Why is there less reporting? What do we say when something happens to someone who is wasted? How about someone who DOES something stupid when wasted? Why is there a discrepancy?
Jean Nidetch Women’s Center PAAVE Presentation 2011
Workshops and presentations Events on campus Advocacy for violence prevention and breast cancer awareness Academic involvement Four on staff, certified victim advocates
Peers Advocating for Anti-Violence Education Formerly known as SAFE Team, began in 2002 Completed 18-hour training on domestic violence and sexual assault
Sexual Assault, Domestic Violence, and Drug/Alcohol Facilitated Sexual Assault ◦ Definitions ◦ Consent ◦ Statistics ◦ Effects on Victims ◦ Rethinking Violence
The F.B.I. estimates that one in three women in this country will be sexually assaulted in her lifetime. According to the National College Health Risk Behavior Survey, one in five undergraduate women have been raped. In the majority of rape cases, 84%, the perpetrator is someone the victim knows- a partner, spouse, classmate, date, co-worker, neighbor, or family member.
Sexual assault is a broader category that the Justice Department uses to classify rape, attempted rape and other violent felonies that fall short of rape. U.S. Justice Department: Assault “Physical assault is a behavior that threatens, attempts, or actually inflicts physical harm, ranging from slapping and hitting to using a gun”
Nevada Revised Statutes: Sexual Assault “A person who subject another person to sexual penetration, or who forces another person to make a sexual penetration on himself or another, against the victim’s will or under conditions in which the perpetrator knows or should know that the victim is mentally or physically incapable of resisting or understanding the nature of his conduct, is guilty of sexual assault”
What is consent?Both parties are fully conscious.Both parties have equal ability to act.Both parties are positive and sincere in their desires.Both parties have clearly communicated their intent. Fear of Rejection May hear partner is a survivor May not know how
Hypothetical situations… ◦ “What if we…” ◦ “How would you feel if we…” ◦ “What do you think about…” I statements… Coercion is NOT consent
Alcohol is the most common drug used tofacilitate sexual assaults- particularly among collegestudents. As opposed to other drugs (such as GHBand Rohypnol) that are often given to victims withouttheir knowledge, alcohol is often consumedconsensually. Perpetrators often take advantage of victims whoare already intoxicated, or purposefully get a targetdrunk in order to facilitate a sexual assault. Theseperpetrators most often have had much less to drinkthan the victim and in some cases have notconsumed alcohol at all.
Victim is too drunk to consent for 1 of 3 reasons: Surreptitious administration by assailant Mixing of prescription or over the counter drugs with alcohol or recreational drugs Recreational use by victim
97,000 college students between the ages of 18 and 24 are the victim of alcohol related sexual assaults each year. (National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism: A Snapshot of Annual High- Risk College Drinking Consequences. ) Victims of drug-facilitated or incapacitated rape were less likely than victims of forcible rape to report to authorities. (Kilpatrick, Dean, PhD, et al, Drug-facilitated, Incapacitated and Forcible Rape: A National Study (2007))
Alcohol alone Alcohol mixed with drugs surreptitiously administered by assailant Alcohol mixed with prescription, over the counter drugs Alcohol mixed with recreational drugs * synergistic effect of combining drugs
Synergistic Effect The interaction of two or more substances or other agents to produce a combined effect that is greater than the sum of their separate effects
Did victim: Vomit? Urinate? Defecate?Could victim: Walk? Talk? Did victim have to be helped with physical tasks?Did defendant: Carry victim? Follow victim?
Ethanol And Blackouts Blackout: Periods of memory loss for events that transpired while a person was drinking (no loss of consciousness- not passed out) Ethanol induced memory impairment includes disruption to the hippocampus which plays a central role in formation of new memory.Ethanol And Passouts Alcohol-induced unconsciousness Not asleep, but sedated-due to CNS depressant effect Resembles sedated state associated with surgery Can last for hours Groggy-sedated feeling can linger for 24 hours
Many different forms of violence in a relationship ◦ Often are dismissed as “isolated” or “random” acts of anger ◦ Media images contribute to a social complicity of violence and often portrays signs of violence in relationships as signals of “passion” or “lust” ◦ Signs of abuse overlap and escalate
Has the abuser… ◦ Held or restrained you to keep you from leaving? ◦ Slapped or pushed you? ◦ Locked you out of the house? ◦ Refused to help you when you were sick, injured or pregnant? ◦ Forced or aggressively pressured you to consume alcohol or drugs?
Has the abuser… ◦ Called you stupid or insulted your intelligence? ◦ Criticized your appearance? ◦ Told you that you could never leave him/her? ◦ Told you that you could be easily replaced? ◦ Said that no one else would want you?
Has the abuser… ◦ Ridiculed or insulted your gender as a group? ◦ Ridiculed your beliefs, morals, race, religion or heritage? ◦ Humiliated you in public OR private? ◦ Insulted or driven away your friends or family? ◦ Manipulated you with lies or contradictions? ◦ Threatened to hurt themselves if you left?
Has the abuser… ◦ Taken credit cards/checks/money away as a form of punishment? ◦ Forced you to hand over money or your paychecks? ◦ Refused to tell you about bills? ◦ Are they the only one “allowed” to work? ◦ Taken your name off crucial documents (insurance, leases) to prevent your access to them? ◦ Drained your bank account?
Abuse in relationships is any pattern of behavior that is used to coerce, dominate or isolate the other partner to gain control Abuse knows no boundary concerning race, class, gender, sexual orientation etc. Remember, violence may take a different form in different communities but that does not make one form more important than another
Can be short or long term ◦ Cutting/ self-mutilation ◦ Eating disorders ◦ Depression ◦ Alcohol and substance abuse ◦ Re-entrance into a violent relationship ◦ Post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)* More information on PTSD and violence is available upon request ◦ Academic Career
Anyone can be a victim of sexual assault or domestic violence. If you or someone you know is involved with interpersonal violence know that there are confidential resources to help you. Rape Crisis Center ◦ 366-1640 More information available at: ◦ The Jean Nidetch Women’s Center, UNLV SSC A, 255 – 702.895.4475