Developing and Maintaining Fall Protection Rescue Plans

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LJB Inc. presented this free webinar on THE most overlooked aspect of fall protection--rescue.

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  • Page 28888 OSHA, of course, encourages employers to go beyond its minimum requirements and to take additional measures to address fall hazards in a comprehensive manner, starting with a discussion about the elimination of fall hazards and ending with a plan to rescue employees if they fall. To meet this requirement, the employer must evaluate the availability of rescue personnel, ladders, or other rescue equipment. In some situations, it may be appropriate to use equipment; for example, a mechanical device that has descent capability which allows employees to rescue themselves after a fall has been arrested. In other situations, a suspended employee may not be able to reach a work level independently, so the employer must ensure the ability to rescue the employee promptly. In recognition of hazards confronting employees, OSHA developed a Safety and Health Information Bulletin (SHIB) addressing the hazards associated with suspension trauma/orthostatic intolerance (SHIB 03–24–2004, available at http://www.osha.gov/dts/shib/shib032404.html). The SHIB states in part: Orthostatic intolerance may be experienced by workers using fall arrest systems. Following a fall, a worker may remain suspended in a harness. The sustained immobility may lead to a state of unconsciousness. Depending on the length of time the suspended worker is unconscious/immobile and the level of venous pooling, the resulting orthostatic intolerance may lead to death. While not common, such fatalities often are referred to as ‘‘harness-induced pathology’’ or ‘‘suspension trauma.’’ OSHA has already adopted this approach in the general industry, construction, and shipyard employment standards on fall protection. The proposal is also consistent with the national consensus standard, ANSI/ASSE A10.32–2004 (section 6.2.1). Additionally, section 7.3 of the ANSI/ASSE Z359.1–2007 standard addresses the need to be trained in rescue. Finally, the need for rescue is evident by the development of a new American National Standard entitled ‘‘Safety Requirements for Assisted-Rescue and Self-Rescue Systems, ANSI/ASSE Z359.4–2007.’’
  • Harness suspension: review and evaluation of existing information Prepared by Paul Seddon for the Health and Safety Executive Survivable Impact Forces on Human Body Constrained by Full Body Harness HSL/2003/09 Prepared by Harry Crawford for the Health and Safety Executive
  • First, do no harm, or, in Latin, primum non nocere, a medical injunction (the "Hippocratic oath").
  • LJB provides engineering, architectural and safety consulting services to many public and private clients. The divisions I represent focuses on safety and specifically, fall protection. In some ways, it is easier to explain what LJB does not do versus what we do. We do not sell equipment. Although equipment is a very important manner to protect workers from hazards, there are more important aspects to consider when creating a sustainable program. While we know all of the manufacturers from our work on the ANSI Z359 committee, we do not sell any equipment.
  • Developing and Maintaining Fall Protection Rescue Plans

    1. 1. DEVELOPING AND CONDUCTING RESCUE PLANS LJB University ™ has been approved as an Authorized Provider by the International Association for Continuing Education and Training (IACET), 1760 Old Meadow Road, Suite 500, McLean, VA 22102. . Moderator: Speaker: KIM MESSER THOMAS E. KRAMER, P.E., C.S.P. [email_address] TKramer@LJBinc.com
    2. 2. BOTTOM LINE UP FRONT <ul><li>Rescue is often THE most overlooked aspect of fall protection. </li></ul><ul><li>“ 911” is not the only answer to your fall protection rescue. </li></ul><ul><li>Suspension time: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How long do you think someone can safely suspend in a full body harness? </li></ul></ul>
    3. 3. BOTTOM LINE UP FRONT <ul><li>Rescue is often THE most overlooked aspect of fall protection. </li></ul><ul><li>“ 911” is not the only answer to your fall protection rescue. </li></ul><ul><li>Suspension time: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How long do you think someone can safely suspend in a full body harness? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How long do you want to suspend? </li></ul></ul>
    4. 22. LEARNING OBJECTIVES <ul><li>Discuss regulations and standards relevant in rescue </li></ul><ul><li>Assist in analyzing a facility’s capabilities to perform “prompt” rescue </li></ul>
    5. 23. AGENDA <ul><li>Regulatory requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Prompt rescue </li></ul><ul><li>Preparing for a prompt rescue </li></ul><ul><li>Closing </li></ul>
    6. 24. OSHA REQUIREMENTS <ul><li>29 CFR 1926 (Construction) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>29 CFR 1926.502(d)(20) “The employer shall provide for prompt rescue of employees in the event of a fall or shall assure that employees are able to rescue themselves.” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Proposed 29 CFR 1910 (General Industry) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>29 CFR 1910.140(c)(21) “The employer must provide for prompt rescue of employees in the event of a fall.” </li></ul></ul>
    7. 25. ADDITIONAL OSHA REFERENCES <ul><li>Safety and Health Information Bulletin (2004) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prolonged suspension … can result in serious physical injury, or potentially, death. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Research indicates that suspension … can result in unconsciousness, followed by death, in less than 30 minutes. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Letters of Interpretations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>August 14, 2000 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ While an employee may be safely suspended in a body harness for a longer period than from a body belt, the word “prompt” requires that rescue be performed quickly -- in time to prevent serious injury to the worker.” </li></ul></ul></ul>
    8. 26. <ul><li>OSHRC vs. East Texas Coating </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Compliance officer sequenced the events subsequent to a confined space incident to determine whether the employer had acted appropriately </li></ul></ul>ADDITIONAL OSHA REFERENCES
    9. 27. ANSI Z359 <ul><li>Prompt rescue (Z359.2 §6.1) </li></ul><ul><li>Written rescue procedures (Z359.2 §6.2) </li></ul><ul><li>Summoning rescue services </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Professional (Z359.2 §6.3.1) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In-house (Z359.2 §6.3.2) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>ANSI Z359.4 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Components and systems </li></ul></ul>
    10. 28. ANSI A10.32 <ul><li>6.2.1 Employees shall be trained in self-rescue or alternate means shall be provided for prompt rescue in the event of a fall. </li></ul><ul><li>6.2.2 A project-specific rescue plan shall be developed which will provide for a form of rescue for employees. </li></ul><ul><li>6.2.3 All rescuers shall be provided with adequate training, equipment and personal protective equipment where needed. </li></ul>
    11. 29. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION <ul><li>USAF </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1987 research at Wright-Patterson AFB, OH </li></ul></ul><ul><li>NIOSH </li></ul><ul><ul><li>International fall protection symposium, 2008 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Research report </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>FACE reports </li></ul></ul><ul><li>HSE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Contract research report 451/2002 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>HSL/2003/09 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Articles </li></ul>
    12. 30. AGENDA <ul><li>Regulatory requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Prompt rescue </li></ul><ul><li>Preparing for a prompt rescue </li></ul><ul><li>Closing </li></ul>
    13. 31. PROMPT RESCUE <ul><li>Factors to consider in planning for response </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hanging vertically in a harness can cause loss of consciousness even in the absence of trauma or blood loss </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The body’s tolerance to suspension trauma varies from person to person </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rescuing a worker quickly post fall is at least as critical as protecting the worker from a fall </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>From “Does 911 Work for Rescue?” by Robert N. Aguiluz (September 2003) </li></ul></ul>
    14. 32. POST-FALL SUSPENSION <ul><li>Wright-Patterson AFB study </li></ul>AP Photo by Janet B. Campbell Erie Times-News, 5/25/2004
    15. 33. HARNESS SUSPENSION – MOTIONLESS <ul><li>1987 Study - Wright Patterson Air Force Base </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Phase 1 - Body belt, chest harness and full body harness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Phase 2 - Four types of full body harnesses </li></ul></ul>
    16. 34. <ul><li>Phase 1, termination time (in minutes) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Body belt: 0.35 – 4.76 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chest harness: 0.62 – 13.13 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Full body harness: 5.08 – 30.12 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mean averages: 1.63, 6.08, 14.38 </li></ul></ul>HARNESS SUSPENSION – MOTIONLESS
    17. 35. <ul><li>The primary causes of termination of the tests were: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Body belt: difficulty in breathing and pressure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chest harness: cardiovascular symptoms and pressure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Full body harness: cardiovascular symptoms and nausea </li></ul></ul>HARNESS SUSPENSION – MOTIONLESS
    18. 36. <ul><li>Phase 2 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Four types of full body harnesses, termination time (in minutes): </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A: 3.47 – 32.00 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>B : 5.50 – 37.5 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>C : 10.20 – 49.80 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>D : 4.33 – 60.00 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mean: 17.05, 18.36, 28.36, 26.66 </li></ul></ul></ul>HARNESS SUSPENSION – MOTIONLESS
    19. 37. AGENDA <ul><li>Regulatory requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Prompt rescue </li></ul><ul><li>Preparing for a prompt rescue </li></ul><ul><li>Closing </li></ul>
    20. 38. PROMPT RESCUE <ul><li>Pre-work </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Internal and external capabilities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Types of hazards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Types of systems used </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rescue options </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Procedures </li></ul>
    21. 39. WHO DOES THE WORK? <ul><li>External capabilities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Local emergency response </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Meeting to discuss response </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Availability </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Internal capabilities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Volunteer emergency response </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other rescue needs at site </li></ul></ul>
    22. 40. HOW ARE THEY EXPOSED? <ul><li>Types of hazards </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Confined space </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Construction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Elevator </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Institutional </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Manufacturing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Office buildings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Petrochemical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Utilities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vehicle and aircraft maintenance </li></ul></ul>
    23. 41. WHAT ARE THEY USING? <ul><li>Types of systems that include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fall restraint </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Self-retracting devices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vertical systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lifelines </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ladder climbing systems </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Window cleaning </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Horizontal lifelines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Confined space retrieval </li></ul></ul>
    24. 42. HOW DO I GET THE VICTIM DOWN? <ul><li>Rescue options </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Elimination </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Self rescue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assisted rescue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ladder or aerial lift </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Personal protection equipment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Response rescue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fire department </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>High angle rope access </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Special case: evacuation </li></ul></ul>
    25. 43. NEW PRODUCT <ul><li>U-RES-Q LADDER: “The Cure for Suspension Trauma” </li></ul>
    26. 44. PROMPT RESCUE <ul><li>Pre-work </li></ul><ul><li>Procedures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pre-use </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>During use </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Post fall </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Incident investigation </li></ul></ul>
    27. 45. HOW SHOULD I PLAN THE RESCUE? <ul><li>Pre-use </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Type of system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ability/need to raise/lower </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anchorages identified </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>D-rings on harness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Training </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Procedure prepared </li></ul></ul>
    28. 46. HOW SHOULD I PLAN THE RESCUE? <ul><li>During use </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Procedure reviewed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Training </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Changes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Buddy system </li></ul></ul>
    29. 47. HOW SHOULD I PLAN THE RESCUE? <ul><li>Post fall </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Status </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contact emergency services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>State: “I require a rescue from heights at the lower roof of the main building. The worker is suspended above the ground 30 feet and is conscious.” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>First, do no harm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Orthostatic intolerance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rescue worker and provide medical assistance </li></ul></ul>
    30. 48. WHAT SHOULD I DO AFTER THE RESCUE? <ul><li>Incident investigation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Authorized person </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Competent person </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Qualified person </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Program administrator </li></ul></ul>
    31. 49. AGENDA <ul><li>Regulatory requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Prompt rescue </li></ul><ul><li>Preparing for a prompt rescue </li></ul><ul><li>Closing </li></ul>
    32. 50. LEARNING OBJECTIVES <ul><li>Discuss regulations and standards relevant in rescue </li></ul><ul><li>Assist in analyzing a facility’s capabilities to perform “prompt” rescue </li></ul>
    33. 51. THANK YOU FOR JOINING US <ul><li>To learn more about fall protection from LJB Inc. </li></ul><ul><li>Blog </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.ljbfallprotectionblog.com </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Podcasts – 60 Seconds for Safety </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.ljbinc.com/safetybydesign </li></ul></ul><ul><li>YouTube video </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Dk7F8UJxnLU </li></ul></ul>

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