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Chapter08 allen7e

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EDU 221 Children With Exceptionalities

EDU 221 Children With Exceptionalities

Published in: Education, Health & Medicine

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  • 1. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Chapter 8 Learning and Behavior Disorders
  • 2. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder • History of ADHD – It has been studied for the last 50 years. – It was originally thought to be brain damage. – The APA finally decided there were two categories: • ADD • ADHD – There are three patterns of behavior.
  • 3. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (continued) • Predominantly hyperactive-impulsive – No inattention • Predominantly inattentive – Often called ADD – No hyperactive-impulsive behavior • Combined – Inattentive and hyperactive-impulsive
  • 4. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (continued) • Current attempts at defining ADHD – It must be a clinical diagnosis that involves parent and teacher input. – It must manifest before age seven. – Characteristics must occur in multiple settings. – Characteristics must be maladaptive for the child’s age. – It must effect the child’s academic performance. – It cannot be a temporary response to a situation.
  • 5. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (continued) • Causes and prevalence of ADHD – There is no known absolute cause. – Possible causes are genetics; one or more parents is also hyperactive. – Maternal smoking or drug use during pregnancy may be a factor.
  • 6. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (continued) • Disorders that sometimes accompany ADHD – Learning disabilities – Oppositional Defiant Disorder – Conduct Disorder – Bipolar Disorder
  • 7. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (continued) • Intervention strategies – Medication and behavior management combined seems to be the best approach. – Medication • Ritalin is the most common. • It helps a child control impulsivity and pay attention in class. • It can cause sleep disorders, weight loss, and increased blood pressure. • Parents and teacher rely on the medicine to fix the behaviors.
  • 8. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (continued) – Special diet • The Feingold diet is one tried method. • Parents feed the child additive- and dye-free foods to lessen hyperactive behaviors. • Nutrition is key, but eliminating foods does not solve the problem.
  • 9. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (continued) – Behavior management • Reward positive behaviors. • Evaluate the environment for behavior-causing areas and correct. • Plan developmentally appropriate activities for all children.
  • 10. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Learning Disabilities • What is a learning disability? – A disorder in one or more of the basic psychological processes involved in understanding or in using language, spoken or written, which may manifest itself in the imperfect ability to listen, think, speak, write, spell, or do mathematical calculations
  • 11. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Learning Disabilities (continued) • It states clearly that a learning disability is not the result of: – visual, hearing, or motor handicaps. – mental retardation. – emotional disturbance. – environmental, cultural, or economic disadvantage. – second language learning.
  • 12. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Learning Disabilities (continued) • Non disadvantaged ruling – This excludes children who live in environmental or economic disadvantage from being labeled learning disabled. • Academic ruling – The definition states that there should be difficulty in reading, writing, spelling, and mathematical calculations. At what age?
  • 13. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Learning Disabilities (continued) – Areas that children may show signs of future learning disabilities: • Perinatal stress • Genetic or environmental conditions • Developmental milestones • Attention and behavior
  • 14. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Learning Disabilities (continued) • Predicting learning disabilities – Observation of child – Matching observation to performance measures – Caution: Children can develop skills in a range; looking for deviations from the range is a sign of possible learning disability.
  • 15. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Learning Disabilities (continued) • Prerequisite skills – These are skills needed to enter school. – Often children with learning disabilities lack these necessary skills to be successful in school.
  • 16. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Learning Disabilities (continued) – Examples • Sensorimotor difficulties (gross motor) – Imperfect body control – Poor balance – Uncertain bilateral and cross-lateral movements – Inability to cross body midline – Faulty spatial orientation • Sensorimotor difficulties (fine motor) – Problems in buttoning, lacing, snapping, cutting, pasting, and stringing beads – Perseveration
  • 17. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Learning Disabilities (continued) – Cognitive disorders • Trouble organizing • Abstract thought is difficult • Poor memory • Problems with generalizing information
  • 18. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Learning Disabilities (continued) – Visual and auditory perception problems • Visual discrimination • Visual orientation • Visual memory • Visual tracking • Visual-motor integration • Auditory perception problems
  • 19. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Learning Disabilities (continued) – Language deviations • Receptive language • Expressive language – Social skills deficits • Bullying • Withdrawn • Aggressive • Overdependent
  • 20. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Learning Disabilities (continued) • Response to intervention – This allows a teacher to intervene with a child without there being a required discrepancy between ability and achievement. – Tiered approach • Screening and group interventions • Target and short-term interventions • Intensive instruction
  • 21. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Learning Disabilities (continued) • Program considerations – All children will show signs of learning disabilities at one time or another. – Children need environments that are positive and developmentally appropriate. – Schedules need to be consistent. – Tasks need to be broken down into smaller chunks of information.
  • 22. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Behavior Disorders • Behavior is extreme, chronic, and unacceptable. • Experts who work with these children prefer the term behaviorally disordered because it places the focus on the observable aspect of the children’s problems: the behavior that is causing problems in school and at home.
  • 23. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Behavior Disorders (continued) • The term emotional or behavioral disorder means a disability characterized by behavioral or emotional responses in school so different from appropriate age, cultural, or ethnic norms that they adversely affect educational performance.
  • 24. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Behavior Disorders (continued) • Emotional and behavioral disorders can co-exist with other disabilities.
  • 25. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Behavior Disorders (continued) • This category may include children or youths with schizophrenic disorders, affective disorders, anxiety disorder, or other sustained disorders of conduct or adjustment when they adversely affect educational performance in accordance with section (I) (Forness & Knitzer, 1992, p. 13).
  • 26. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Behavior Disorders (continued) • Severe depression – This is categorized by low self-esteem, poor school performance, lack of friends, inability to cope with daily routines. – Some children with depression have parents who suffer from depression.
  • 27. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Behavior Disorders (continued) • Anxiety – People who experience excessive fear, worry, or uneasiness. – Some fears may even become phobias. – Fears are normal, but when taken to the extreme, they can cause multiple maladaptive behaviors.
  • 28. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Pervasive Developmental Disorders/ Autism Spectrum Disorders – Usually present by age three – Abnormal social interaction – Impaired communication – Peculiar interests and behaviors
  • 29. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Pervasive Developmental Disorders/ Autism Spectrum Disorders (continued) • Autism – Early sign is not wanting to be cuddled or held. – Rarely making eye contact. – Treating people like inanimate objects. – Rigid requirements of sameness are typical. – Self-stimulating behaviors like spinning, rocking, and head banging are common.
  • 30. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Pervasive Developmental Disorders/ Autism Spectrum Disorders (continued) • Problems that may accompany ASD – Fragile X syndrome, sensory problems, mental retardation, and tuberous sclerosis sensory problems – Acute sense of touch with regards to clothing – Oblivious to pain
  • 31. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Childhood Onset Schizophrenia • Major characteristics are tantrums and bizarre behaviors or postures. • Rejection and withdrawal from social contacts. • Mood swings are unpredictable. • They use language to talk to self, and it is rather difficult to decode.
  • 32. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Other Forms of ASD • Rett’s disorder – Present in females – Results in the loss of motor skills, predominantly the hands – Speech also halts
  • 33. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Other Forms of ASD (continued) • Asperger’s disorder – Lack of social skills – Difficulty in social relationships – Poor concentration – Restricted interests – Normal IQ – Normal language development
  • 34. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Intervention • Applied behavior analysis – Intensive one-on-one interactions for over 40 hours a week – Predictable routines – Effective instructional strategies – Appropriate curricular content
  • 35. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Intervention (continued) • Dietary intervention – Removal of dyes and glutens • Chelation – Removal of metals from the child’s blood
  • 36. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Eating and Elimination Disorders • Pica – The craving of nonfood items • Soiling and wetting – Persistent wetting may be a sign of an infection. – Child may have an intestinal virus. – Diabetics have trouble with bladder control. – Strange bathrooms may cause an undue stress on a child.

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