Emerging reading technology

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For my Creation and Computation class at OCADU, I examined the history of publishing and emerging technology that could be used in the publishing industry.

For my Creation and Computation class at OCADU, I examined the history of publishing and emerging technology that could be used in the publishing industry.

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  • 1. EMERGING READING TECHNOLOGY Katie Meyer
  • 2. HISTORY OF READING TECHNOLOGY  1456: Printing press invented  Fuelled Renaissance and Reformation  New, literate merchant class with leisure time created demand for written entertainment and novels emerged as a medium  Hand-operated wooden press used for books, hardcovers which were then bound by hand  Prayer book in 1760 would have cost 3 shillings or $13.40 today  1870s: Industrial revolution and urbanization pushes the growth of public education and the creation of public libraries  Literacy skyrockets as reading becomes a family activity  1870: 10% of American children could read  1900: 20% of American children could read  Steam-driven mechanical lead type printing press makes the process more efficient, and books become cheaper
  • 3. Memoirs of the Navy by Samuel Pepys, 1690 Woodcut images
  • 4. 20TH CENTURY READING  Literacy continues to grow  United States: Enrollment rates for 5- to 19-year-olds rose from 51 percent in 1900 to 75 percent in 1940  Publishing houses begin to proliferate, undercut each other’s prices until the industry loses viability  Government agrees on system of price regulation for books at the turn of the century  Depression spurred the creation of the paperback and mass colour printing in order to maintain sales  Growing competition for leisure time  Television, Video games, Internet  New sources of support for reading as a preferred leisure activity  Oprah’s Book Club major force behind sales  Pressure to sell quickly builds in 1990s and 2000s  Publishers must now purchase space in book stores  Books given 6 weeks of active promotion before being declared successes or failures
  • 5. OLD TO NEW MEDIA TRANSITIONS  After illegal downloading platforms (Napster, Megaupload) ravaged the music and movie industries, the publishing industry tried to pre-empt an illegal downloading platform for literature with e-readers  Largely successful  Users reluctant to ingest novels through their computer screen  1998: First eBook reader goes to market, the SoftBook and Gemstar’s Rocket eBook Reader  Could store 4,000 pages, or about 10 books with 16MB memory  Back and white screen, but capable of displaying images with 106 dpi, or 480x320 px  Users can enter text using Allegra  2009: Canadian private school Blyth Academy loads all textbooks onto Sony Readers  First school in the world to do so  2011: Amazon debuts Kindle Fire, not open source  Can only download Amazon books, movies, songs, magazines and TV shows with cloud  Colour touchscreen that enables users to highlight and write on their texts  Again, to prevent keep industry viable, publishing houses decide on price regulation  Illegal, not sanctioned by the government, price-fixing debacle
  • 6. HOW CAN WE KEEP THE MEDIUM ALIVE AS TECHNOLOGY CHANGES?  In 2012, eBook sales surpassed hardcover sales in the United States  Total eBook sales reached $1.8 billion, 20% of publisher’s revenues  Users reluctant to upgrade models  1 in 3 Canadians buy a book each month  18% of Canadian readers use eReaders  Approx. 2,100,000 eReader users in Canada  Approx. 8,750,000 tablet users in Canada
  • 7. OPEN SOURCE E-READERS  Different generations of the platform: ePub, ePub2 and now, ePub3  Kobo recently released all of its source code, enabling publishers to create more exciting eBook experiences  Reflowable layout or PDF: most widely-supported, font can be resized  XML offers opportunities for interactivity  Fixed-layout: HTML-based, supported in ePub3 and only in some ePub2 readers  Capabilities of XML and HTML-based eBooks Interactivity through touchscreens or stylus to link between images and pages Hyperlinking: can link any words or images to external sites, depending on the eReader specs Multimedia: can embed video (2D cut-out), animated gifs, and audio in fixed-layout eBooks Can have overlaping images and text with HTML, but in PDF, all content must be “boxed”
  • 8. FIXED-LAYOUT (HTML) EBOOK Fixed Layout Reflowable
  • 9. EMERGING SCREEN TECHNOLOGY  Crossover between eReader and tablet market  Many eReaders now behave like tablets (and many tablets now have eBook capabilities), which means they are equipped with motion sensors and cameras  New possibility for interactivity beyond the touch screen
  • 10. CASE STUDY: THE THIRTY NINE STEPS (2013)  Faber and Faber worked with The Story Mechanics, a software developer, to create an interactive, visual eBook of John Buchanan’s classic thriller  Game-like controls allow user to navigate through scenes and read chapters, while dialogue is delivered through audio  Characters not pictured, ghost-like  App format, programmed using C++  http://thestorymechanics.com/digital-adaptations/the-thirty-nine- steps/
  • 11. MICROFLUID  Arguments against eReader and tablet-based learning: not as effective as tactile/haptic learning in knowledge retention and learning engagement 2013 UNC Study:  “The haptic group was significantly more accurate in identifying the complex objects than the visual or visual plus haptic groups.”  “The haptic-only group of participants spent more time exploring the … virtual objects than the visual or visual plus haptic participants”  Microfluid to the rescue! Turns flat 2D screens into 3D screens  Can add buttons for navigation, raised outlines of images, and create a paper- texture  http://www.engadget.com/2012/06/06/tactus-technology- prototype-android-tablet-shows-off-shapeshifti/
  • 12. TOUCH PROJECTION  Pioneering technology turns any surface into a touch screen  Moves reading experience beyond device  For children: Could add another tactile or haptic element to reading experience to enhance learning  For adults: Could be applied to eBook projects like The Thirty- Nine Steps, to enhance alternate reality experience  UBI available for $149, but same effect could be created using a backlit screen and motion or light sensors with Arduino and Processing
  • 13. REFERENCES  http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/482597/history-of        publishing/28622/The-flourishing-book-trade-1550-1800 http://www.engadget.com/2012/06/06/tactus-technology-prototype-androidtablet-shows-off-shapeshifti/ http://liliputing.com/2013/02/pandigital-novel-hacks-could-eventually-turn-a38-ereader-into-a-cheap-android-tablet.html https://github.com/kobolabs http://sparkslinux.wordpress.com/2013/02/14/an-open-source-ereader/ http://www.history.org/foundation/journal/summer02/money2.cfm http://www.nytimes.com/2013/05/15/business/media/e-book-sales-a-boon-topublishers-in-2012.html?_r=0 http://ebookarchitects.com/learn-about-ebooks/enhancedebooks/#animations http://www.gizmag.com/microsoft-ubi-projection-touchscreen/28757/