Myths & FactsVictim & Survivor Resources 2009 Jean Nidetch Womens Center P.A.A.V.E. Presentation
Jean Nidetch Women’s CenterWe provide:• Workshops and presentations• Events on campus• Advocacy for violence prevention and breast cancer awareness• Academic involvement
P.A.A.V.E Formerly known as SAFE Team Educators completed 18 hour training on domestic violence and sexual assault Provides UNLV campus with presentations on specific topics in domestic violence and sexual assault Next training in Fall 2009!
Definitions Sexual Assault: a broader category that the Justice Department uses to classify rape, attempted rape and other violent felonies that fall short of rape (which is defined as strictly forced vaginal, anal or oral penetration) Assault/Battering: “Physical assault is a behavior that threatens, attempts, or actually inflicts physical harm, ranging from slapping and hitting to using a gun” (US Justice Department)
Definitions Marginalized: We use this term as a blanket term to encompass social identities that are not dominant and central in our society. This includes but is not limited to – race, ethnicity, gender, sexual orientation, citizen status, class, physical and mental ability, age etc. Advocates: Go through extensive training to work directly with victims/survivors every step of the reporting and court processes immediately following experiences of violence.
Definitions Many forms of abuse: Physical battering – can range from pushing or bruising to murder. Escalates in level of abuse Sexual abuse – Physical attack that is coupled with forced/unwanted sexual activity Psychological battering – verbal abuse, harassment, excessive possessiveness, economic resource limiting and destruction of personal property
Defining Physical Assault U.S. Justice Department: “Physical assault is a behavior that threatens, attempts, or actually inflicts physical harm, ranging from slapping and hitting to using a gun” Nevada Revised Statutes: Battery that is classified as domestic violence for the first offense within 7 years, is classified as a misdemeanor and is punishable by imprisonment for no less than 2 days and no more than 6 months and includes 48 hours of community service
What is stalking? Stalking is defined differently per state Stalking is used to describe specific kinds of behaviors directed at a particular person and includes forms of harassing and threat. As a general rule, stalking is any unwanted contact between a stalker and victim and often results in fear
LGBTQQI & the alphabet soup Lesbian Gay Bisexual Transgender Queer or questioning Intersexed
Transgender self-identifying term for someone whose gender identity or expression differs from traditional gender roles also an umbrella term that refers to everyone who crosses gender roles in one way or another including transsexuals, drag queens/kings, etc •Gwen Araujo •Brandon Teena
Queer once used to negatively describe a gay man or woman now used by the gay community as a positive or neutral descriptive of each other embracing a word that was used to attack or degrade, the gay community has demagnetized the strength of the word, making it a common everyday term, lessening the effect of the word when used against them
Heterosexism assumption that everyone is, or should be, heterosexual heterosexuality is the only normal, natural expression of sexuality heterosexuality is superior and therefore preferable to being gay, lesbian, bisexual, transgender or queer
Homophobia First used in print in 1969 in Time Magazine. It was coined by a clinical psychologist, George Weinberg. Irrational fear of, aversion to, or discrimination against gay, lesbian, bisexual, transgender and queer people Prejudice, discrimination, harassment and acts of violence To discriminate is to label one group as “less good” or “less deserving” Discriminatory practices target people who typically occupy devalued groups
Two types of Homophobia Internalized homophobia Often refuse to believe their own sexuality Believes all the bad “what if’s” Institutionalized homophobia Systematic oppression forced to maintain the status quo
Relationships are a BASIC NEED Living with rejection or threat of rejection, can be detrimental to a person’s sense of well- being and connection Maslow’s Basic Hierarchy of Human Needs Love and Belongingness We need to feel connected that we fit, that we are valued. Because of perceived or real threat of rejection, a person may hide his or her sexual identity What is the cost to their sense of self-esteem?
Stalking Statistics 1 in 20 women report being stalked annually 13% of female college students reported an incidence of stalking during their first semester 3 in 10 women reported being emotionally or physically hurt by a stalker 93.4% of study participants confided in a friend they were being stalked From The National College Women’s Sexual Victimization Study, 1997 of 4,446 female college students on 223 campuses
National Stalking Statistics 1 out of every 12 women will be stalked in their lifetime 1 out of every 45 men will be stalked in their lifetime 94% of stalkers defined by female victims were men 60% of stalkers defined by male victims were men 77% of female victims were stalked by someone they knew 31% of stalking victims have expressed suicidal thoughts
Domestic Violence Statistics 25% of women and 7% of men will be victims of domestic violence or partner rape. Six months following an experience of domestic violence, 32% of battered women are victimized again Yearly, 3.3 million children are exposed to interfamily violence against their mothers or female caretakers
Sexual Assault Statistics Only about 42% of rapes sexual assaults were reported to law enforcement in 2007 1 out of 6 American women have been the victims of an attempted or completed rape in their lifetime. About 3% of American men- a total of 2.78 million men – have experienced an attempted or completed rape in their lifetime. 98% of males who raped boys were heterosexual 70% of female rape victims and 74% of male victims knew their assailant. 90% of college women of rape and sexual assault knew their attacker prior to the assault. since 1993 rape/sexual assault has decreased by over 60%
LGBT & Violence Statistics Substantial lack of current research in this area Domestic violence occurs in LGBTQ relationships with the same severity and frequency as in heterosexual relationships Consistent abuse occurs in as many as 1 in 3 relationships At least one episode of abuse occurs in 1 in 2 relationships Lesbians are more likely to report sexual violence than gay men 1 in 2 transgender individuals have experienced sexual violence (FORGE)
Rethinking Domestic Violence MYTHS FACTS 1. Battering occurs 1. Violence occurs in all more frequently in racial and ethnic groups and in all certain ethnic or class levels of society socioeconomic 2. Substances can groups trigger violence but 2. Violence is caused batterers are violent by substance abuse even when sober 3. Women who stay in 3. Many mothers violent situations are choose to stay not good mothers because there’s no where else to go and often, to protect children
Rethinking Domestic Violence MYTHS FACTS 4. Violence only 4. 25-50% of all affects a small part women are of the population abused. Battering deaths are more common than cancer and car 5. Fights in accidents relationships are combined normal and natural 5. Disagreements occur but “heated” arguments must be analyzed for signs of violence
Same Sex (LGBTQ) Abuse Abuse in relationships is any pattern of behavior that is used to coerce, dominate or isolate the other partner to gain control Abuse knows no boundary concerning race, class, gender, sexual orientation etc. Remember, violence may take a different form in different communities but that does not make one form more important than another
LGBT & Domestic Violence Remember, DV is about power and control. May be especially difficult for lesbian victim Size does not matter Verbal and emotional abuse can be compounded for the lesbian/gay/trans victim/survivor Threats to “out” the person Threats to disclose HIV/AIDS status Not “easier to leave” Individuals may be more intertwined with each other’s lives What happens in DV shelters?
LGBT & Sexual Violence Sexual Violence By stranger By known individual By significant other More judgment on the person’s sexual orientation than on the attacker Heterosexism is at work because it is typically a heterosexual model upon which findings are based.
‘Unique Victimization’ Hate Crimes Difficult at times to ascertain whether the crime was, in fact, motivated by the person’s sexual orientation. 14th Amendment: Every citizen has equal protection under the law
‘Unique considerations’ Threat of being “outed” when an LGBTQ person is abused Concerned about betraying the LGBTQ community when reporting Homophobia intersects with possible sexism and racism for LGBTQ victims/survivors Institutionalized homophobia affects the support services victims/survivors receive Shelters are often not available to men, while women may not feel safe if their abuser has access Victims of same-sex sexual violence are not necessarily LGBTQ Lack of knowledge about LGBTQ sexual violence affects victims/survivors, educators, and support services
LGBTQ Abuse Similarities 1. Abuse is always the responsibility of the abuser. It is their choice. 2. Victims are often blamed for the abuse by their partner. 3. It is difficult for victims to leave their relationship. 4. Victims often feel responsible for their abuse. 5. Abuse escalates over time. 6. The abuser is often apologetic after abusing, giving false hope that the abuse will stop.
LGBTQ Abuse Differences 1. There are limited resources available for abused and abusive LGBTQ people. 2. Homophobia in society denies the reality of some same sex relationships, including their very existence, let alone abuse. 3. Shelters for women may not be sensitive to a victim of same sex assault. 4. Gay/Bi/Trans men have even fewer options for help. 5. Reporting may result in a feeling or experience of being excluded from the LGBTQ community.
Everyday Occurrences Invisibility/Isolation Qualifiers Subject to gay jokes/degrading comments Presumption of heterosexuality Threats to “disown” by family Partner Exclusion Perceived danger to children Name calling Forced sexual acts (rape) to “make” them straight
LGBTQ Myths and Facts MYTH: Women can not be abusive, only men can Fact: Anyone can choose to be abusive or not MYTH: LGBTQ people are always equal in relationships. It’s not abuse, it’s a relationship struggle Fact: Same sex or gender in a relationship does not guarantee equality MYTH: Abuse in LGBTQ relationships is sexual behavior. It’s a version of S&M and they usually like it. If consent is NOT there, the sexual act is not consensual, no matter what the nature of the act is.
Sexual assault & domesticMyth 1 violence do occur in LGBTQ relationships Sexual assault & domestic Domestic violence occurs in violence dont occur in LGBTQ relationships as LGBTQ relationships frequently and as severely as (denial) it does in heterosexual relationships Level of trauma of sexual violence is not defined by whether or not the weapon was a penis LGBTQ survivors also need support in healing Some key dynamics of domestic violence are the same in all relationships (violence is about power & control, violence occurs in a cycle, violence escalates over time, etc.
Myth 2 Sexual & domestic There is nothing inherently violence occurs in LGBTQ unhealthy about these relationships because relationships there is something People do not abuse inherently unhealthy with because they are LGBTQ (or heterosexual). People abuse these relationships to have power & control over another person. LGBTQ people can have healthy relationships
Myth 3 The bigger, more Size, masculinity/femi masculine or ninity and gender masculine identified identity are not person is always the causes of abuse and abusive partner in a do not determine domestic violence who is the abusive relationship partner Sexual and domestic violence does not occur in butch/femme relationships more frequently
Myths 4 & 5 Sexual and domestic In all relationships, both violence in LGBTQ partners can have unhealthy relationships is "mutual" (both behavior. But in domestic partners are abusive to each violence relationships, mutual other) abuse rarely happens. The reasons why it is difficult Its easier for an LGBTQ to leave an abusive person to leave an abusive relationship are similar for all relationship abusive relationships. Homo/bi/transphobic & heterosexism also contribute to difficulties leaving an abusive relationship
Myth 6 Sexual & domestic violence occurs in LGBTQ relationships Sexual & domestic violence that engage in SM play more does not occur in LGBTQ frequently relationships that engage in SM play more frequently SM play is sexual and domestic violence SM play is consensual so it is not abuse Children are never an issue in LGBTQ relationships LGBTQ people have children in their lives
Relevance to sexual violence prevention We cannot afford, nor would want, to alienate LGBTQI victims/survivors. Within the field of sexual violence prevention, heterosexism can serve to reinforce homophobia (be it societal or internalized).
Cyberstalking Growing in the anonymity of the Internet Social networking sites like Myspace and Facebook make it easier to “keep tabs” on others Technology creates a barrier between the stalker and victim Many people may not know they are being stalked
What to do… Save all communication evidence You can contact the harasser’s Internet Service Provider (ISP) and many ISP’s respond with suspension or closing of account belonging to abusers Call the police or local domestic violence hotlines, get help from local violence centers
UNLV Police ServicesReports of Forcible Sex Offenses on Campus 2005 – 4 2006 – 0 2007 – 3*Often times these crimes occur and are reported outside of the jurisdiction of UNLV.
The Rape Crisis Center of Southern Nevada Gender: Female – 97% Male – 3% Race/Ethnicity: White – 58% Latino/Hispanic – 18% Black – 16% Asian – 3% Bi-racial – 2% Native – <1% Unknown/Other – <1% 43% of the total 833 reported victims in 2007 were between the ages of 19-29.
Protocol for Victims on Campus Go to a safe place Seek medical attention immediately. University Medical Center (UMC) is the only hospital that will do a rape kit. You may be injured more seriously than you realize. Medical evidence will be needed, if you decide to press charges. Call University Police (895-3668) or CALL 911. Reporting is not the same as pressing charges. Call the Counseling and Psychological Services (895-3627). Do not blame yourself-you are the victim of a crime. Do NOT bathe, shower, douche, or change clothes until you have talked with the police or nurse. However, if you have already done these things, please do not let his stop you from seeking medical care. If you’ve changed clothes , place the clothes you were wearing in a paper bag and them to the hospital with you. Remember you may have an advocate to help every step of the way
Cultural Competency The Rape Crisis Center – “Problemas dos Todos” PAAVE – All trainings included an entire session on cultural competency Jean Nidetch Women’s Center – programming on sexual assault and domestic violence infused into racial identity months (and LGBT pride and Women’s history months, as well!)
The Jean Nidetch Women’s Center The only on campus resource for referrals to community organizations One on-staff, certified advocate (Christina Hernandez, Outreach & Awareness Coordinator) Member of ASSERTAV task force Oversees all violence prevention programming on campus Provides twice a year peer education training (PAAVE) on domestic violence and sexual assault
ASERTAV Advocacy. Support. Educate. & Response Team Against Violence (ASERTAV) ASERTAV strives to coordinate a collaborative response to student, staff, and faculty members of our community who may have been affected by violence. Our goal is to communicate to survivors that they are not alone during their recovery by providing resources, advocacy and education. Members of the task force include campus and community organizations and local law enforcement
Nevada Network Against Domestic Violence Resource hub to advocacy, prevention programs and legislative lobbying Provides referrals to shelter services, including SafeNest and SAFE House Part of the ASERTAV task force A member of the National Coalition Against Domestic Violence
The Rape Crisis Center of Southern Nevada Las Vegas’ main resource for sexual assault victim advocacy Implements community programming (Nina’s Night Out) to raise awareness Trains victim advocates in conjunction with UMC Provides referrals to UMC for sexual assault examinations (aka: rape kits) Represented on ASSERTAV task force
Stalking Resources CyberAngels: Support group/resource center www.cyberangels.org Working to Half Online Abuse (WHOA) www.haltabuse.org International Association of Computer Investigative Specialists: www.iacis.com
LGBTQQI Resources Community United Against Violence (CUAV) 24 hr crisis line: 415-333-HELP (4357) www.cuav.org Matthew’s Place www.matthewshepard.org Trevor Helpline: 1-866-4-U-TREVOR GLBT National Youth Talkline: 1-800-246-PRIDE (7743) National Coalition of Anti-Violence Programs 212-714-1184 www.ncavp.org FORGE: For Ourselves: Reworking Gender Expression www.forge-forward.org
More Local Resources Safe House (Domestic Violence Support) 702.451.4203 Abuse Crisis Center / DV Hotline 702.646.4981 Nevada Division of Child and Family Services 702.486.7800 More information available at: The Jean Nidetch Women’s Center, UNLV SSC A, 255 – 702.895.4475
Even more Local Resources Nevada Network Against Domestic Violence: http://www.nnadv.org/ The Rape Crisis Center of Southern Nevada: http://www.therapecrisiscenter.org/ The Jean Nidetch Women’s Center at UNLV: http://womenscenter.unlv.edu/