ends.
  • 18. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Types of Observations (continued) • Anecdotal notes – These are short, concise notes taken about a child while doing an activity. – These notes then are turned into recording that a parent can read and comment on.
  • 19. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Types of Observations (continued) • Running record – This is a narrative recording of everything a child did, said, and responded to. – They involve complete concentration of the observer on the one child.
  • 20. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Types of Observations (continued) • Logs, journals, and diaries – These are similar to running records, yet not as formal. – A teacher may use these for one-on-one planning. – Notes to teacher not necessarily to be shared with parents.
  • 21. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Types of Observations (continued) • Time sampling – Brief, periodic observations to determine the presence or absence of a behavior • Language samples – Verbatim recordings of what the child says or what sounds the child makes • Portfolio assessment – Samples of the child’s work collected over the year
  • 22. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Types of Observations (continued) • Cautionary notes for teachers – Avoid making diagnoses. – Avoid labeling a child. – Avoid jumping to conclusions. – Develop a good relationship with families. – Listen carefully. – Make careful judgments. – Be culturally sensitive.
  • 23. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Individualized Family Service Plan • The IFSP is designed to work with families of infants and toddlers with disabilities to identify priorities, resources, and concerns. • Family is a key component. • Services are decided, and parents are given support to utilize these services. • A service coordinator evaluates the processes and ensures that the IFSP is working.
  • 24. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Individualized Family Service Plan (continued) • Pre-referral and case conferencing – A parent and teacher meet to discuss concerns, both share information, and a decision is made as to whether further screening is necessary.
  • 25. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Individualized Family Service Plan (continued) • Identification of needs – Children are screened to see where they are developmentally. – Strengths as well as concerns are noted. – Family input is given into prioritizing the findings.
  • 26. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Individualized Family Service Plan (continued) • Non-intrusiveness – The law protects families’ privacy by not allowing professionals to ask questions that invade their cultural beliefs and practices. – Families should not feel like they are in the hot seat through this process. – They should instead feel like a vital member of the team.
  • 27. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Individualized Family Service Plan (continued) • IFSP evaluation – It must be evaluated at least once a year. – Changes are made to goals that have been met, and goals not met are re-evaluated for the new year.
  • 28. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Individualized Family Service Plan (continued) • Service coordination – The service coordinator aligns all the services and serves as the mediator between the professionals and the parents. – Their job is also to help a parent find transportation to services needed by the child.
  • 29. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Individualized Family Service Plan (continued) • Parents as service coordinators – Parents should be praised if they want this role. – Training is required. – Leadership is a needed skill to help their child in the future, so encourage parents to take this step now.
  • 30. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Individualized Family Service Plan (continued) • Program-to-program transition – The law requires that planning for a new program is written into the child’s IFSP. – It should be as smooth as possible, and parents should have input.
  • 31. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Individualized Education Program • IEP is the educational plan for students once they reach the school system. • It looks more at the academic component than any other developmental domain.
  • 32. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Individualized Education Program (continued) • The IEP team – Made up of professionals from various disciplines – Parents – Child’s teacher – An IEP team—multidisciplinary, transdisciplinary, or interdisciplinary
  • 33. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Individualized Education Program (continued) • Requirements of the IEP – Based on developmentally valid, nondiscriminatory assessment information. – List child’s present level of functioning. – Identify short-term objectives and long-term goals. – Specify the services to be provided and dates. – Ensure accountability. – Identify where and when services will be provided.
  • 34. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Individualized Education Program (continued) • Assessment – Must be done over a period of time – Must include more than one assessment showing a disability – Is used as a piece of the puzzle to identify areas of need for the child
  • 35. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Individualized Education Program (continued) • Long-term or annual goals – These are broad goals to accomplish throughout the year. – They are specific to that child. • Short-term objectives – These are the ministeps that will be taken to achieve the long-term goals.
  • 36. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Individualized Education Program (continued) • Specific services to be provided – Any specialized services that the child will need are listed here. – They may be a PT, OT, SLT. – It should also list where the services will take place. • Pull out • Naturalistic intervention
  • 37. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Individualized Education Program (continued) • Projected dates for service – The dates that the child will begin receiving services is noted. – Also the ending date or re-evaluation date is included. – It is required that a child be re-evaluated to determine whether services are still needed or whether a change in services is needed.
  • 38. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Individualized Education Program (continued) • Discipline – A child with a disability cannot be suspended from services for more than ten days. – If behavior is an issue, a functional behavior plan can also be developed as part of the IEP.
  • 39. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Individualized Education Program (continued) • Evaluation – At least once a year a child’s IEP needs to be evaluated and new goals written for the new year or old goals revised. – Every three years the child is re-evaluated to determine if services are still necessary.