Term Transgender: self-identifying term for someone whose gender identity or expression differs from traditional gender roles also an umbrella term that refers to everyone who crosses gender roles in one way or another including transsexuals, drag queens/kings, etc http://www.youtube.com/watch? v=aOarssJWHhI •Gwen Araujo •Brandon Teena
Term Queer once used to negatively describe a gay man or woman now used by the gay community as a positive or neutral descriptive of each other embracing a word that was used to attack or degrade, the gay community has demagnetized the strength of the word, making it a common everyday term, lessening the effect of the word when used against them
Term Homophobia: First used in print in 1969 in Time Magazine. It was coined by a clinical psychologist, George Weinberg. Irrational fear of, aversion to, or discrimination against gay, lesbian, bisexual, transgender and queer people Prejudice, discrimination, harassment and acts of violence To discriminate is to label one group as “less good” or “less deserving” Discriminatory practices target people who typically occupy devalued groups
Homophobia… Internalized homophobia Often refuse to believe their own sexuality Believes all the bad “what if’s” Institutionalized homophobia Systematic oppression forced to maintain the status quo
Homophobia… Living with rejection or threat of rejection, can be detrimental to a person’s sense of well-being and connection Maslow’s Basic Hierarchy of Human Needs Love and Belongingness We need to feel connected that we fit, that we are valued. Because of perceived or real threat of rejection, a person may hide his or her sexual identity What is the cost to their sense of self- esteem?
Term Heterosexism: assumption that everyone is, or should be, heterosexual heterosexuality is the only normal, natural expression of sexuality heterosexuality is superior and therefore preferable to being gay, lesbian, bisexual, transgender or queer
Everyday Occurrences Invisibility/Isolation Qualifiers Subject to gay jokes/degrading comments Presumption of heterosexuality Threats to “disown” by family Partner Exclusion Perceived danger to children Name calling Forced sexual acts (rape) to “make” them straight
Relevance to sexual violenceprevention We cannot afford, nor would want, to alienate LGBTQI victims/survivors. Within the field of sexual violence prevention, heterosexism can serve to reinforce homophobia (be it societal or internalized).
Types of Victimization Hate Crimes Difficult at times to ascertain whether the crime was, in fact, motivated by the person’s sexual orientation. 14th Amendment: Every citizen has equal protection under the law
Types of Victimization Sexual Violence By stranger By known individual By significant other More judgment on the person’s sexual orientation than on the attacker Heterosexism is at work because it is typically a heterosexual model upon which findings are based.
Types of Victimization Domestic Violence Remember, DV is about power and control. May be especially difficult for lesbian victim Size does not matter Verbal and emotional abuse can be compounded for the lesbian/gay/trans victim/ survivor Threats to “out” the person Threats to disclose HIV/AIDS status Not “easier to leave” Individuals may be more intertwined with each other’s lives What happens in DV shelters?
Myths vs. Facts Sexual assault & Sexual assault & domestic violence do occur in LGBTQ domestic violence dont relationships occur in LGBTQ Domestic violence occurs in relationships (denial) LGBTQ relationships as frequently and as severely as it does in heterosexual relationships Level of trauma of sexual violence is not defined by whether or not the weapon was a penis LGBTQ survivors also need support in healing Some key dynamics of domestic violence are the same in all relationships (violence is about power & control, violence occurs in a cycle, violence escalates over time, etc.
Myth 2 Sexual & domestic There is nothing violence occurs in inherently unhealthy LGBTQ relationships about these relationships because there is People do not abuse something inherently because they are LGBTQ (or heterosexual). People unhealthy with these abuse to have power & relationships control over another person. LGBTQ people can have healthy relationships
Myth 3 The bigger, more Size, masculine or masculine masculinity/femininity and identified person is always gender identity are not the abusive partner in a causes of abuse and do domestic violence not determine who is the relationship abusive partner Sexual and domestic violence does not occur in butch/femme relationships more frequently
Myth 4 & 5 Sexual and domestic In all relationships, both violence in LGBTQ partners can have relationships is "mutual" unhealthy behavior. But (both partners are in domestic violence abusive to each other) relationships, mutual abuse rarely happens. Its easier for an LGBTQ The reasons why it is person to leave an difficult to leave an abusive relationship abusive relationship are similar for all abusive relationships. Homo/bi/transphobic & heterosexism also contribute to difficulties leaving an abusive relationship
Myth 6 Sexual & domestic Sexual & domestic violence occurs in LGBTQ violence does not occur in relationships that engage LGBTQ relationships that in SM play more engage in SM play more frequently frequently SM play is sexual and SM play is consensual so domestic violence it is not abuse Children are never an LGBTQ people have issue in LGBTQ children in their lives relationships
Statistics Substantial lack of current research in this area Domestic violence occurs in LGBTQ relationships with the same severity and frequency as in heterosexual relationships Consistent abuse occurs in as many as 1 in 3 relationships At least one episode of abuse occurs in 1 in 2 relationships Lesbians are more likely to report sexual violence than gay men 1 in 2 transgender individuals have experienced sexual violence (FORGE)
Unique considerations Threat of being “outed” when an LGBTQ person is abused Concerned about betraying the LGBTQ community when reporting Homophobia intersects with possible sexism and racism for LGBTQ victims/survivors Institutionalized homophobia affects the support services victims/survivors receive Shelters are often not available to men, while women may not feel safe if their abuser has access Victims of same-sex sexual violence are not necessarily LGBTQ Lack of knowledge about LGBTQ sexual violence affects victims/survivors, educators, and support services
Resources/handout Community United Against Violence (CUAV) 24 hr crisis line: 415-333-HELP (4357) www.cuav.org Matthew’s Place www.matthewshepard.org Trevor Helpline: 1-866-4-U-TREVOR GLBT National Youth Talkline: 1-800-246-PRIDE (7743) National Coalition of Anti-Violence Programs 212-714-1184 www.ncavp.org FORGE: For Ourselves: Reworking Gender Expression www.forge-forward.org
Contact us at… Christina Hernandez,Outreach & Awareness Coordinator, JNWC firstname.lastname@example.org or 895-0689