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Chapter07 allen7e

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EDU 221 Children With Exceptionalities

EDU 221 Children With Exceptionalities

Published in: Education, Health & Medicine

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  • 1. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Chapter 7 Physical Disabilities and Health Problems
  • 2. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Physical Disabilities and Health Impairments • Physical impairments that relate to problems involving skeleton, joints, and muscles • Health conditions related to limited strength, vitality, or alertness due to chronic or acute health problems
  • 3. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Physical Disabilities • Cerebral palsy—neurological disorders resulting in lack of control of muscle movements: – Spasticity—the muscles are spastic. They do not contract and flex as they should. – Hypotonicity—the muscles are floppy. – Athetosis—fluctuating or uneven muscle tone. – Ataxia—lack of motor coordination. – Mixed—combination of two or more.
  • 4. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Physical Disabilities (continued) • Classifications based on body parts – Diplegia—all four extremities – Hemiplegia—one side of the body – Paraplegia—legs only – Quadripelgia—arms, legs, trunk, and head control
  • 5. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Physical Disabilities (continued) • Spinal cord injuries – Spina bifida—imperfect development of the spinal cord in utero • Hydrocephalus—build up of fluid on the brain • Incontinence—lack of control over bladder and bowel movements
  • 6. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Physical Disabilities (continued) • Muscular dystrophy—progressive weakening of the muscles – Duchenne’s disease—affects only boys; weakness begins at hips and shoulders and moves to arms and legs. • Hip dysplasia—hip moves in and out of socket. – Usually found in girls and treated with braces
  • 7. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Physical Disabilities (continued) • Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis—painful inflammation around the joints – Children should be encouraged to move. – It often disappears by age 18.
  • 8. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Physical Disabilities (continued) • Program implications – Early intervention is key. – Professionals work together for consistency in therapy. – Adaptive equipment may be necessary to encourage movement and muscle strength.
  • 9. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Physical Disabilities (continued) • Adaptive equipment – Mobility devices—braces, walkers, wheelchairs – Positioning devices—wedge mats, bolsters, prone boards
  • 10. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Physical Disabilities (continued) • Adapting materials – Universal design approach • Recognizing that a one-size-fits-all approach to education does not work • Understanding the need to design curricula to meet the needs of all classroom learners • Believing that all children who attend early education programs will be successful in their development and learning
  • 11. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Physical Disabilities (continued) – Manipulative materials • Wall displays • Velcro on blocks • Pegs on puzzle pieces – Creative materials • Use large pencils, paintbrushes • Push pencils through a ball for an easier grip • Tape paper to easel or table to prevent sliding
  • 12. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Physical Disabilities (continued) – Self-help devices • Use Velcro instead of buttons. • Make utensils easier to grip for feeding. • Use suction cups for soap.
  • 13. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Physical Disabilities (continued) • Adaptations in the classroom – Wheelchair accommodation • Widen aisles • Put materials up on shelves, not on the bottom • Bathroom accessibility – Railings • Indoors and out, place railings to help children with balance
  • 14. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Physical Disabilities (continued) – Floor coverings • Carpeting is best, if well stretched and securely nailed down. • If no carpeting, provide nonskid crutches and shoes – Eye-level materials • Place objects at the children’s eye level for independence.
  • 15. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Health Problems • Some children are chronically ill and live every day with serious health problems. • Many developmental disabilities involve significant health risks and problems.
  • 16. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Health Problems (continued) • Asthma – This is the most common and the most serious. – During an attack, a child cannot get a full breath of air. – Lips and nails may turn blue. – If a child cannot get relief from medication, emergency help needs to be called.
  • 17. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Health Problems (continued) • Cystic fibrosis – Children have excessive mucus, chronic cough, progressive lung damage, and inability to absorb fats and proteins. – They also tend to have frequent, foul smelling bowel movements and unusually salty perspiration.
  • 18. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Health Problems (continued) • Hemophilia – This is found only found in males. – The blood does not clot normally, causing serious internal bleeding.
  • 19. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Health Problems (continued) • Leukemia – This is the most common type of childhood cancer. – Chemotherapy is the most common treatment.
  • 20. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Health Problems (continued) • Sickle-cell anemia – Autosomal recessive disorder – Red blood cells are sickle in shape instead of round, making it difficult for them to pass through the bloodstream. – Overall fatigue is one of the chronic problems. – It is found only in African-American children.
  • 21. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Health Problems (continued) • Heart problems – Children with heart problems should be encouraged to move. – Monitor their skin color for a blue tone. – Let the children tell you when they are too tired to continue.
  • 22. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Health Problems (continued) • Diabetes – The body does not produce or properly use insulin. – Insulin is a hormone that is needed to convert sugar, starches, and other food into energy needed for daily life. – There are two types of diabetes—type 1 and type 2
  • 23. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Health Problems (continued) – Type 1 diabetes is caused by an autoimmune disorder. • The body does not make enough beta cells to fight off infections. – Type 2 diabetes is the more common.
  • 24. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Health Problems (continued) – Hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia are the result • Hypoglycemia is excessively low levels of sugar in the blood. • Hyperglycemia is too much sugar in the blood. • When in doubt, give a form of sugar. – Regulate food intake. – Monitor activity levels. – Watch for changes in behavior.
  • 25. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Health Problems (continued) • Seizure disorders – Epilepsy is a form of seizure disorder. – Types of seizures: • Febrile seizures, brought on by a fast rising fever • Generalized tonic-clonic seizures (grand-mal) – Violent shaking and jerking • Absence seizures (petit mal) – Momentary loss of consciousness – Often accused of daydreaming
  • 26. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Health Problems (continued) • Partial psychomotor seizures – Often appear like a tantrum – Child unaware of behavior – Become stereotypic for that child – Medication is often prescribed. – Be aware of what to do during a seizure: • Remain calm. • Cushion child’s head. • Remove sharp objects. • Do not put anything in the child’s mouth.
  • 27. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Health Problems (continued) • AIDS – Caused by HIV – Attacks the healthy immune system, leaving a person vulnerable to illness – Contracted through sexual contact, blood-to- blood contact, and infected mother to baby
  • 28. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Health Problems (continued) • Obesity – Not necessarily a disability, it can lead to poor self-esteem and other health risks. – Child’s caloric intake exceeds caloric loss through exercise. – Increase child’s movement and limit the intake of empty calories through junk food.
  • 29. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Health Problems (continued) • Undernourishment – Children consume too few calories, causing low weight. – It can result from poor chewing and swallowing. – Increase easy-to-swallow foods and consult nutritionist for high-calorie, healthy food choices.
  • 30. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Health Problems and Classroom Practices • Teachers should be informed of all health issues related to the child that may impact educational performance. • Become educated on the illness, prevention, and care.
  • 31. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Health Problems and Classroom Practices (continued) • Health records – These should be kept on all children and should include: • Emergency telephone numbers • Names of doctors/dentists • Medications • Allergies • Immunizations
  • 32. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Health Problems and Classroom Practices (continued) • Administering medications – This varies from state to state, but most require the following: • Parent permission • Child’s name on the bottle with the dosage • Medication log to be on file • Locked area to keep medication
  • 33. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Health Problems and Classroom Practices (continued) • Emergency considerations – Emergencies need to be planned for, even though we hope they never occur. – Fire drills should be practiced monthly. – Parents should be contacted about plans for their child in case of emergency. – Staff need a plan for classroom coverage. – Staff should have CPR and first aid training.
  • 34. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Health Problems and Classroom Practices (continued) • Confidentiality – Similar to a doctor, a teacher needs to maintain confidentiality about students. – Student files should not leave the building. – Students should not be discussed outside of work. – Families need to know that they can trust the teacher with this knowledge about their child.