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EDU 221 Children With Exceptionalities

EDU 221 Children With Exceptionalities


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  • 1. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Chapter 6 Sensory Impairments: Hearing and Vision
  • 2. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Deafness and Hearing Loss • Deafness refers to a hearing loss so severe that the individual cannot process spoken language even with amplification devices. • Hard of hearing refers to a lesser loss, but one that nevertheless has a definite effect on social, cognitive, and language development.
  • 3. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Deafness and Hearing Loss (continued) • Types of hearing loss – Conductive hearing loss • A loss in the outer or middle ear – Sensorineural hearing loss • A loss in the inner ear (cochlea) – Central deafness • A loss in the higher auditory cortex – Combined loss • A loss in two or more of the above
  • 4. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Deafness and Hearing Loss (continued) • Causes and prevention – Conductive hearing loss can occur from frequent ear infections. • It can usually be aided by amplification systems. – Sensorineural hearing loss and central deafness are caused by malformation of the ear or severe infections. • A cochlear implant may be needed.
  • 5. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Deafness and Hearing Loss (continued) • Warning signs – Tugs on ears – Used to talk and respond and now does not – Drops initial consonants – Seems inattentive – Looks confused when given directions – Turns head to one side to hear better
  • 6. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Deafness and Hearing Loss (continued) • The impact of hearing loss on development – Effect on language development • A child who cannot hear sounds during the critical period may never master those sounds. • Language delays are probable. • Parents and caregivers may stop speaking to the child, because he or she cannot hear them.
  • 7. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Deafness and Hearing Loss (continued) – Effect on cognitive development • Language and cognitive skills go hand in hand. • If children are behind in language skills, they are more than likely going to be delayed cognitively as well. • Children with little or no hearing tend to be years behind their normally developing peers.
  • 8. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Deafness and Hearing Loss (continued) – Effect on social development • Shy and withdrawn categorize this child. • These children tend to be socially immature. • They also tend to be impulsive and hyperactive. • Unintentionally, they are often left out, because hearing is so much a part of our world.
  • 9. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Deafness and Hearing Loss (continued) – Effects on family life • Frustration • Lack of time to learn new methods • Need for behavior management • Family therapy and counseling
  • 10. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Deafness and Hearing Loss (continued) • Methods of communication – Speech reading—child learns to read your lips while you talk – Cued speech—a system of hand shapes and mouth movements in which the child learns the combinations to understand the spoken word
  • 11. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Deafness and Hearing Loss (continued) – American Sign Language—a language that consists of hand movements with or without speaking • Signed English • Finger spelling – Total communication—combines speech and hand motions
  • 12. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Deafness and Hearing Loss (continued) • Which method? – It is family preference. – No one method has been proven to be the best. – Total communication leads to more communication with the outside world.
  • 13. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Deafness and Hearing Loss (continued) • Early intervention – As with all disabilities: The earlier intervention is begun, the better. – Children need to learn to use what residual hearing they have. – They need to exercise their vocal chords for speech.
  • 14. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Deafness and Hearing Loss (continued) • Guidelines for teachers – Get down on the child’s level. – Sit close to the child when talking. – Make eye contact. – Use short, simple sentences. – Use concrete examples.
  • 15. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Deafness and Hearing Loss (continued) • Amplification devices – Hearing aids—an amplification device is molded to fit the child’s ear. • Problems: bad fit, dead batteries, feedback, on and off switch, sore ears – FM system—child wears a receiver and the teacher wears the microphone. • Problems: dead batteries, on and off switch
  • 16. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Blindness and Vision Impairments • Blind—visual loss is severe enough that it is not possible to read print. • Low vision—residual vision is sufficient to allow a child to read large print or possibly regular print under special conditions and to use other visual materials for educational purposes.
  • 17. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Blindness and Vision Impairments (continued) • Total blindness is the inability to distinguish between light and dark. • Most children can see some light and shadows.
  • 18. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Blindness and Vision Impairments (continued) • Types of vision problems – Physical abnormalities • Cataracts • Glaucoma • Retinopathy of prematurity • Cortical blindness
  • 19. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Blindness and Vision Impairments (continued) – Visual acuity problems • Refractive errors • Astigmatism • Myopia • Hyperopia
  • 20. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Blindness and Vision Impairments (continued) – Muscular abnormalities • Strabismus • Amblyopia • Nystygmus
  • 21. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Blindness and Vision Impairments (continued) • Identifying vision problems – This is rather difficult until a child is in school. – A few tests are available for the younger child • Snellen Illiterate E • Teller Acuity Cards • Photo Screening – Children often do not know they have a problem, because they do not know what they are looking at.
  • 22. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Blindness and Vision Impairments (continued) – Warning signs • Rubbing eyes • Closes one eye • Watery or itchy eyes, not allergy related • Inability to see, squinting • Blurred vision
  • 23. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Blindness and Vision Impairments (continued) • The impact of vision problems on development – Effects on language development • Child cannot see objects, so they have trouble learning the meaning of the spoken word. • Children must be given time to explore concrete objects to learn meaning. • Teacher must develop the use of descriptors.
  • 24. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Blindness and Vision Impairments (continued) – Effect on cognitive development • Delays due to language development problems • Usually catch up by six years of age – Effect on motor development • Children will be delayed because they cannot see objects to reach for them. • Children are also afraid to move because they cannot see what is in front of them.
  • 25. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Blindness and Vision Impairments (continued) – Effect on social development • The children tend to be quiet and passive. • They do not make facial expressions when people talk to them. • Often they do not even turn toward the sound.
  • 26. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Blindness and Vision Impairments (continued) • Early intervention programs – Orientation and mobility training • This is a must. • It exposes the children to their environment. • If things are not moved often, the children can learn independence at play and cleanup.
  • 27. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Blindness and Vision Impairments (continued) • Teaching children with vision loss – Take advantage of their other senses – Concrete objects – Descriptions of objects – Rich vocabulary
  • 28. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Blindness and Vision Impairments (continued) • Guidelines for teachers – Use words for everything. – Be specific. – Let the children discover through touch. – Put different textured fabric at each center, identifying the boundaries. – Make use of their residual vision: • Write words extra large and in bold colors.

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